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Gas to Liquids Technology (GTL) – Australia’s
     Fuel Future?

Valérie Sage
CSIRO Petroleum Resources – Gas Processing a...
Outline

• What is GTL ?

• What is the current transport fuels situation?

• Why using GTL technology to transform natura...
What is GTL ?

    The Chemistry Behind GTL



CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
Background – GTL process

Hydrocarbon                             Syngas                                Hydrocarbon       ...
Syngas Production

• Syngas Production
       • Steam reforming                                CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2
      ...
GTL Products

• GTL base oil
       • Lubricant for vehicle engines, gearboxes and transmissions

• GTL gas oil
       • U...
The Current Situation

          Transport Fuels Sources



CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
Fossil Fuels

• Oil, Gas, and Coal

       • Upside                                                • Downside
            ...
Oil – Peak time?




• The median forecast is calculated from 14 models that are predicting a peak before 2020
• 95% of th...
Energy from Renewable

• Hydrogen
       • Can be made from a range of sources (water, coal, gas,
         biomass, nuclea...
Alternative / Renewable Feedstock

• Biomass
       •   Renewable
       •   Home-grown
       •   CO2-’neutral’ ?
       ...
The Alternative Route to Fuels

 • Alternative Feedstock                                       • Products


 • Natural Gas...
XTL Processes

Process                                Gas to Liquid                 Coal to Liquid          Biomass to
   ...
Well to Wheel GHG Emissions (syn-diesel)




From “ASFE Position Paper: Emissions from Synthetic Fuels”, Alliance for Synt...
Is GTL the Answer?




CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
Gas Reserves in Australia




CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
Australia’s Future Alternative resources

• Australia’s unique situation and individual problems
  need Australian individ...
Australian Situation

• Government's Energy White Paper
       • GTL
       • CTL
       • Other alternative fuels

• CTL
...
Benefits of GLT

• Security of supply
       • Available in increasing volumes


• Fuel source self sufficiency

• Environ...
Benefits of GLT (cont’)

• Compatibility
       • Can be used in existing engines and refuelling infrastructure
       • N...
Economics

• Economic viability
       • Required selling price of the fuel produced through GTL have to
         be above...
Other Alternatives to GTL for Gas Transformation

• Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
       •   Deep refrigeration required (-1...
The GTL Answer

• GTL represents one of the best alternative to produce
  synthetic / transport fuels
       • Use of remo...
GTL Around the World

  • Existing large scale commercial GTL - FT process plants

• Sasol (South Africa) - Mossgas       ...
Future Large GTL Projects

• Pearl GTL project - Qatar
       • Shell and Qatar petroleum joint venture
       • Expected ...
GTL Challenges




CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
GTL Challenges

• GTL Plant
       • Large plants
              •   Oxygen generation unit
              •   Reformer
    ...
Relationship to external environment

• FT process still not very selective to desired products

Natural Gas


   Coal    ...
Relationship to external environment

Remove the need for product upgrading step:




                                    ...
GTL Opportunities

• Reduce costs (capital and operational)

• Reduce plant footprint
       • Plant usable for small oper...
GTL Strategy @ CSIRO




CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
Description and Objectives

                      Stream Objective
Provide technologies that enable coal and gas derived l...
Gas Processing & Conversion Group

                                LNG pre-liquefaction
                                  ...
GTL Research Strategy

• Catalysis design
       • Co based catalysts more resistant than Fe based catalyst
       • Ru ba...
Purpose of GTL Research

• No such facility in Australia

• Capability building

• Improvement of the GTL process
       •...
Conclusion




CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
Overall

• Objectives of 20% energy production from renewable
  resources by 2020

• Fossil and Synthetic Transport Fuels ...
GTL benefits

• Security of supply

• Valorisation of stranded and off-shore gas reserves

• Use of existing infrastructur...
CSIRO Petroleum Resources
Dr Valérie Sage
Research Scientist
Gas Processing and Conversion Group

Phone: 08 6436 8836
Emai...
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Transcript of "Gas To Liquids Technology By Valerie Sage"

  1. 1. Gas to Liquids Technology (GTL) – Australia’s Fuel Future? Valérie Sage CSIRO Petroleum Resources – Gas Processing and Conversion SPE – Engineering Australia Seminar – 07.09.2009
  2. 2. Outline • What is GTL ? • What is the current transport fuels situation? • Why using GTL technology to transform natural gas? • GTL Challenges • CSIRO GTL Research • Conclusion CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  3. 3. What is GTL ? The Chemistry Behind GTL CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  4. 4. Background – GTL process Hydrocarbon Syngas Hydrocarbon Product feedstock production production targeting Air Separation 30% Oxygen Reformer / Natural Gas Fischer Tropsch Product upgrade Partial Oxidation 30% Syngas 30% 10% CO + H2 Coal Gasification Biomass -(CH2)-n Hydrocarbon Light HCs + steam, CO + H2 Waxes -(CH2)-n CO2, O2 Water CO2 CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009 Oxygenates
  5. 5. Syngas Production • Syngas Production • Steam reforming CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2 • Dry reforming CH4 + CO2 → 2CO + 2H2 • Partial oxidation CH4 + ½O2 → CO + 2H2 • Fischer-Tropsch synthesis • n CO + 2n H2 → -(CH2)n + H2O • Conditions • Optimum H2:CO = 2:1 • Transition metal-based catalyst – Fe, Co, Ni, or Ru • High temperature (> 300 °C, Fe catalysts) • Low temperature (~ 200 °C, Co catalysts) • Pressure > 2 MPa CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  6. 6. GTL Products • GTL base oil • Lubricant for vehicle engines, gearboxes and transmissions • GTL gas oil • Use in conventional diesel engine • Cleaner burning and lower emissions • GTL kerosene • Cooking, lighting and dry-cleaning fuel • Higher energy density and lower emissions • Tested as a jet fuel in an Airbus A380 flight • GTL normal paraffin • Virtually identical to oil-derived paraffin • GTL naphtha • Higher paraffin content CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  7. 7. The Current Situation Transport Fuels Sources CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  8. 8. Fossil Fuels • Oil, Gas, and Coal • Upside • Downside • Convenient and versatile • Finite resource • High energy density • Major GHG source • Well established global • Impact on ecosystems infrastructure • Large capital investments, long • ‘Easy’ to transport pay-out times • ‘Easy’ and ‘Safe’ handling • Used as a geopolitical ‘weapon’ • May get too expensive (Oil) CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  9. 9. Oil – Peak time? • The median forecast is calculated from 14 models that are predicting a peak before 2020 • 95% of the predictions sees a production peak between 2008 and 2010 at 77.5 - 85.0 mbpd Source: The Oil Drum; http://www.theoildrum.com/story/2006/11/13/225447/79 CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  10. 10. Energy from Renewable • Hydrogen • Can be made from a range of sources (water, coal, gas, biomass, nuclear, wind and solar) • Issues • Production costs, especially if produced from renewable • Carbon dioxide co-production • Distribution, delivery, and storage • Solar / Wind • Renewable, clean, safe, and ‘unlimited’ • Issues • Intermittent • ‘Low energy density’ • Land required • Impact on ecosystem ? • Grid infrastructure not ready CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  11. 11. Alternative / Renewable Feedstock • Biomass • Renewable • Home-grown • CO2-’neutral’ ? • Issues • Energy and GHG balance is precarious • Low energy density • Limited output because of land requirements • Fuels vs. Food ? • Harvest failure • Soil exhaustion (danger of monocultures) • Deforestation • Water requirements CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  12. 12. The Alternative Route to Fuels • Alternative Feedstock • Products • Natural Gas GTL • Transport Fuels • Coal XTL CTL • Chemicals • Biomass BTL CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  13. 13. XTL Processes Process Gas to Liquid Coal to Liquid Biomass to (GTL) (CTL) Liquid (BTL) Supply Abundant reserves, Large reserves Supply might be an especially in WA issue GHG Emissions Comparable to oil Higher than oil Most promising refining refining technology for GHG Reduction through Significant reduction emission reduction technology improvement through CCS Technology Industrially proven but Industrially proven Further R&D further R&D required but further R&D required required Status Industrial units already in Large scale Pilot plant only operation industrial units already in operation Future Commercial plants under Large plants Prototype plant construction planned planned CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  14. 14. Well to Wheel GHG Emissions (syn-diesel) From “ASFE Position Paper: Emissions from Synthetic Fuels”, Alliance for Synthetic Fuels in Europe (ASFE), January 2007 (http://www.synthetic-fuels.org/documents/20070221124435_ASFE%20Position%20Paper%20on%20Emissions.pdf) CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  15. 15. Is GTL the Answer? CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  16. 16. Gas Reserves in Australia CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  17. 17. Australia’s Future Alternative resources • Australia’s unique situation and individual problems need Australian individual solution • Australia specific problems • Liquid poor but gas rich • Reliance on other countries for oil import • Distances • Abundant coal and gas reserves • Potential of large scale synfuel production • Natural gas represents one of the best feedstock for synthetic fuels production • Large natural gas reserves in Australia, especially in WA • Reduced GHG emissions CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  18. 18. Australian Situation • Government's Energy White Paper • GTL • CTL • Other alternative fuels • CTL • Linc Energy project • Underground coal gasification (UCG) • In-situ conversion of coal to a Syngas (heat, pressure steam) • Syngas converted into Synfuel in FT reactor • Prospects for carbon capture and sequestration • GTL • No facility as yet • Focus on production of GTL middle distillate (diesel and jet fuel) CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  19. 19. Benefits of GLT • Security of supply • Available in increasing volumes • Fuel source self sufficiency • Environmental performance – local emissions • Cleaner products (middle distillates) • GTL Fuels • Lower emissions • Virtually sulphur and aromatic free diesel • Reduction in particulate (PM-10) and hydrocarbons emissions when used in diesel engines • Higher cetane number (75-80) CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  20. 20. Benefits of GLT (cont’) • Compatibility • Can be used in existing engines and refuelling infrastructure • No need for complete replacement of vehicles, refineries and distribution systems • Cost effectiveness • Existing infrastructure • Local production • Reduction in crude oil import • Diversification • Stranded and associated gas reserves use • BTL and CTL applications CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  21. 21. Economics • Economic viability • Required selling price of the fuel produced through GTL have to be above the break even mark by a significant amount • Large scale GTL plant in the middle east • Without CCS • Expected to be competitive with oil down to approximately $20 per barrel • Recent advances by the oil company Shell have seen synthetic fuels start to become profitable. • GTL plant in Qatar • Claims that process will remain competitive with traditional diesel unless the price of crude falls below $20 per barrel CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  22. 22. Other Alternatives to GTL for Gas Transformation • Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) • Deep refrigeration required (-162 °C) • Energy density: 60% of that of diesel fuel • Special ships for transport • Large investments for liquefaction and re-gasification terminals • Long term contracts required • Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) • Pressurisation (200-220 bar) • Special ships for transport • Less expensive than LNG • Lower energy density than LNG (42%) or conventional diesel (25%) • Competitive only for small distance and volume • In both cases, the receiving end product is still gas CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  23. 23. The GTL Answer • GTL represents one of the best alternative to produce synthetic / transport fuels • Use of remote, stranded and off-shore Australian gas reserves • Security of supply • Cost effective synfuel production CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  24. 24. GTL Around the World • Existing large scale commercial GTL - FT process plants • Sasol (South Africa) - Mossgas • Shell (Malaysia) - Bintulu • Coal and natural gas as feedstock • Natural gas as feedstock • Variety of synthetic petroleum products • low-sulphur diesel fuels products • Synthol reactors (fluidized bed): 45,000 • Multitubular fixed-bed reactor bbl/day for GTL • Co based catalysts • Slurry bubble reactor: 2,500 bbl/day • 15,000 bbl/day • Sasol/Chevron (Qatar) - Oryx • Natural gas feedstock • Variety of synthetic petroleum products • Slurry bubble reactor • 34,000 bbl/day CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  25. 25. Future Large GTL Projects • Pearl GTL project - Qatar • Shell and Qatar petroleum joint venture • Expected production of 140,000 barrels per day of Fischer Tropsch petroleum liquids starting in 2010 (first train) and 2011 (second train) • Escravos GTL Project – Nigeria • Sasol Chevron • Expected to production of 34,000 barrels per day of Fischer Tropsch synthetic fuel in 2011 CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  26. 26. GTL Challenges CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  27. 27. GTL Challenges • GTL Plant • Large plants • Oxygen generation unit • Reformer • Fischer-Tropsch reactor • Post-treatment unit • High capital investment and operating cost • GTL Process • Exothermic and endothermic reaction • Side reactions • Large range of product • Poor selectivity CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  28. 28. Relationship to external environment • FT process still not very selective to desired products Natural Gas Coal Syngas production Synfuel production Product upgrade Biomass 30% 10% 30% Oxygen 30% Steam Carbon dioxide Solar CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  29. 29. Relationship to external environment Remove the need for product upgrading step: Courtesy JOGMEC / Nippon GTL CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  30. 30. GTL Opportunities • Reduce costs (capital and operational) • Reduce plant footprint • Plant usable for small operations • Associated gas (on or off-shore) • Stranded gas reserves (on or off-shore) • Novel GTL processes • Enhanced Fischer Tropsch processes • Direct liquid production • High-value targets • Minimise emissions • CO2 Sequestration CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  31. 31. GTL Strategy @ CSIRO CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  32. 32. Description and Objectives Stream Objective Provide technologies that enable coal and gas derived low emissions transport fuels to reduce significantly Australia’s reliance on imported oil for transportation • Project Objectives • Project Outcomes • Synthetic liquid fuel • Security of supply of production from natural Synfuels gas / syngas • Cost effective production of • Modification/improvement Synfuels of the Fischer-Tropsch • Valorisation of Australia’s (FT) process stranded natural gas • Capability building reserves • Diversification to other feedstock (biomass, coal) CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  33. 33. Gas Processing & Conversion Group LNG pre-liquefaction gas separations H2 production Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic fuel production synthesis Natural gas Methanol Synthesis gas production Product upgrade Coal synthesis Biomass Non-conventional GTL Pre-sequestration gas separations CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  34. 34. GTL Research Strategy • Catalysis design • Co based catalysts more resistant than Fe based catalyst • Ru based supported slurry catalysts • Reactor design • Shift from fixed-bed reactor to slurry phase process • Improved heat removal – efficient mixing • Gas recycling • Reduced plant footprint and capital cost • Process optimisation • Reaction conditions • Use of additives • Production of industrially significant data • Long runs without interruption (several months) CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  35. 35. Purpose of GTL Research • No such facility in Australia • Capability building • Improvement of the GTL process • Selectivity • Mechanism • Plant footprint CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  36. 36. Conclusion CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  37. 37. Overall • Objectives of 20% energy production from renewable resources by 2020 • Fossil and Synthetic Transport Fuels are going to be with us for a long time • Need other sources of energy – diversification • Australia has real individual issues that chemists and chemical engineers have to meet • Security of Supply • There is a real need to focus on these to ensure a fuel supply for the future CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  38. 38. GTL benefits • Security of supply • Valorisation of stranded and off-shore gas reserves • Use of existing infrastructure • Develop a cost effective production of synthetic fuels • High performance fuels • Decrease of pollutant emissions • Build capability • Diversification • Platform for Biomass to Liquids (BTL) and Coal to Liquids (CTL) products development • Production of other products such as oxygenates CSIRO GTL - SPE - Engineering Australia Seminar - 07.09.2009
  39. 39. CSIRO Petroleum Resources Dr Valérie Sage Research Scientist Gas Processing and Conversion Group Phone: 08 6436 8836 Email: valerie.sage@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au/science/Fischer-Tropsch-Process.html www.csiro.au/science/Gas-Conversion-Processing-Fuel- Future.html Thank you Contact Us Phone: 1300 363 400 or +61 3 9545 2176 Email: Enquiries@csiro.au Web: www.csiro.au
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