ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 13, December 3, 2007
Tomorrow <ul><li>Wrap-Up </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Week-by-week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes, t...
Final Exam <ul><li>Friday (December 7, H433, 2 p.m. to 5 p.m.) </li></ul><ul><li>Answer five out of seven questions </li><...
Final Paper <ul><li>Due Wednesday 23:59 (December 5) </li></ul><ul><li>No penalty until Monday 23:59 (December 10) </li></...
Chabal/Daloz
Chabal/Daloz Themes
Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 1 <ul><li>Ethnicity necessary for identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes nation-state needs to fu...
Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 2 <ul><li>Are politics separate sphere in West? (Social, religious) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderni...
Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 3 <ul><li>Difficult to represent multiple ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the dead/ance...
Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 4 <ul><li>Conceptions of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding African to Western norm </li></u...
Team (Leading) Questions <ul><li>What “works” in Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>What inspiration can we get from Africa? </li><...
Works <ul><li>Everything that promotes community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with urbanization, local identities </li></ul...
Inspiration <ul><li>Family and kinship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising children, sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individu...
Modern <ul><li>Modern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting to changing world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Western-centric </li...
Traditional <ul><li>Defining traditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existed within Africa, persevered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Political Africa
Political Science <ul><li>Governance and government </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural awareness </l...
Post-Colonial African State <ul><li>Distinct from pre-colonial states </li></ul><ul><li>Countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bo...
Processes <ul><li>Westernization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Acculturation” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africanization </li></ul><u...
Democracy <ul><li>Appiah’s “Golden nugget” </li></ul><ul><li>In configuration (state system, market economy, citizenship.....
Government Issues <ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Cronyism </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian regimes </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Identities <ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tribal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></u...
Senses of place <ul><li>Local, regional, national (Russian dolls) </li></ul><ul><li>Local community </li></ul><ul><li>Land...
Group Labels <ul><li>Toponyms, glossonyms, ethnonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not coextensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iden...
Postmodernism (PoMo) <ul><li>Reaction to modernism/modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Implied historicity </li></ul><ul><li>Cross...
Chabal/Daloz Notes
Chabal/Daloz <ul><li>“ Modern” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Traditional” </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative models for modernity </li></...
Chabal/Daloz <ul><li>Native/migrant </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity, flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Ho...
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ANTH326 Meeting 13 (Final)

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ANTH326 Meeting 13 (Final)

  1. 1. ANTH326 Peoples and Cultures of Sub-Saharan Africa Meeting 13, December 3, 2007
  2. 2. Tomorrow <ul><li>Wrap-Up </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Week-by-week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Themes, threads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freebie question </li></ul>
  3. 3. Final Exam <ul><li>Friday (December 7, H433, 2 p.m. to 5 p.m.) </li></ul><ul><li>Answer five out of seven questions </li></ul><ul><li>Blue book </li></ul><ul><li>No documentation is allowed </li></ul>
  4. 4. Final Paper <ul><li>Due Wednesday 23:59 (December 5) </li></ul><ul><li>No penalty until Monday 23:59 (December 10) </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with course, explicitly </li></ul><ul><li>Format is open </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted as attachment on Moodle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, RTF, Word, PDF </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Chabal/Daloz
  6. 6. Chabal/Daloz Themes
  7. 7. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 1 <ul><li>Ethnicity necessary for identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assumes nation-state needs to function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition not work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community, religion, politics interconnected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(opposing community) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tribal politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Paths to modernity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not defined (compete in contemporary world/norms) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inability African politics separate religion/political </li></ul><ul><li>Western expectations not panned out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence to Western, more African </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 2 <ul><li>Are politics separate sphere in West? (Social, religious) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernity with secularization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Religion as irrational/rational in West </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy through religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community model, personal relationships (not state power) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What authors mean by “modernity?” </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized, Africa/West as very different (subsume differences) </li></ul><ul><li>Locality </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth distribution </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 3 <ul><li>Difficult to represent multiple ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the dead/ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>“ Karma” with political parties, political failure as punishment, witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting of outside notions (churches less accepting) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equal redistribution of wealth in local community </li></ul>
  10. 10. Chabal/Daloz Themes Team 4 <ul><li>Conceptions of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding African to Western norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other states (non-Western) progressed in own system, without structural reajustments, IMF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dualism supposed secular West (economics, social), blurred distinctions in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism, individual defined by overarching community </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders using witchcraft/religion to pass buck </li></ul><ul><li>Religion’s role in African politics </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement of community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Witchcraft with anti-community behaviour (social pressure) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Team (Leading) Questions <ul><li>What “works” in Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>What inspiration can we get from Africa? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes Africa modern? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes Africa traditional? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Works <ul><li>Everything that promotes community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works with urbanization, local identities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can ethnicity work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics based on </li></ul></ul><ul><li>reducing/ aid to Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push to take on, not intervene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating community, cultural transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionable use of Western education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinship with wealth distribution, land ownership (ancestral structures), prohibiting wealth gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Popular culture to promote unified identity </li></ul><ul><li>Non-religious/non-ethnic groups (clubs, networks) creating strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Nation-States? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires reform identity associated with identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnicity used even if artifact of colonialism </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Inspiration <ul><li>Family and kinship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising children, sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals within community, important whole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth redistribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different types of wealth (social capital) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Politicians expected to deliver to those they represent </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling together without tragedy </li></ul><ul><li>Living history, clear sense of group origins/identity </li></ul>
  14. 14. Modern <ul><li>Modern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapting to changing world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not Western-centric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different musical genres (White on Congolese) </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporation major religions </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production, exports </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation of dress/clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Contact languages </li></ul>
  15. 15. Traditional <ul><li>Defining traditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existed within Africa, persevered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted, answered needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By opposition to modernization </li></ul><ul><li>Urban/rural </li></ul><ul><li>Backwardness? </li></ul><ul><li>Unchanging, lack of contact, resist change (if ain’t broken why fix it) </li></ul><ul><li>Stability (changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Inside knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation local/historical customs, conservativism </li></ul><ul><li>Every culture is traditional: defining itself by its past </li></ul><ul><li>Historicity, origins </li></ul><ul><li>Worldview based on (perceived) past </li></ul><ul><li>Scapegoat for failure of development projects despite expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Outside perception </li></ul><ul><li>Modernization, change filtered through tradition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed political structure are localized </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Political Africa
  17. 17. Political Science <ul><li>Governance and government </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Determinism vs. ethnography </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded evolutionism (progress) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic multiplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Mono-ethnic countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesotho, Swaziland, Somalia </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Post-Colonial African State <ul><li>Distinct from pre-colonial states </li></ul><ul><li>Countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Borders, flag, anthem, airline and beer (Zappa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Political representation (groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Heads of States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Big Man” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geshiere </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Processes <ul><li>Westernization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Acculturation” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Africanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hammer theory </li></ul>
  20. 20. Democracy <ul><li>Appiah’s “Golden nugget” </li></ul><ul><li>In configuration (state system, market economy, citizenship...) </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted to conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology of egalitarianism </li></ul>
  21. 21. Government Issues <ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Cronyism </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian regimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifetime presidents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civil war </li></ul>
  22. 22. Identities <ul><li>Ethnic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tribal” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Westernization </li></ul><ul><li>Social (gender, age, class...) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Senses of place <ul><li>Local, regional, national (Russian dolls) </li></ul><ul><li>Local community </li></ul><ul><li>Land ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestors </li></ul>
  24. 24. Group Labels <ul><li>Toponyms, glossonyms, ethnonyms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not coextensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity claims by use/explanation of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial constructs (perhaps unwittingly) </li></ul><ul><li>Apply through contact/conflict </li></ul>
  25. 25. Postmodernism (PoMo) <ul><li>Reaction to modernism/modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Implied historicity </li></ul><ul><li>Cross boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruct identities </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity of identities/viewpoints </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility/fluidity/informality/chaos </li></ul><ul><li>Recognise anything? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Chabal/Daloz Notes
  27. 27. Chabal/Daloz <ul><li>“ Modern” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Traditional” </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative models for modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine identity </li></ul><ul><li>Community/individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Identity complexity </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chabal/Daloz <ul><li>Native/migrant </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidity, flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship </li></ul><ul><li>Household </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenry </li></ul>
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