Approximately how many languages
are spoken in the world?
A. 500
B. 1800
C. 2500
D. 5000
E. 6500
A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence
that is presented as if it were a complete
sentence. Some sentence fragments...
Other sentence fragments are dependent clauses—they
have a subject and a verb, but they begin with a
subordinating conjunc...
Here are three sentence fragments that begin with
subordinating conjunctions:
After the wedding is over.
Because it was ho...
that who
whose whom
whoever which
what whatever
whomever whichever
Here are three fragments that begin with relative
pronouns:
That they bought at the mall.
Who ran away from home.
Which ca...
A.The sunbathers left by
six o’clock.
B. The sunbathers before
six o’clock.
A. Finished by next
Friday afternoon.
B. The report was
finished by Friday.
A. The last book left on
the store shelf.
B. The last book was left
on the store shelf.
A. Someone who knows
all the answers.
B. Does someone know
all the answers?
A. These jars are filled
with sand and
pebbles.
B. Many jars filled with
sand and pebbles.
A. Because Carolina
couldn’t wait to open
her gifts.
B. Carolina couldn’t
wait to open her gifts.
A. Jack wasn’t used to the
Nevada heat because he was
from New Hampshire.
B. Jack not used to the Nevada
heat because he w...
A. Whenever you’re
ready.
B. Give me a call
whenever you’re ready.
A. Leticia didn’t drink
until she was twenty-
one.
B. Until Leticia was
twenty-one.
A. While you were
singing.
B. A crowd gathered
while you were
singing.
How do you correct a sentence fragment? One
way is to connect it to the sentence that comes
before or after it.
FRAGMENT A...
How do you correct a sentence fragment? One
way is to connect it to the sentence that comes
before or after it.
FRAGMENT H...
Another way to correct a sentence fragment is to
turn it into a complete sentence. If the
fragment is a phrase, add any mi...
Another way to correct a sentence fragment is to turn
it into a complete sentence. If the fragment is a
phrase, add any mi...
Another way to correct a sentence fragment is to turn
it into a complete sentence. If the fragment is a
phrase, add any mi...
1. After taking a month-long tour of
Southeast Asia.
2. Because the batteries were low.
3. The load of towels still in the...
1. After taking a month-long tour of
Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready
to come home.
2. Because the batteries were low.
3. ...
1. After taking a month-long tour of
Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready
to come home.
2. Because the batteries were low, the...
1. After taking a month-long tour of
Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to
come home.
2. Because the batteries were low, the...
1. After taking a month-long tour of
Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to
come home.
2. Because the batteries were low, the...
1. After taking a month-long tour of
Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to
come home.
2. Because the batteries were low, the...
6. The car arrived with a small
scratch.
7. Although French fries are not
very healthy.
8. While Victor was learning how
t...
6. The car arrived with a small scratch.
Complete!
7. Although French fries are not very
healthy.
8. While Victor was lear...
6. The car arrived with a small scratch.
Complete!
7. Although French fries are not very
healthy, I eat them every day.
8....
6. The car arrived with a small scratch.
Complete!
7. Although French fries are not very
healthy, I eat them every day.
8....
6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete!
7. Although French fries are not very healthy, I
eat them every day.
8....
6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete!
7. Although French fries are not very healthy, I
eat them every day.
8....
Remember these
points when selecting
and integrating
quotations in your
essay.
It is rarely effective to use an entire quoted
sentence. Long quotations tend to put your
reader to sleep. Your prose is f...
Boring Example: According to Stoll, “Television
and computing make us more passive…and
passivity feeds into shyness” (395)...
After the sentence that contains the quotation,
you should have a space, parentheses, the
author’s last name, the page num...
If you used the author’s name to introduce the
quotation, you should only put the page
number in the citation.
Stoll point...
Boring Example: Stoll says, “Deep social ties are
relationships with frequent contact, deep feelings
of involvement, and b...
To integrate a quotation properly within a
paragraph, a good writer usually has
(1) One sentence to introduce the quotatio...
Top piece of
bread: at least
one sentence
to introduce
the quotation
Meat:
sentence
that
contains
the
quotation Bottom pie...
ORIGINAL: However, the cloning protocol does not
tamper with embryos; it tampers only with unfertilized
eggs and adult cel...
Silver argues that reproductive cloning does not
violate human embryos. He asserts that the
“[cloning protocol] tampers on...
ORIGINAL: Although their genetically determined
inclinations may be the same, [the original person and the
clone] may choo...
The environment in which people are raised affects
them more than their genetic code. Though the
original person and his c...
A “dropped quotation” has the same effect on
your paper that a blob of bird poop has on
your car windshield; it’s just spl...
Though many jobs require long hours on a
computer everyday, studies have shown that
staring at a monitor screen for extend...
Though many jobs require long hours on a
computer everyday, studies have shown that
staring at a monitor screen for extend...
Though many jobs require long hours on a
computer everyday, studies have shown that
staring at a monitor screen for extend...
Though many jobs require long hours on a
computer everyday, studies have shown that
staring at a monitor screen for extend...
Though many jobs require long hours on a
computer everyday, studies have shown that
staring at a monitor screen for extend...
People all over the world are making connections
with other people online, and though this seems
like a positive step in e...
People all over the world are making connections
with other people online, and though this seems
like a positive step in e...
People all over the world are making connections
with other people online. People all over the world
are making connection...
People all over the world are making connections
with other people online. People all over the world
are making connection...
Top piece of
bread: at least
one sentence
to introduce
the quotation
Meat:
sentence
that
contains
the
quotation Bottom pie...
Ellipses (three dots) indicate that some unnecessary
words have been left out of a quotation. When
using ellipses, remembe...
 Use brackets to indicate any changes you make
to quotations while fitting them into your
sentence. See the example under...
 Find a short section in The Power of Habit that is
quotable
 Said so well that you can’t paraphrase
 Duhigg makes a po...
 What do you want to say about that quotation?
Do you have an example? Do you agree or
disagree? Do you want to elaborate...
 S-E-E Paragraph
 Statement
 Evidence (quotation)
 Explanation
 How can we modify the quotation to fit
our paragraph?
 Choose one of the selections from your group
of eight (not the one we used as a class and not
the one you used in pairs)...
A. Quiz
B. Sentence Fragments
C. Using Quotations
D. Practice as a class using quotations
E. Practice in pairs using quota...
A. Quiz
B. Sentence Fragments
C. Using Quotations
D. Practice as a class using quotations
E. Practice in pairs using quota...
 Create two quotation sandwiches
(two complete paragraphs) using
any of our readings from the class
so far
 Remember, Es...
Meet in Computer Commons A
October 9
October 9
October 9
October 9
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October 9

  1. 1. Approximately how many languages are spoken in the world? A. 500 B. 1800 C. 2500 D. 5000 E. 6500
  2. 2. A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence that is presented as if it were a complete sentence. Some sentence fragments are phrases—they lack a subject, a verb, or both. The bank next to the grocery store. Built a tool shed in the backyard. At the radio station.
  3. 3. Other sentence fragments are dependent clauses—they have a subject and a verb, but they begin with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS after until although when because whenever Before where if wherever since whether though while unless
  4. 4. Here are three sentence fragments that begin with subordinating conjunctions: After the wedding is over. Because it was hot outside. When I graduate from college.
  5. 5. that who whose whom whoever which what whatever whomever whichever
  6. 6. Here are three fragments that begin with relative pronouns: That they bought at the mall. Who ran away from home. Which caused my parents to divorce.
  7. 7. A.The sunbathers left by six o’clock. B. The sunbathers before six o’clock.
  8. 8. A. Finished by next Friday afternoon. B. The report was finished by Friday.
  9. 9. A. The last book left on the store shelf. B. The last book was left on the store shelf.
  10. 10. A. Someone who knows all the answers. B. Does someone know all the answers?
  11. 11. A. These jars are filled with sand and pebbles. B. Many jars filled with sand and pebbles.
  12. 12. A. Because Carolina couldn’t wait to open her gifts. B. Carolina couldn’t wait to open her gifts.
  13. 13. A. Jack wasn’t used to the Nevada heat because he was from New Hampshire. B. Jack not used to the Nevada heat because he was from New Hampshire.
  14. 14. A. Whenever you’re ready. B. Give me a call whenever you’re ready.
  15. 15. A. Leticia didn’t drink until she was twenty- one. B. Until Leticia was twenty-one.
  16. 16. A. While you were singing. B. A crowd gathered while you were singing.
  17. 17. How do you correct a sentence fragment? One way is to connect it to the sentence that comes before or after it. FRAGMENT Although he had to get up early in the morning. Alex didn’t get home until midnight. SENTENCE Although he had to get up early in the morning, Alex didn’t get home until midnight.
  18. 18. How do you correct a sentence fragment? One way is to connect it to the sentence that comes before or after it. FRAGMENT Her favorite gift was the orange teddy bear. That her grandmother had given her. SENTENCE Her favorite gift was the orange teddy bear that her grandmother had given her.
  19. 19. Another way to correct a sentence fragment is to turn it into a complete sentence. If the fragment is a phrase, add any missing subject or verb. If the fragment begins with a subordinating conjunction, delete the conjunction. If the fragment begins with a relative pronoun, change the pronoun to a noun. FRAGMENT Running down the street. SENTENCE Matthew was running down the street.
  20. 20. Another way to correct a sentence fragment is to turn it into a complete sentence. If the fragment is a phrase, add any missing subject or verb. If the fragment begins with a subordinating conjunction, delete the conjunction. If the fragment begins with a relative pronoun, change the pronoun to a noun. FRAGMENT Because the plane was late getting into Chicago. SENTENCE The plane was late getting into Chicago.
  21. 21. Another way to correct a sentence fragment is to turn it into a complete sentence. If the fragment is a phrase, add any missing subject or verb. If the fragment begins with a subordinating conjunction, delete the conjunction. If the fragment begins with a relative pronoun, change the pronoun to a noun. FRAGMENT Which violated the drug laws in Turkey. SENTENCE The prescription violated the drug laws in Turkey.
  22. 22. 1. After taking a month-long tour of Southeast Asia. 2. Because the batteries were low. 3. The load of towels still in the dryer. 4. Good attendance is required. 5. Who looked frightened enough to faint.
  23. 23. 1. After taking a month-long tour of Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to come home. 2. Because the batteries were low. 3. The load of towels still in the dryer. 4. Good attendance is required. 5. Who looked frightened enough to faint.
  24. 24. 1. After taking a month-long tour of Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to come home. 2. Because the batteries were low, the headlights were faint. 3. The load of towels still in the dryer. 4. Good attendance is required. 5. Who looked frightened enough to faint.
  25. 25. 1. After taking a month-long tour of Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to come home. 2. Because the batteries were low, the headlights were faint. 3. The load of towels is still in the dryer. 4. Good attendance is required. 5. Who looked frightened enough to faint.
  26. 26. 1. After taking a month-long tour of Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to come home. 2. Because the batteries were low, the headlights were faint. 3. The load of towels is still in the dryer. 4. Good attendance is required. Correct! 5. Who looked frightened enough to faint.
  27. 27. 1. After taking a month-long tour of Southeast Asia, Ramona was ready to come home. 2. Because the batteries were low, the headlights were faint. 3. The load of towels is still in the dryer. 4. Good attendance is required. Correct! 5. I ran into Eric, who looked frightened enough to faint.
  28. 28. 6. The car arrived with a small scratch. 7. Although French fries are not very healthy. 8. While Victor was learning how to ski. 9. If I knew these people better.
  29. 29. 6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete! 7. Although French fries are not very healthy. 8. While Victor was learning how to ski. 9. If I knew these people better. 10. Stunned by the unexpected news.
  30. 30. 6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete! 7. Although French fries are not very healthy, I eat them every day. 8. While Victor was learning how to ski. 9. If I knew these people better. 10. Stunned by the unexpected news.
  31. 31. 6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete! 7. Although French fries are not very healthy, I eat them every day. 8. While Victor was learning how to ski, I stayed in the lodge. 9. If I knew these people better. 10. Stunned by the unexpected news.
  32. 32. 6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete! 7. Although French fries are not very healthy, I eat them every day. 8. While Victor was learning how to ski, I stayed in the lodge. 9. If I knew these people better, I would tell them to leave. 10. Stunned by the unexpected news.
  33. 33. 6. The car arrived with a small scratch. Complete! 7. Although French fries are not very healthy, I eat them every day. 8. While Victor was learning how to ski, I stayed in the lodge. 9. If I knew these people better, I would tell them to leave. 10. My son was stunned by the unexpected news.
  34. 34. Remember these points when selecting and integrating quotations in your essay.
  35. 35. It is rarely effective to use an entire quoted sentence. Long quotations tend to put your reader to sleep. Your prose is far more interesting and important. So use part of an effective quotation as part of one of your sentences.
  36. 36. Boring Example: According to Stoll, “Television and computing make us more passive…and passivity feeds into shyness” (395). Better Example: Unfortunately, those who are already shy may compound their problem further as “[t]elevision and computing make us more passive…and passivity feeds into shyness” (Stoll 395).
  37. 37. After the sentence that contains the quotation, you should have a space, parentheses, the author’s last name, the page number, parentheses, and a period. Unfortunately, those who are already shy may compound their problem further as “[t]elevision and computing make us more passive…and passivity feeds into shyness” (Stoll 395).
  38. 38. If you used the author’s name to introduce the quotation, you should only put the page number in the citation. Stoll points out that those who are already shy may compound their problem further as “[t]elevision and computing make us more passive…and passivity feeds into shyness” (395).
  39. 39. Boring Example: Stoll says, “Deep social ties are relationships with frequent contact, deep feelings of involvement, and broad content…[they] buffer us from stress and lead to better social interaction” (393). Better Example: Stoll suggests we should look for “deep social ties” because these bonds have “frequent contact, deep feelings of involvement, and broad content” that help to “buffer us from stress and lead to better social interaction” (393).
  40. 40. To integrate a quotation properly within a paragraph, a good writer usually has (1) One sentence to introduce the quotation, (2) a second sentence that includes the quotation, and (3) at least one sentence to comment on the quotation.
  41. 41. Top piece of bread: at least one sentence to introduce the quotation Meat: sentence that contains the quotation Bottom piece of bread: at least one sentence to explain or comment on the quotation (usually the majority of the paragraph)
  42. 42. ORIGINAL: However, the cloning protocol does not tamper with embryos; it tampers only with unfertilized eggs and adult cells like those we scratch off our arms without a second thought. Only after the fact does an embryo emerge (which could be treated with the utmost respect if one so chooses). SMOOTHLY INTEGRATED QUOTATION: Silver argues that reproductive cloning does not violate human embryos. He asserts that the “[cloning protocol] tampers only with unfertilized eggs and adult cells like those we scratch off our arms without a second thought” (343). While Silver makes a good point, reproductive cloning is still unnatural. The embryo is created in a laboratory by scientists.
  43. 43. Silver argues that reproductive cloning does not violate human embryos. He asserts that the “[cloning protocol] tampers only with unfertilized eggs and adult cells like those we scratch off our arms without a second thought” (343). While Silver makes a good point, reproductive cloning is still unnatural. The embryo is created in a laboratory by scientists.
  44. 44. ORIGINAL: Although their genetically determined inclinations may be the same, [the original person and the clone] may choose to follow those inclinations in different ways, or not at all. SMOOTHLY INTEGRATED QUOTATION: The environment in which people are raised affects them more than their genetic code. Though the original person and his clone may share “genetically determined inclinations,” they have the choice “to follow those inclinations in different ways, or not all” (Silver 343). Michael Jordan was not born a great basketball player. Though he may have some natural ability, he became great through hard work, perseverance, and practice. Cloning Jordan would not guarantee a great basketball star; on the contrary, the child would have only the raw athletic talent and would lack the circumstances and events that made Jordan who he is.
  45. 45. The environment in which people are raised affects them more than their genetic code. Though the original person and his clone may share “genetically determined inclinations,” they have the choice “to follow those inclinations in different ways, or not all” (Silver 343). Michael Jordan was not born a great basketball player. Though he may have some natural ability, he became great through hard work, perseverance, and practice. Cloning Jordan would not guarantee a great basketball star; on the contrary, the child would have only the raw athletic talent and would lack the circumstances and events that made Jordan who he is.
  46. 46. A “dropped quotation” has the same effect on your paper that a blob of bird poop has on your car windshield; it’s just splattered there with no connection to anything else, and no one knows what to do with it. So, whenever you use a quotation, you must integrate the material into your text.
  47. 47. Though many jobs require long hours on a computer everyday, studies have shown that staring at a monitor screen for extended periods of time can cause depression. “After following the study group, the psychologists found an average increase in depression by about one percent for every hour spent online per week” (Stoll 393). The individual becomes isolated from the outside world and though he or she may be social in an online setting, there is no true human contact.
  48. 48. Though many jobs require long hours on a computer everyday, studies have shown that staring at a monitor screen for extended periods of time can cause depression. “After following the study group, the psychologists found an average increase in depression by about one percent for every hour spent online per week” (Stoll 393). The individual becomes isolated from the outside world and though he or she may be social in an online setting, there is no true human contact.
  49. 49. Though many jobs require long hours on a computer everyday, studies have shown that staring at a monitor screen for extended periods of time can cause depression: “After following the study group, the psychologists found an average increase in depression by about one percent for every hour spent online per week” (Stoll 393). The individual becomes isolated from the outside world and though he or she may be social in an online setting, there is no true human contact.
  50. 50. Though many jobs require long hours on a computer everyday, studies have shown that staring at a monitor screen for extended periods of time can cause depression. Stoll states, “After following the study group, the psychologists found an average increase in depression by about one percent for every hour spent online per week” (393). The individual becomes isolated from the outside world and though he or she may be social in an online setting, there is no true human contact.
  51. 51. Though many jobs require long hours on a computer everyday, studies have shown that staring at a monitor screen for extended periods of time can cause depression. In a UCLA study, psychologists determined “an average increase in depression by about one percent for every hour spent online per week” (Stoll 393). The individual becomes isolated from the outside world and though he or she may be social in an online setting, there is no true human contact.
  52. 52. People all over the world are making connections with other people online, and though this seems like a positive step in expanding our network of friends, we can forget that these people in the online world are strangers. “Online friends can’t be depended on for help with tangible favors: small loans, baby-sitting, help with shopping, or advice about jobs and careers ” (Stoll 394). Though many people find help in online support groups, the members of the group should not be considered true friends. They may be able to offer advice or commiserate with an individual, but they do not offer the human connection one finds with a person face to face.
  53. 53. People all over the world are making connections with other people online, and though this seems like a positive step in expanding our network of friends, we can forget that these people in the online world are strangers. “Online friends can’t be depended on for help with tangible favors: small loans, baby-sitting, help with shopping, or advice about jobs and careers ” (Stoll 394). Though many people find help in online support groups, the members of the group should not be considered true friends. They may be able to offer advice or commiserate with an individual, but they do not offer the human connection one finds with a person face to face.
  54. 54. People all over the world are making connections with other people online. People all over the world are making connections with other people online, and though this seems like a positive step in expanding our network of friends, we can forget that these people in the online world are strangers. Stoll states, “Online friends can’t be depended on for help with tangible favors: small loans, baby- sitting, help with shopping, or advice about jobs and careers ” (394). Though many people find help in online support groups, the members of the group should not be considered true friends. They may be able to offer advice or commiserate with an individual, but they do not offer the human connection one finds with a person face to face.
  55. 55. People all over the world are making connections with other people online. People all over the world are making connections with other people online, and though this seems like a positive step in expanding our network of friends, we can forget that these people in the online world are strangers. These so-called friends cannot “be depended on for help with tangible favors” (Stoll 394). Though many people find help in online support groups, the members of the group should not be considered true friends. They may be able to offer advice or commiserate with an individual, but they do not offer the human connection one finds with a person face to face.
  56. 56. Top piece of bread: at least one sentence to introduce the quotation Meat: sentence that contains the quotation Bottom piece of bread: at least one sentence to explain or comment on the quotation (usually the majority of the paragraph)
  57. 57. Ellipses (three dots) indicate that some unnecessary words have been left out of a quotation. When using ellipses, remember:  When you quote just a word or short phrase, no ellipsis is necessary.  You do not use an ellipsis to indicate that you have left something out of the beginning of a sentence.  Missing words from the end or somewhere in the middle of a sentence need to be indicated with ellipses.  When you quote parts of more than one sentence, you need four dots instead of three.
  58. 58.  Use brackets to indicate any changes you make to quotations while fitting them into your sentence. See the example under “Maintaining a Smooth Sentence Style.”  Remember, rather than changing more than two items in a short quotation, find a better way of integrating the quotation.
  59. 59.  Find a short section in The Power of Habit that is quotable  Said so well that you can’t paraphrase  Duhigg makes a point (is not telling a story or giving an example)  Write the first word, ellipsis (…), the last word, and the page number  Compare yours with the person next to you  Decide whose selection is better/more interesting  As a pair, compare your selection with another pair  Decide whose selection is better/more interesting  As a group of four, compare your selection with another group of four  Decide whose selection is better/more interesting
  60. 60.  What do you want to say about that quotation? Do you have an example? Do you agree or disagree? Do you want to elaborate?  In your group of four, brainstorm ideas.  Write notes, not complete sentences.  Now, look at the your paragraph and the quotation.  In one sentence, what connection do you see between the two?  Come up with at least three possible sentences.
  61. 61.  S-E-E Paragraph  Statement  Evidence (quotation)  Explanation  How can we modify the quotation to fit our paragraph?
  62. 62.  Choose one of the selections from your group of eight (not the one we used as a class and not the one you used in pairs) or find a new point from The Power of Habit you would like to quote  Write your explanation paragraph  Look at the quotation and the explanation paragraph and make connections between the two in one sentence  Adjust the quotation to fit your paragraph (and make sure it is not dropped!)  Get a check mark from me and you are free to go to break!
  63. 63. A. Quiz B. Sentence Fragments C. Using Quotations D. Practice as a class using quotations E. Practice in pairs using quotations
  64. 64. A. Quiz B. Sentence Fragments C. Using Quotations D. Practice as a class using quotations E. Practice in pairs using quotations
  65. 65.  Create two quotation sandwiches (two complete paragraphs) using any of our readings from the class so far  Remember, Essay #2 is due to Turnitin Thursday by 11:55 p.m.  Post to the blog by Thursday at 11:55 p.m.; respond to at least two students by Sunday at 11:55 p.m.
  66. 66. Meet in Computer Commons A

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