Enio Ferreira Ulilsa gurlyanova,61 Moscow ,Russian Federation firstname.lastname@example.org THE SIMPLICITY OF OCCAMSUMMARY. From texts of William of Occam and its commentators, this article strives to reveal the structure and system ofthought expressed in the concept of the philosopher known as "Occams razor". The text draws on importantconcepts designed by the author and search, and express them in the most appropriate possible link them tosustain (at least some) validity in the reasoning of Occam. It is discourse within the field of knowledge, exposingwhile exploring the paths that will extend the history of philosophy.Keyword: Knowledge, Contingency Reserve of Reason Existence.INTRODUCTION.This work refers to the medieval philosopher and Franciscan friar William of Occam. Considered among manyhistorians of philosophy as the last medieval philosopher, yet he presents a general aspects of a modern thinker.His thought controversial (for its time) could not be ignored due to the solidity and innovative power that will bewelcomed by modern philosophy and reverberate through the new sciences. The research method turns to theanalysis of structures and systematization with the philosopher conceives his thinking. From commentators textsand fragments of works of the author himself, it creates a text focusing on research of conditions for which was thephilosopher William of Occam able to explore the question of nominalism and universal, expressed in terms:"entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem "? does not multiply the loved if not necessary, alsounderstood as "to a problem that there are two solutions, the simplest is the best."Biography.The difficulties have begun by the philosopher itself: when speaking of William of Ockham, William of OccamWilliam of Ockham and (your name known in the English language), means a reference to the same subject.Known as "invincible doctor", "venerable initiator," "Prince of nominalist" among other titles, and although there is adivergence between the precise dating of his life and work, you can, of course, say that he was born in Ockcam (Occam), a small village in Surrey, a city which stood near London, about the year 1280. As a young man joined theFranciscan Order and moved to London as an educator. Later, he went to Oxford University where he served hisuniversity studies, earning the title of Baccalaureus Sententiarum commenting on the work of Peter Lombard(1100? 1160?) Sententiarum Libri in 1318. In a short period, he wrote important works: Lectura Setentiarum Libri,Expositio Aureos, Expositio Super Physicam, Ordinatio and Quodliberas.
In the year 1324, Occam moved to the Franciscan convent in Avignon, on charges of heresy. Pope John XXII(12491334) established a committee to examine the alleged heretical points of Occam in the works for threeyears. It was precisely during this period that Occam concluded his major works: Summa Totius logicae andTractatus de Sacramentis.Occams sharp friction within the Franciscan Order, which has become tough sanctions on the question of thepapacy vow of poverty and the severity of your situation, the thinker was forced to flee to the city of Pisa, where hetook refuge with the Emperor Ludovico Bávaro (12821347/50), opponent of the papacy. Followed under thetutelage of the emperor to Munich, where he died of a cholera epidemic, possibly between the years 13471350.Historical and cultural contextualization.The design of medieval thought during the low Middle Ages (sec. XI to sec. XIV) reveals the major transformationsresulting from a crisis, which is the main protagonist decay of the feudal system. Among the main causes of thisdecline can be noted, the territorial expansion caused by the Crusades (10961270), the revival of trade andtechnology and the supremacy of the universal power of the Holy Church of the temporal power of society.One manifestation of this power is the universal scholastic philosophy and theology being taught in schools thatdominated medieval secular education in universities: the trivium (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic) andQuadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music), which formed the seven liberal arts, the introduction ofVulgar Latin and reading the Bible, and the study of liturgical texts and deepening in the Holy Scriptures. Note, fromthis perspective that Christian theology subdues classical philosophy, somehow adjusting to their measures,even at the risk of deforming them. However, within the philosophical context: the long struggle between thepapacy and the empire reveals a better cut of the period referred to as the Middle Ages.Already in the twelfth century the legacy of Pope Gregory VII (10251085) was concluded to impose a theocraticconception inserted into Catholic policy. In the next century chain, with the papacy of Innocent III (11611216), isfulfilled the ideal of "Christian rule the world" from economic and political power of the Churchs magisterium. Theestablishment of the holy office of the Inquisition marks the apex of this domain.The fourteenth century (in which lies William of Occam), especially in the papacy of Boniface VIII (12351303), ashift occurs in the line of action of the Church, whether due to cultural and historic requirements (alreadymentioned above), which search for a conjunction of rescue work and a charismatic church eschatologicalaspiration with ecclesiastical institutions favored, or exempt, the holy office, a form of "silent thought" that arose inthe creation of the new state. In this sense, the captivity of Avignon (13091377) imposed by the King of France,Philip IV the Fair (12681314) on Boniface VIII, and progression Emperor Ludovico (same as hosts William ofOccam in your court ) crown in the absence of the papal crosier.Revolts and revolutions produced by the emergence of a new state that sought to free themselves from theconstraints of Christian theocracy forward to substantive issues, a sense of autonomy as human needs"mundane", but without giving up the Christian faith of salvation apocalyptic. Surge, along with the passage oftransforming society in medieval Renaissance society, a need to rethink the world.Occam and his time.1. THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE IMMEDIATELY.The starting point for understanding the principle of Occams design made by the philosopher about his theory ofimmediate knowledge. Sounding the dissonant chorus of scholastic philosophy and medieval theology, Occamunfold a precise speech, from the cognitive distinction, on the very concept of scentia. Occam describes as an actby which quality is known contingent truth? and in this sense, Occam seems to refer to an objective reality andindividual? this same knowledge being selfevident and immediate. However, Occam does not rule out thepossibility of a "pseudoknowledge", for both he stresses the difference between cognitive modes which theindividual has access.
Intuitive knowledge.Occam distinguishes two kinds of knowledge: knowledge intuitive and abstractive knowledge. Occam conceivesthe use of intuitive knowledge as a judgment able to recognize the truth contingent, ie real and concrete, andassert it exists when it exists for the intellect and deny it as nonexistent when there is the intellect. Intuitiveknowledge based experimental knowledge, and consequently all other modes of inferences. The establishment ofsuch a sentence is will be "the cornerstone of the cathedral empirical."The differences found by the philosopher settle upon the intellect of the reality show. In this sense the intellectoperates in two ways: one apprehensive and other judicial.? The act apprehensive with regard to the terms (in complexes or complex), by which we can conceive in the mindall the evidence of contingent facts.? The act judgmental regarding the use of judgment to authorize the validity of evidence contingent expressedthrough terms incomplexos.The intellectual operation between the act and the act apprehensive judgmental can only be accomplished by theterms available in the intellect, so that the act judgmental resumes apprehensive act, which in turn takes the term.These can be complex in nature or incomplexa.The first is incomplex, in which the term (word) is justified by the object (thing) he justifies. Thus, there is animmediate correspondence of the object of knowledge and the knowledge of the object.The second is complex, in which the chaining terms incomplexos form complex propositions, inferring that only theevidence justifying the evidence of the terms of the proposition. Therefore, the correspondence between the truth ofa proposition is mediated by the evidence of the validity of their corresponding terms.Intuitive knowledge justifies the operation performed by the intellectual act apprehensive and judgmental act, soimmediate cognition in the frame of mind of contingencies.Already on other knowledge of Occam elaborates a conception capable of forming concepts abstractive.2nd. A DUPE OF TERMS.Abstractive knowledge.As intuitive knowledge has two operations that enable him to highlight the contingency, namely the actapprehensive and judgmental act of the intellect, Occam also prepares for the knowledge abstractive form of adouble contingency operations given the intellect. This knowledge can be abstracted a plurality of many discreteobjects, as abstracting the noncontingent existence or assign intellectual existence in the absence of tariffcategories.Thus abstractive knowledge, on the one hand forms a universal concept from the experience of many individualsabstracted from reality, and on the other hand enables the design of this universal concept even in the absence ofevidence given to the intellect.Thus the philosopher want to demonstrate that there is not a trace of multiple objects in enabling the humanintellect the conception of universal categories, because for both forms of knowledge the object remains the same.Therefore, these two types of knowledge are essentially different from each other and not on the object, since theintuitive knowledge has as its evidence and judge the contingent truths, while abstractive knowledge of suchindependent evidence to formulate universal needs. While the intuitive knowledge shown immediate contingencyand identical to it in order to reveal its existence, knowledge refers to abstractive logical terms that constitute theuniversal concept.The double meaning of the term refers to their assumed two meanings: the representation (similitudo) and
naturalness (naturaliter).The representation in terms of abstractive knowledge, referred to intuitive knowledge, in turn deployed in complexpropositions as the wording in complexes are apprehended and validated, reveals the possibility of an object ormay not be represented without anything added to it or withdrawn its reality contingency. Accordingly, the term issimilar to the object represented and expressed this similarity itself, which appears as similitudo Occam, so that aone Mediation similarity is devoid of reality itself, incapable of giving evidence to particular contingencies.Therefore, the terms are not manifestations of reality, but only representing meanings, once complex (in chainedpropositions), through the similarity become meanings.The naturalness of the terms, since it represents "truly" the similarity of the term is justified naturalness of thisterm. The naturalness of the word is such that there is such a term represents natural similarly without an objectthat is not naturally suited to the term called? Occam which presents as naturaliter. Thus, the naturalness of theterm reveals the meaning and origin of "real" term, because the term always resume its representativesignificance. "The reality of the term itself is therefore classified as" natural "since it consists in the use tax isabsolutely a reality and knowledge of a nonsymbolic" (Chatelet, 1972, p. 169).These two meanings of the terms designating the proposition, ie, complex terms, pointing to the sensesincomplex serving the term, that is, their qualifications and representative natural, or connotative languagesemantics.3rd. THEORY OF GUESS.If the terms designate the meanings contained from propositional chaining himself, the theory distinguishesassumption within this thread in complexes own terms so that the very assumption only acquires property whilesuch terms find themselves unwilling (logically ordered) in propositions. By consequent, the meanings within achain are not propositional purposes only because of the assumption, a syntactic language or denotative.Occam sets in order to clarify the terms of, what he calls categorimáticos terms and terms sinategorimáticos.Terms categorimáticos: are terms that have a precise meaning and definitive, acting as a logical components,such that mean exactly what they represent. Seize the "likeness" and "naturalness" represented by the termincomplex.Terms sincategorimáticos: are terms that express the similarities between the contingent through relationships inorder to differentiate between the terms categorimáticos itself. Expresses the "meaning" of the term due to its"position" taken as complex term.Continuing, Occam gives his theory of supposition several meanings, only mentioned here: personal supposition,assumption simple and material supposition.It can be said that this way, the assumption is given in the act of representing something in the first place somesecondary object, and the term represents the proposition assuming some object from its disposal, the existenceof this object represented.The philosopher also defines the term as a purely intellectual product, which is only "real" expressed as a ratio ofsimilarity "natural" that only makes sense when chained in proposition due to its properties assumed. Therefore,the term is merely a name given by the abstractive knowledge for the creation of universal categories drawn from avariety of natural abstractions.You may notice that Occam operates logical reasoning applied to its two forms of knowledge, two identicaloperations as objects, however, that differ in functional form by which relate to the same object.If on one hand the intuitive knowledge that follows the sequence of the recovery act to act judgmental andapprehensive that the term incomplex contingent and clear, on the other hand the knowledge abstractive sequencethat follows the resumption of meaningful proposition for decomposing and the assumption that for the terms
complexes which can finally reach the terms in complexes.Once the term has no access to intuitive knowledge not be perceptible, but intervenes to assume, through aknowledge abstractive therefore not evident, seeking a vestige kept in reserve for an intuitive knowledge, ieimmediately. Occam maintains his theory always supported the principle of essential material contingency, whichsimultaneously separates the reality of logic, and assigns the latter autonomy to build their knowledge by itself.4th. EXISTENCE OF INDIVIDUAL AND UNIVERSAL.For Occam, the contingency is the real evidence of the existence and true, so that is the only source of knowledge,since the object is evident both in reality and in intellect. Following this speech by Occam conceives himself"sensible world" as a "contingent world", ie, a reality of individuals and objects that do not express any necessaryrelationship while remaining independent. So the reality is conceptualized as a "mass singularities" so to speak,so that each of these "natural" is complete in and of itself. This nature or naturalness of the individual implies itsown essence in its socket completely contingent reality, limited by its own totality. Occam, it seems, does notdistinguish the essence of existence, as do the scholars, and the essence of an individual is its own contingentexistence.Once admitted that the cognitive act of the intellect apprehends and judges what is evident of a given object(intuitive knowledge), and that through a relationship of similarity between the given object (similitudo) andrepresentative act (naturaliter) when the transaction chaining existing terms or not (theory of the proposition)expressed the significance acquired by each term in the provision of such a proposition (theory of supposition) asa contact that mediates the object contingent and intellectual operation (abstractive knowledge). All thisdevelopment is only possible from contingency.Occam is quite clear on this issue of individualization contingent, claiming it as the only source for knowledge.Without evidence of individual experience no possibility at all that the intellect support the existence of suchknowledge.Occam introduces the empirical method as the only form of knowledge "real", arguing that in a way the individualquota can be corrupted. Follows:Intuitive knowledge focuses on the individual quota as always evident and existing. The experience of severalindividuals contingent or "natural" abstractive knowledge can focus in two ways:Apart from experience that a multiplicity of contingent relate only logical connections established by the terms.Building from a list of these connections need not justified, because the individual quota express themselves fullyas is.That said, for the philosopher, the individual exists only as such.These two consequences arising from abstractive thoughts go to the formulation of universal categories, whichmaintain bases in the major philosophical and theological systems of the Middle Ages (Augustinian and Thomist),object of reflexive critique of Occam.The scholastic logic, especially Thomistic, only operates its imposing philosophical systems supported theAristotelian conceptions, albeit adapted to a Christian theology, in which no admissions of universal categoriesexist by itself no functional implication. Occam, under the aspect in question, does not repress his urge to see thefragility (not to say failure) this concept, since it can not by any means something in addition to or deduct contingentreality.This issue occurs primarily a methodological conflict:The Augustinian and Thomistic follow a form of deductive reasoning, while Occam conducts his argument in theform of inductive reasoning. Occurs, so a change of design intellectual act on the very action of knowledge, where
medieval scholasticism is, in this respect at least, deterministic, and Occam presents a probabilistic line.Adopted here as an object of study, in a way, the Aristotelian syllogism, though consistent, can not express validityof the concepts (terms) that speaks.It is observed that one of the terms adopted invariably needs to be universal (hence the major premise), but not bya contingent reality evident to the intellect, just a speculation made up names, belongs to the intellect and not thereality.Occam does not seem to happen that is contrary to the form of deductive reasoning, however it can be stated thatonly particular cases, the "singularities" can be deducted, while the particularities induce an affirmation or denialthat comes from the experience.5th. ECONOMICS OF REASON.The way Occam clarifies this relationship grounded in what is commonly known as the principle of parsimony,which here refers similarly to the economy of reason.The economy of reason developed by Occam ensures individuality contingent its very existence. He did not enterthe individual into a universal sphere, since this action involves an addition of an individual outside the spherecontingent, that is a contradiction, because the universal does not participate in any reality outside the intellect.Once an individual expresses no contingent relationship with another individual quota, so essential in itself, is notallowed any other assignment will be done in two ways:If it is given that the same individual can be inferred from two contingency evident, and this result in a materialevidence, then one has to deal with different individuals, so individuals and liable to intuitive cognition.If it is given an individual quota can be deduced that there is no evidence captured by intuitive knowledge, butimplied by something external to the individual, then such knowledge remains hidden to my intellect obsolete theexistence of this particular individual quota.In both cases the philosopher explores the contrast that are the universal categories:? In the first case Occam rejects the design of shape, material and Aristotelian substance, seeing therein not morethan "excess to the body", so to speak, that is, the individual tariff may be unchanged.? In the second case the philosopher rejects any need to explain why a form mediated evident knowledge of anindividual, criticizing scholasticism and medieval Christian theology, that appropriate philosophical discourse tomove away from contingent reality.The philosopher points out that the intellect is a "reserve" the experience of a contingent object that is logicallyindependent from each other in reality but may be subject to requirements in mind. It is only through this "reserve"that expresses a consequent occurred after an antecedent; said yet another way, and the entire primary cause issufficient as the second condition and the effect required.Finally, there is no need for any Occam beyond the contingency since this is selfevident. Anyway the universal isnothing but a name, because anything that is universal is likely to contain or convey an experience, it follows thecurrent nominalist attributed to Occam.6th. GodOccam well expresses the inability of philosophical and theological systems to sustain themselves in the face oflogical requirements, which call themselves. The philosopher does not deny the existence of God, but every formof knowledge of God: this is the intuitive knowledge, which would result in contingent evidence of God, or by theabstractive knowledge, which would open room for a meaning of God.
This argument is Occam elucidates concisely and accurately from reminders of medieval scholasticism inattributing to God all efficient causes. Due to the advantage of tax loop between the universal and the particularcontingency infinity, any process that glimpse find an efficient cause emanating from God reveals the veryimpossibility of universal existence, for in no time God is presented as an individual quota (of an aporia primaryorigin).Occam, in turn, explores the causes preservatives, which fully fits the "reserve" of reason, although that throughoutthe time that the object remains real is preserved as such. As Occam evident only admits the experience,everything to produce efficient causes must exist in the contingent particularity of the individual and as such it beconserved, implying a need that violates the "reserve" of reason. This principle of "reserve" reveals that "thecertainty of their existence is linked to its existence in act in the world, it needs to be maintained at every instant be"(REALE, 1990, p. 626). Put another way, the universal concept taken as the individual existence, or end theparticularity and thus would be impossible any distinction drawn by the intellect, making it obsolete, or the veryconcept of universal would become a special feature, since it would necessary that exist simultaneously in eachindividual.Since the complications that arise from the persistent attempt to prove Gods existence by any bias of knowledgeand compare it to the truths of biblical revelation, it is not up to human reason to argue this issue because there isno trace in "reserve" to allow both the intellect to apply the knowledge immediately as the cognitive ability to tailorthe dogmas of faith contingent reality.So, after operating a separation between Christian theology and medieval philosophy, extracting this incision thefragility of a metaphysics of the individual, Occam points to the location where each of the fields should follow.Theology sustained by the tenets of the Christian faith must be based exclusively on the spiritual acceptance,turning to practical action and ethics.The philosophy has as its object of study since only the real world as the object of his knowledge, free fromunnecessary speculations that stands in the formulation of this knowledge.7th. Occams razor."Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem"? does not multiply the loved if not needed.This is the canon that permits operation of separation between philosophy and theology, but also marks the end ofmedieval scholasticism and the new modern science.As stated during the speech, Occam creates a consistent and drawn criticism, while uncomfortable, whichoperates in the separation between theology and philosophy, theology fitting, in this sense, become negative andlimited, ie only saying what God is not.Although this trail, there is a rejection of both the Occam evidence prepared by S. Thomas Aquinas for theexistence of God as to be analog formulation, is also to be univocal stretch of D. Scotus. None of thesemetaphysical concepts has the authority, if not misleading, to speak and support what he says. Occam points allthe time for the contingent qualities of the individuals only accessible to the intellect by experimental knowledge.So what metaphysical explanation assume that an efficient cause, or even preservative, from the beginning ofevery cause has an effect, violates the economy of reason, since, using terms of mediators, imply that conservesmore efficient cause of a effect.Occam still progresses to analyze the meanings gnosiológicas about knowledge that transcends contingencyevident, calling for a distinction within the cognitive act, as does S. Thomas Aquinas (intellectus and ratio), alsoshow if superfluous, because they create universal categories (species) that violates again the economy ofreason. For Occam, if the individual quota is essential in its entirety, the cognitive act that performs the intellect istoo.In the course of this discourse analysis, the term "Occams razor", appears to show a single instrument, the notion
that the philosopher employed to operate the separation of excesses, especially metaphysical field of knowledge.Like using an instrument incisive Occam exposes the result of its operation, which takes two consequences aptobservation:The first consequence reaches the universal categories, which are nothing more than names, and only have someresemblance to reality while in a logical sequence assumes significance due to a "reserve" in the intellect. Thisfirst point, the economy of the reason is fairly accurate considering that the reality or essential itself is contingentand therefore evident that expressed in, or all reality being universal, but not dependent on each other (whichcontradicts the economy of reason ) nor nominalist ("existing" only to the intellect), would be admitted by definitiona contingent particular.The second consequence is the admission that nothing is contingent passes for superfluous to the intellect (asshown throughout the analysis developed). Therefore, only one must admit the individual quota as it is endowedwith experimental evidence, which proves that all the action of knowledge is only as empirical cognitive action.After the analysis of this concept, which has been proposed since the beginning of this paper, it is shown fruitful allthe effort of the philosopher in the construction of a new methodology highly rigorous and committed to factualreality. The new design brought by the thought of Occam? here that it is just this concept, however fundamental tothe development of his work, is a decisive step in the formation of a new perspective adopted by science (scentia)to express the world.It is precisely in this sense that the canon "does not multiply the loved if not necessary" can be translated to todayas "a problem that has two solutions, the simplest is the best."CLOSING REMARKSThe objective of this text, as has the scope to reveal the structuring and systematizing the thought of thephilosopher by which he formulates and supports a theory that expresses the new directions and challenges ofscience, philosophy and politics in his time. One must understand the need for a second round in which there is ameeting of other authors and significance in comparisons of Occams thinking on posterity. It is good to note thatthis text does not exhaust the thought of William of Occam, and topics like theology and politics are not discussedhere.The influence of the thought of Occam brand modern philosophy: two streams spring from that period, namely,rationalism (continental) and empiricism (UK), located within the thought of Occam models and methods ofargumentation, especially in the theory of knowledge. From the analysis of knowledge proposed by Occam,rationalism follows the path of abstractive knowledge, while empiricism follows the line of intuitive knowledge. Theunfolding of the theories of Occam, Occams razor especially in other areas of knowledge shown evident to thisday. The economy and capitalism Renaissance drink from its source, the new sciences (physics, chemistry andbiology) adopt their experimental method, and philosophy think that the importance of his thought reaches its apexwith positivism century. XVIII. Finally I consider extremely important the contribution of William of Occam for thedevelopment of philosophy of language and symbolic logic as only being possible from their discoveries. In thelanguage needs the exposure language semantics and syntax of language, symbolic logic in replacing theAristotelian syllogism supported the concept of universal premises by way of reasoning enunciative variables,based on the particularities of independent assumptions.REFERENCE LITERATURE.Chatelet, Francois. History of Philosophy. Vol IV. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar, 1974 ..REALE, Giovanni. History of Philosophy: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. 3rd ed. Sao Paulo: Paulus, 1990.KENNY, Anthony. A new history of Western Philosophy. Medieval Philosophy Vol II. Trad. Edson Bini. Sao Paulo:Loyola 2008. ISBN: 9788515035335