ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 3, September 24, 2007
Business <ul><li>Project Plan on October 15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pre-write” on October 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The...
Factoids again <ul><li>Toward critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus opinion from African studies </li></ul><ul><li...
Wikipedia of Africa <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portal </li></ul><ul><li>History...
In African languages <ul><li>77.  Afrikaans : af (8281) (IE) </li></ul><ul><li>89.  Swahili : sw (5982) (Bantu) </li></ul>...
Other African Wikipedias <ul><li>147.  Lingala : ln (808) (Bantu) </li></ul><ul><li>152.  Wolof : wo (444) (Atlantic) </li...
African Specificity <ul><li>Particularism/Universalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluidity ...
“ Consensus culture” <ul><li>Alternative to votes </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul>...
Symbiosis <ul><li>Ecological concept </li></ul><ul><li>Central/Eastern/Southern (more than North/West) </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Coexistence <ul><li>Agriculturalists/foragers </li></ul><ul><li>State/bands </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread religions, local ...
Intensification <ul><li>Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></u...
Readings <ul><li>What struck you? </li></ul><ul><li>Critical perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author’s approach </li></ul...
Lamphear/Falola
Older African studies <ul><li>Similar to archeology </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Continent </li></ul><ul><li>Remnants </li></ul>
Identifiable “cultures” <ul><li>Sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Lan...
Technological Evolutionism <ul><li>Iron age as if stage </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization  (Game) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linea...
History of states <ul><li>Kingdoms/empires </li></ul><ul><li>Forced confederacies </li></ul><ul><li>Loose organisation </l...
Non-State <ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily connected identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nomadic gro...
Large cultural groups <ul><li>Nilotes (Nilo-Saharan) </li></ul><ul><li>Cushitic-speaking (Nilo-Saharan) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Language families <ul><li>Afro-Asiatic (including Semitic languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Khoisan (including “click” language...
Language families as cultures? <ul><li>Ease borrow language </li></ul><ul><li>Trade languages </li></ul><ul><li>Speech com...
Social Structure <ul><li>Next two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Age-Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Age-Grades </li></ul><ul><li>Lineages...
Gellar
Scramble <ul><li>Industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul>
Colonial Experience <ul><li>Amadou Hampaté Bâ </li></ul><ul><li>Colonials not seeing power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even rece...
Anthropology's Critique of Colonialism <ul><li>Colonial past </li></ul><ul><li>Fanon's critique </li></ul><ul><li>Hegemony...
Defining groups <ul><li>Created or reinforced by colonials </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><li>Trade language </li>...
Associations <ul><li>Cosmopolitan networks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Et...
Secret societies <ul><li>Initiation societies </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim brotherhoods  (sufism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tijani...
Geography <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food cro...
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ANTH326 Meeting 3: History in Africa

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ANTH326 Meeting 3: History in Africa

  1. 1. ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 3, September 24, 2007
  2. 2. Business <ul><li>Project Plan on October 15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Pre-write” on October 8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Media Critique </li></ul><ul><li>Online Participation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Factoids again <ul><li>Toward critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus opinion from African studies </li></ul><ul><li>Intro. to African Studies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wikipedia of Africa <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OLPC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Portal </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu Languages </li></ul>
  5. 5. In African languages <ul><li>77. Afrikaans : af (8281) (IE) </li></ul><ul><li>89. Swahili : sw (5982) (Bantu) </li></ul><ul><li>101. Yoruba : yo (4072) (Benue Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>113. Amharic : am (2989) (Semitic) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other African Wikipedias <ul><li>147. Lingala : ln (808) (Bantu) </li></ul><ul><li>152. Wolof : wo (444) (Atlantic) </li></ul><ul><li>198. Bambara : bm (138) (Mande) </li></ul>
  7. 7. African Specificity <ul><li>Particularism/Universalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fluidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack fixed boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiate identity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. “ Consensus culture” <ul><li>Alternative to votes </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Argument </li></ul><ul><li>Debate </li></ul><ul><li>«Arbre à palabres» (“Talking Tree”) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Symbiosis <ul><li>Ecological concept </li></ul><ul><li>Central/Eastern/Southern (more than North/West) </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful influence more than invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Intermarriage </li></ul>
  10. 10. Coexistence <ul><li>Agriculturalists/foragers </li></ul><ul><li>State/bands </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread religions, local belief systems </li></ul>
  11. 11. Intensification <ul><li>Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></ul><ul><li>State </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul>
  12. 12. Readings <ul><li>What struck you? </li></ul><ul><li>Critical perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Author’s approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Links with other texts </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lamphear/Falola
  14. 14. Older African studies <ul><li>Similar to archeology </li></ul><ul><li>Dark Continent </li></ul><ul><li>Remnants </li></ul>
  15. 15. Identifiable “cultures” <ul><li>Sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Textiles </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Social structure </li></ul>
  16. 16. Technological Evolutionism <ul><li>Iron age as if stage </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization (Game) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linear evolution ( Tech Tree ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prerequisites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compete </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. History of states <ul><li>Kingdoms/empires </li></ul><ul><li>Forced confederacies </li></ul><ul><li>Loose organisation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Non-State <ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily connected identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nomadic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastoralists (herders) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Large cultural groups <ul><li>Nilotes (Nilo-Saharan) </li></ul><ul><li>Cushitic-speaking (Nilo-Saharan) </li></ul><ul><li>Bantu-speakers (Niger-Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>Mande speakers (Niger-Congo) </li></ul><ul><li>San/Khoisan (&quot;click&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Sudanic languages (outdated classification) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language families <ul><li>Afro-Asiatic (including Semitic languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Khoisan (including “click” languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Niger-Congo (including Bantu languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Nilo-Saharan (including Songhay, Maasai, Kanuri) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Language families as cultures? <ul><li>Ease borrow language </li></ul><ul><li>Trade languages </li></ul><ul><li>Speech communities </li></ul><ul><li>Not inter-communication </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social Structure <ul><li>Next two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Age-Sets </li></ul><ul><li>Age-Grades </li></ul><ul><li>Lineages </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Mother </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul>
  23. 23. Gellar
  24. 24. Scramble <ul><li>Industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion </li></ul>
  25. 25. Colonial Experience <ul><li>Amadou Hampaté Bâ </li></ul><ul><li>Colonials not seeing power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even recent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience abroad </li></ul>
  26. 26. Anthropology's Critique of Colonialism <ul><li>Colonial past </li></ul><ul><li>Fanon's critique </li></ul><ul><li>Hegemony </li></ul><ul><li>Egalitarian because Post-Colonial structures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solway and Lee </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Defining groups <ul><li>Created or reinforced by colonials </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><li>Trade language </li></ul><ul><li>Community of experience </li></ul><ul><li>Spurious? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Associations <ul><li>Cosmopolitan networks </li></ul><ul><li>Urban life </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethnic&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Schools (Koranic, Missionary, National) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Secret societies <ul><li>Initiation societies </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim brotherhoods (sufism) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tijaniyya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freemasons </li></ul>
  30. 30. Geography <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food crops (subsistence farming) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intercontinental contacts </li></ul>

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