Assignment # 1
Production & Operation Management
Reg. ID: CIIT/BEC-FA10-014/LHR
Submitted To: Mahammad Fahad Javaid
COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology
1. What is Management?
Management is an individual or a group of individuals that accept responsibilities to run
The process of Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling to achieve organizational
Management in business and organizations means to coordinate the efforts of people to
accomplish goals and objectives using available resources (Resources include people,
skills, know-how and experience, machinery, raw materials, computers and IT, financial
capital, and loyal customers and employees)
During production, Production managers are involved with the planning, coordination and
control of manufacturing processes. They ensure that goods and services are produced
efficiently and that the correct amount is produced at the right cost and level of quality.
Production manager responsibilities include:
Setting up and implementing financial monitoring systems
Controlling production expenditure
Monitoring and controlling the progress of productions
Overseeing production paperwork, such as releases, call sheets, and daily progress
Management also includes recording and storing facts and information for later use or for
others within the organization. Management functions are not limited to managers and
supervisors. Every member of the organization has some management and reporting functions
as part of their job. A good Manager should have following qualities
Sound decision making
Oral & written communication
Directing activities and staff
2. What is the Definition of Management?
According to Henri Fayol (a mining engineer)
"To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control."
Management defined as the organization and coordination of the activities of an
enterprise (project) in accordance with certain policies and in achievement of clearly defined
objectives. Management is a set of activities directed at an organization’s resources with the
aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner.
3. What are the functions of Management?
Henri Fayol was the first to describe the four managerial functions when he was the CEO of
a large mining company in the later 1800’s.
1. Planning: Planning is the process used by managers to identify and select appropriate
goals and courses of action for an organization. 3 steps to good planning:
Which goals should be pursued?
How should the goal be attained?
How should resources be allocated?
The planning function determines how effective (completing activities so that
organizational goals are attained OR doing the right things) and efficient (getting the most
output from the least amount of inputs OR doing things right) the organization is and
determines the strategy of the organization.
2. Organizing: Organizing is the process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and
coordinating work activities OR Organizing is the process of allocating and arranging
work, authority and resources, to the members of the organization so that they can
successfully execute the plans
3. Leading: Leading involves directing, influencing and motivating employees to perform
essential tasks. This function involves display of leadership qualities, different leadership
styles, different influencing powers, with excellent abilities of communication and
4. Controlling: Controlling is the process of measuring performance and taking action to
ensure desired results OR Controlling is the process of devising various checks to
ensure that planned performance is actually achieved. It involves ensuring that actual
activities conform to the planned activities. Monitoring the financial statements, checking
the cash registers to avoid overdraft etc., and form part of this process.
4. What are the components of Management?
Components of Management
Organizational activity: Management is a group activity. Management is to coordinate
the actions and reactions of individuals.
Goal formation: Management has some definite goals before it to achieve. Goals are
set considering the actions and reactions of individuals.
Goal accomplishment and evaluation: Management also evaluates the effectiveness
of goal accomplishment.
Organizational Survival: In the short run, managers use the resources available to
them as efficiently as possible and practice the art of implementing their decisions. The
ability to forecast and adopt to change is also important for organizational survival.
Implementation: Policies and programs are implemented by management.
5. What is the introduction of Management?
Most organizations have three management levels: first-level, middle-level, and top-level
managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority, and perform different
tasks. In many organizations, the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid.
Each level is explained below in specifications of their different responsibilities and likely job
First-line Managers: Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees.
Consist of supervisors, section leaders, foremen, etc. They focus on controlling and
directing. They usually have the responsibility of assigning employees tasks, guiding and
supervising employees on day-to-day activities, ensuring quality and quantity production,
making recommendations, suggestions, and up channeling employee problems, etc
Middle Managers: Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Consist of
general managers, branch managers and department managers. They are accountable
to the top management for their department's function. They devote more time to
organizational and directional functions
Top Managers: Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions
and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization. The top consists of
the board of directors (including non-executive directors and executive directors),
president, vice-president, CEOs and other members of the C-level executives. They are
responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization.
6. What are the management practices and policies?
Practices are a guide that stipulates rules, regulations and objectives, and may be used in the
It must be flexible and easily interpreted and understood by all employees.
All policies and strategies must be discussed with all managerial personnel and staff so
that practice of these policies can be done.
Managers must understand where and how they can implement their policies and
Policies and strategies must be reviewed regularly.
A planning unit must be created to ensure that all plans are consistent and that policies
and strategies are aimed at achieving the same mission and objectives.
7. What is an organization?
Organization is defined as the group of people, with ideas and resources, working toward
common goals OR a systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some
specific purpose is called organization.
Characteristics of Organization:
Have a distinct purpose (goal)
Composed of people
Have a deliberate structure
8. What is the Management Role in an organization?
In any type of organization Management has 3 main roles:
1. Inter-personal Role
Figurehead: Represents the company on social occasions. Attending the flag hosting
ceremony, receiving visitors or taking visitors for dinner etc.
Leader: In the role of a leader, the manager motivates, encourages, and builds interest
among the employees. Training subordinates to work under pressure, forms part of the
responsibilities of a manager.
Liaison: Consists of relating to others outside the group or organization. Serves as a
link between people, groups or organization. The negotiation of prices with the suppliers
regarding raw materials is an example for the role of liaison.
2. Decisional Role
Entrepreneur: Act as an initiator and designer and encourage changes and innovation,
identify new ideas, delegate idea and responsibility to others.
Disturbance handler: Take corrective action during disputes or crises; resolves
conflicts among subordinates; adapt to environmental crisis.
Resource allocator: Decides distribution of resources among various individuals and
groups in the organization.
Negotiator: Negotiates with subordinates, groups or organizations both internal and
external. Represents department during negotiation of union contracts, sales,
purchases, budgets; represent departmental interests
3. Informational role
Monitor: Emerges as nerve center of internal and external information about
Disseminator: Transmits information received from other employees to members of the
Spokesperson: Transmits information to the people who are external to the
organization, i.e., government, media etc. For instance, a manager addresses a press
conference announcing a new product launch or other major deal.
9. What are the management responsibilities?
Management is primarily responsible for:
Ensuring the development, performance, and conduct of each employee working in the
organizations they direct.
Defining clear goals and courses of action to subordinates, and following up to ensure
that these are carried out
Ensuring the well-being and progress of the personnel in their groups
Fostering good working relationships.
Displaying proper attitude and behavior, job knowledge, and effective communication to
build good working relationships thereby motivating people to accomplish programs and
10. What is an Organizational Structure?
An organizational structure may be defined as the relationship among the individuals in
the organization and the functions they are performing according to the stated goals of a firm.
It can be defined as the planned coordination of the activities of number of people for
the achievement of some common, explicit purpose or goal, through division of labor and
function, and through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. Every Organization is
configured in terms of four basic elements of Organizational Structure
1. Span of Control: The number of people directly reporting to the next level in the
Organizational hierarchy i.e., the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and
2. Centralization: the degree to which formal decision authority is held by a small group of
people, typically those at the top of the Organizational hierarchy. Most Organizational
begin with centralized structures, as the founder makes most of the decisions and tries
to direct the business toward his or her vision.
3. Formalization: It is the degree to which organization standardize behavior through
rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms. Companies tend to become
formalized as they get older and larger.
4. Departmentalization: It is a fundamental strategy for coordinating org.l activities becz it
influences Organizational behavior.
It establishes the chain of command
Focuses people around common mental models or ways of thinking, such as
serving clients, developing products, or supporting a particular skill set, etc.
Encourages coordination through informal communication among people and