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ANTH326 Meeting 13 (Final)

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  • 1. ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 13, December 3, 2007
  • 2. Tomorrow
    • Wrap-Up
    • Prepare
      • Week-by-week
      • Themes, threads
      • Questions
    • Freebie question
  • 3. Final Exam
    • Friday (December 7, H433, 2 p.m. to 5 p.m.)
    • Answer five out of seven questions
    • Blue book
    • No documentation is allowed
  • 4. Final Paper
    • Due Wednesday 23:59 (December 5)
    • No penalty until Monday 23:59 (December 10)
    • Connect with course, explicitly
    • Format is open
    • Submitted as attachment on Moodle
      • Text, RTF, Word, PDF
  • 5. Chabal/Daloz
  • 6. Chabal/Daloz Themes
  • 7. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 1
    • Ethnicity necessary for identity
      • Assumes nation-state needs to function
    • Africanization
      • Opposition not work
      • Community, religion, politics interconnected
      • (opposing community)
      • Ethnic accountability
        • Tribal politics
    • Paths to modernity
      • Not defined (compete in contemporary world/norms)
    • Inability African politics separate religion/political
    • Western expectations not panned out
      • Independence to Western, more African
  • 8. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 2
    • Are politics separate sphere in West? (Social, religious)
      • Modernity with secularization
    • Religion as irrational/rational in West
    • Legitimacy through religion
      • Community model, personal relationships (not state power)
    • What authors mean by “modernity?”
    • Generalized, Africa/West as very different (subsume differences)
    • Locality
    • Wealth distribution
  • 9. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 3
    • Difficult to represent multiple ethnicity
    • Importance of the dead/ancestors
    • “ Karma” with political parties, political failure as punishment, witchcraft
    • Accepting of outside notions (churches less accepting)
      • Rural
    • Equal redistribution of wealth in local community
  • 10. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 4
    • Conceptions of democracy
      • Holding African to Western norm
      • Progress
      • Other states (non-Western) progressed in own system, without structural reajustments, IMF
    • Dualism supposed secular West (economics, social), blurred distinctions in Africa
    • Individualism, individual defined by overarching community
    • Leaders using witchcraft/religion to pass buck
    • Religion’s role in African politics
    • Reinforcement of community
      • Witchcraft with anti-community behaviour (social pressure)
  • 11. Team (Leading) Questions
    • What “works” in Africa?
    • What inspiration can we get from Africa?
    • What makes Africa modern?
    • What makes Africa traditional?
  • 12. Works
    • Everything that promotes community
      • Works with urbanization, local identities
    • Can ethnicity work?
      • Politics based on
    • reducing/ aid to Africa
      • Push to take on, not intervene
    • Education system
      • Older generation
      • Creating community, cultural transmission
      • Questionable use of Western education
    • Kinship with wealth distribution, land ownership (ancestral structures), prohibiting wealth gaps
    • Popular culture to promote unified identity
    • Non-religious/non-ethnic groups (clubs, networks) creating strengths
    • Nation-States?
      • Requires reform identity associated with identity
      • Ethnicity used even if artifact of colonialism
  • 13. Inspiration
    • Family and kinship
      • Raising children, sharing
      • Individuals within community, important whole
    • Sense of belonging
    • Wealth redistribution
      • Different types of wealth (social capital)
    • Politicians expected to deliver to those they represent
    • Pulling together without tragedy
    • Living history, clear sense of group origins/identity
  • 14. Modern
    • Modern
      • Adapting to changing world
      • Not Western-centric
    • Different musical genres (White on Congolese)
    • Incorporation major religions
    • Mass production, exports
    • Adaptation of dress/clothing
    • Contact languages
  • 15. Traditional
    • Defining traditional
      • Existed within Africa, persevered
      • Adapted, answered needs
    • By opposition to modernization
    • Urban/rural
    • Backwardness?
    • Unchanging, lack of contact, resist change (if ain’t broken why fix it)
    • Stability (changing)
    • Inside knowledge
    • Preservation local/historical customs, conservativism
    • Every culture is traditional: defining itself by its past
    • Historicity, origins
    • Worldview based on (perceived) past
    • Scapegoat for failure of development projects despite expectations
    • Outside perception
    • Modernization, change filtered through tradition
      • Imposed political structure are localized
  • 16. Political Africa
  • 17. Political Science
    • Governance and government
    • Development
    • Cultural awareness
    • Determinism vs. ethnography
    • Embedded evolutionism (progress)
    • Ethnic multiplicity
    • Mono-ethnic countries
      • Lesotho, Swaziland, Somalia
  • 18. Post-Colonial African State
    • Distinct from pre-colonial states
    • Countries
      • Borders, flag, anthem, airline and beer (Zappa)
      • International status
    • Political representation (groups)
    • Heads of States
      • “ Big Man”
      • Geshiere
  • 19. Processes
    • Westernization
      • “ Acculturation”
    • Africanization
      • Local adaptation
    • Hammer theory
  • 20. Democracy
    • Appiah’s “Golden nugget”
    • In configuration (state system, market economy, citizenship...)
    • Adapted to conditions
    • Ideology of egalitarianism
  • 21. Government Issues
    • Corruption
    • Cronyism
    • Authoritarian regimes
      • Dictators
      • Lifetime presidents
    • Civil war
  • 22. Identities
    • Ethnic
      • “ Tribal”
    • National
    • Local
    • Religious
    • Degree of Westernization
    • Social (gender, age, class...)
  • 23. Senses of place
    • Local, regional, national (Russian dolls)
    • Local community
    • Land ownership
    • Ancestors
  • 24. Group Labels
    • Toponyms, glossonyms, ethnonyms
      • Not coextensive
      • Identity claims by use/explanation of
    • Colonial constructs (perhaps unwittingly)
    • Apply through contact/conflict
  • 25. Postmodernism (PoMo)
    • Reaction to modernism/modernity
    • Implied historicity
    • Cross boundaries
    • Deconstruct identities
    • Multiplicity of identities/viewpoints
    • Flexibility/fluidity/informality/chaos
    • Recognise anything?
  • 26. Chabal/Daloz Notes
  • 27. Chabal/Daloz
    • “ Modern”
    • “ Traditional”
    • Alternative models for modernity
    • Genuine identity
    • Community/individuality
    • Identity complexity
  • 28. Chabal/Daloz
    • Native/migrant
    • Fluidity, flexibility
    • Kinship
    • Household
    • Citizenry