Chemical Panel Engineers Australia WA Division &  The Institution of Chemical Engineers (WA) Gary J. Crisp Global Business...
It’s not about water. It’s about   energy!
“ Energy is eternal delight!” Energy is liberation. William Blake, author, poet, visionary, 1757 – 1827
Energy Use Across the Water Cycle  (1kWh/m 3  = 3.79 kWh/kgal - 4 kWh/m 3  = 15.14 kWh/kgal) California State Water Projec...
Presentation Overview <ul><li>Reverse Osmosis Basics Plus </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Six </li></ul><ul><li>The Sustainabili...
Desalination – Where Are We Today? 14,754 Desalination Plants Worldwide – 16,700 MGD Source : IDA Desalination Yearbook 20...
Source: WDR, July 2010 Projected New Desalination  Capacity in 2010 6.8 GL/day Actual New Capacity in 2009  3.9 GL/day
Water Resource Cost Trends: US $/m 3 <ul><li>Water from the oceans is still perceived as a ‘technology’ solution, but desa...
Membrane Separation - Filtration Spectrum Courtesy of Osmonics
Reverse Osmosis Water   Molecules Protozoa Bacteria Virus Organics Inorganics An RO Membrane is like a Microscopic Straine...
Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO)
Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) 0.77 bar per 1000 mg/L
Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) <ul><li>Theoretical minimum SEC for seawater @ 35000 mg/...
0.2 µm 40 µm 120 µm Polyamide Polysulfone Ultra thin Barrier Layer Microporous Polysulfone Substrate Reinforcing Polyester...
Membrane arrangement Membrane element Feed spacer Permeate spacer Membrane leaf
Reverse Osmosis Spiral Wound Membrane
The Desalination Process
<ul><li>Australia’s six big desalination plants </li></ul>The Big 6
<ul><li>Gold Coast Desal Plant (operating)_ </li></ul><ul><li>133 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>25 km distribution pipeli...
The Big Six – No. 1  Perth Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth I) - 38 mgd (144 MLD) <ul><li>Client: Water Corporation </li...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant <ul><li>Located in Kwinana </li></ul><ul><li>144 MLD Capacity: 50 GL/Y  </li></ul><ul><l...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant 6.5 ha 3 ha
Integrated  Water Supply Scheme GROUNDWATER SOURCE SURFACE WATER SOURCE AREA SERVED TRUNK MAINS PERTH Goldfields & Agricul...
Seawater Intake Pre-treatment SWRO & BWRO Remineralisation/Storage  Potable water pump station Residuals Treatment Brine d...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Seawater Intake System – Inlet Structure Courtesy of the Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Courtesy of the Water Corporation Seawater Intake System – Inlet Structure
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Courtesy of the Water Corporation Courtesy of the Water Corporation Seawater Intake Syst...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Onshore Active Screening – Band Screen Courtesy of the Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Seawater Intake and Outlet Works Courtesy of the Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Single Stage Dual Media Pressure Filtration and Cartridge Filters
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Each Pump Equivalent to 15  Toyota Lexus GX Wagon 8st 4dr Man 6sp 4x4 4.0i 0.179 MW @ 52...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant PRETREATED WATER PRODUCTION HP Pump Energy Recovery System (12 x 16 in Parallel) REJECT ...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Circulation Pumps 134 kW each (12 in total) Courtesy of the Water Corporation Each Pump ...
Perth Seawater Desalination Project (PSDP)   First Pass  Reverse Osmosis Racks
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant RO Building Looking South – 2 nd  Pass RO Courtesy of the Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Each Rack Equivalent to 8 Ford Escape Wagon 4dr Auto 4sp 4x4 3.0i  0.152 MW @ 4750rpm ea...
Perth Seawater Desalination Project   PX Process
Perth Seawater Desalination Project   Beyond Tomorrow
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Potabilization System and Drinking Water Storage Tank Courtesy of Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Drinking Water Transfer Pump Station Courtesy of Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Concentrate Discharge Courtesy of Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Concentrate Discharge Courtesy of Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant
Perth Seawater Desalination Project   Long Term Monitoring Macrobenthic To monitor the response of the sediment fauna over...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant 50 m limit for mixing zone 30 m mixing zone – achieve 42 x dilution Outfall pipeline Bri...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Initial mixing zone = 100  metres 45x dilution farfield diffuser Courtesy of Water Corpo...
Perth Seawater Desalination Project  Baseline DO
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Real Time Monitoring Courtesy of Water Corporation
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant These tests proved the Mathematical / Computer Model analyses.  Note the marine growth o...
Under the Surface Courtesy of the Water Corporation
Sustainable Power - Wind Energy for PSDP Greenhouse Gas Emissions  (tonnes per annum) Stanwell/Griffin Joint Venture -  Em...
Courtesy of the Water Corporation Zero Greenhouse Gas Emissions Stanwell/Griffin Joint Venture -  Emu Downs wind generatio...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Sustainable Power - Wind Energy <ul><li>Capacity  = 80 MW </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Turbi...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Courtesy of the Water Corporation
The Big Six – No. 1 Perth Seawater Desalination Plant – Demonstration Plant
Perth Seawater Desalination Project  Plant Load Requirements Single Source 132 kV supply from Western Power 417 V Yes     ...
Perth Seawater Desalination Project  Specific Energy Consumption of Components and Total *approx 7 miles of conveyance to ...
<ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalination Plant   $290 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting System (IWSS...
Perth, Australia: Two-year Feed Back on Operation and Environmental Impact (Steve Christie – Water Corporation, Véronique ...
Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 35 mgd (133 MLD) <ul><li>Client: Water Secure - Queensland </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 36 ...
Gold Coast Desalination Plant <ul><li>Located in Tugin </li></ul><ul><li>36 mgd Capacity: 38,427 AF/Y </li></ul><ul><li>22...
REVERSE OSMOSIS RESIDUALS REMINERALISATION OUTFALL PRETEATMENT INTAKE
Seawater Intake & screen Pre-treatment SWRO & BWRO Remineralisation/Storage  Potable water pump station Residuals Treatmen...
Twin 2.5 OD intake/outfall tunnels 2.2 km & 2.0 km sized for 340 MLD  125 MLD Plant ave. 94% availability 133 MLD peak dai...
Marine Tunnels
Marine Tunnels  <ul><li>10 m diameter & 70 m deep vertical shaft </li></ul>
Marine Tunnels  <ul><li>Specially built TBMs (75 m /week) </li></ul>
Marine Tunnels <ul><li>outlet </li></ul><ul><li>inlet </li></ul><ul><li>SEP supported by tug drawn </li></ul><ul><li>barge...
<ul><li>Intake riser 4 m from seabed 18 m water depth </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse screen 150 mm – vertical bars. Horizontal f...
 
2.11 m 6.32 m Seawater Intake - Coarse Screen
<ul><li>6 Months piloting of pretreatment  </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical addition, two static mixers  </li></ul><ul><li>Four ...
Pretreatment
<ul><li>Filter backwash (5 mgd), neutralised CIP wastewater, lime sludge treated in Residuals Section </li></ul><ul><li>Wa...
<ul><li>Filtered seawater split into 2 streams  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% to RO % 55% to ERD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RO boo...
<ul><li>Four HP Torishima VSD pumps (5 MW feed) 9 SWRO trains through common HP manifold </li></ul><ul><li>9 trains at 100...
4 x High Pressure Pumps 4.8 MW Each (Each equivalent to 28  Toyota Lexus GX Wagon 8st 4dr Man 6sp 4x4 4.0i 0.179 MW @ 5200...
Seawater Reverse Osmosis - ERD PRETREATED WATER <ul><ul><li>Operating Principles & Arrangement   </li></ul></ul>PRODUCTION...
Energy Recovery Device - 1 st  Pass Pressure Exchanger Rack 1.6 MW Each (9 racks in total)  (Equivalent to 11 Mazda Tribut...
RO Building Pressure Vessel Racks - 1 st  Pass
<ul><li>Rear permeate from SWRO  </li></ul><ul><li>3 trains at 100% capacity  </li></ul><ul><li>85% recovery </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Carbon dioxide and lime water addition </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorination </li></ul><ul><li>Two 4 mg glass fused bolte...
<ul><li>Brine (185 MLD) from first pass RO mixed with supernatant from residuals, sent back to sea </li></ul><ul><li>Brine...
Diffuser 6.0 yd 6.5 yd 1200mm PE
Network   Connection <ul><li>4 potable water transfer pumps </li></ul><ul><li>26 km of 1.1 m pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>30...
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 35 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 My Office for 2 years
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD)
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 Minimal Drum Screen Screening...
Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 3 duty 1 standby High Pressur...
Gold Coast Desalination Plant  Specific Energy Consumption of Components and Total *approx 26 km of conveyance to system w...
Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 Why So Expensive? Wonthaggi Desalination Plant – Elec...
<ul><li>Client: Sydney Water – New South Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 66 mgd (250 MLD) - expandable to 132 mgd (500 M...
The Big Six – No. 3 Courtesy of Sydney Water Sydney Desalination Plant - 66 mgd (250 MLD) – Expandable to 132 mgd (500 MLD)
<ul><li>Client: South Australia Water </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 40 mgd + 40 mgd  (150 MLD + 150 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>P...
Adelaide Desalination Plants I and II – 40 + 40 mgd (150 MLD each) The Big Six – No. 4 Courtesy of SA Water
Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth II) - 40 mgd (150 MLD) to 80 mgd (300 MLD) <ul><li>Client: Water Corporation o...
Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth II) 150 MLD (40 mgd) Expandable to 300 MLD (80 mgd) The Big Six – No. 5 Courte...
The Big Six – No. 6 The Victorian Desalination Project - 120 mgd (450 MLD) to 160 mgd (600MLD) <ul><li>Client: Victorian G...
The Victorian Desalination Project - 120 mgd (450 MLD) then 160 mgd (600 MLD) The Big Six – No. 6 Courtesy of Victorian Go...
 
Future Desalination Developments <ul><li>SWRO will still become more efficient due to: </li></ul><ul><li>New high rejectio...
Future Desalination Developments <ul><li>Non-chemical treatments for disinfection pre- and post treatment  </li></ul><ul><...
Desalination – Key Trends? <ul><li>SWRO Desalination Technologies Dominate; </li></ul><ul><li>Large - (over 50 MLD) and Me...
Year 2005-2010  The Five Lowest-Cost SWRO Projects Worldwide SWRO Plant Cost of Water (US$/kL) Power Use of RO System (kWh...
Key Factors Affecting Costs <ul><li>Source Water Quality  - TDS, Temperature, Solids, Silt and Organics Content. </li></ul...
Reducing Power Use for SWRO Separation   - Still a Hair Rising Challenge? Lowest Theoretical Energy Use = 0.75 kWh/kL (100...
SWRO Power Consumption  (July 1, 2001)
50 MGD SWRO Plant –  Key Energy Uses Intake – 5 %  (0.19 kWh/kL) Product Water Delivery  6 %  RO System – 71 %  Pretreatme...
Optimizing RO System Performance <ul><li>Higher Productivity 8-inch RO Elements;  </li></ul><ul><li>Large –Diameter RO Mem...
2008-11  Evolving SWRO Membrane Performance <ul><li>Larger Membrane Element Area: 37.2 vs. 41.9 m 2  (440 ft 2  vs. 400 ft...
2.6 MGD Power Seraja SWRO Plant, Singapore – 16-inch Elements
Large RO Elements – Key Manufacturers/Models Source: IDA  Journal, Vol. 2, 2010
Optimizing Performance by Redistributing Flux/Energy <ul><li>Flux of First Element Can Be Reduced by: </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Second  (Brackish RO) Pass Concentrate – Second Pass Permeate Conventional RO System Configuration (Perth Seawater Desalin...
First (SWRO) Pass Smaller   Second  (Brackish RO) Pass Permeate Smaller  Booster Pump Split “Regulated” First Pass RO Syst...
First (SWRO) Pass Smaller   Second  (Brackish RO) Pass Permeate Smaller  Booster Pump Split “Regulated” First Pass RO Syst...
I nternally  S taged  D esign (1-1-5) <ul><li>Element Flow at Standard Test Conditions </li></ul>Compared to Standard SWRO...
Second  (Brackish RO) Pass Concentrate – Second Pass Permeate HP Pump Lower Feed Pressure Booster Pump Concentrate to ERD ...
First SWRO Pass Smallest Second  (Brackish RO) Pass Permeate Smallest   Booster Pump ISD + Split “Regulated” RO System Con...
3-Center Design –  Pump, Energy Recovery & RO Membrane Centers Courtesy: IDE Highly Efficient  Energy Use 2.5 to 2.6 kWh/k...
Bigger Pumps Rule! Pump Efficiency Increases with Size <ul><li>Pump Efficiency  ~   </li></ul><ul><li>n x  (Q/H) 0.5 x  (1...
Radially Split Case Pumps <ul><li>Occupy Less Space; </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to Maintain; </li></ul><ul><li>Less Vibratio...
Energy Recovery Systems  are Getting Bigger & More Efficient!
Pressure Exchangers Allow the Use of Larger Pumps/RO Trains Pelton Wheel Pressure Exchanger Provides 40 - 42 % of the Ener...
ERI System – Current Status <ul><li>Largest In Operation - Hamma (Algeria) – 50 MGD </li></ul><ul><li>Largest in Construct...
ERI – New Energy Recovery Equipment <ul><li>PX 260  </li></ul><ul><li>- 18 % Larger Capacity than PX220;  </li></ul><ul><l...
DWEER System – Current Status <ul><li>Used in Ashkelon, Gold Coast, Sorek, and Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>1.34 MGD SWRO ...
Calder AG (Flowserve) – ROVA 300 <ul><li>Can Handle 6.8 MLD of Brine Flow (Three Times Bigger than Existing Units); </li><...
Calder AG (Flowserve) – DWEER GA <ul><li>25 % Higher Capacity Than DWEER 1100; </li></ul><ul><li>FRP Instead of Steel Vess...
Hydraulic Turbocharger – Large Installations (8.9 to 10.0 kWh/kgal) <ul><li>720 MLD Mactaa, Algeria – 2.6 kWh/kL </li></ul...
CALDER – DWEER PRESSURE EXCHANGER CALDER - PELTON WHEEL IMPULSE TURBINE KSB – SALTEC PRESSURE EXCHANGER ERI - PX  PRESSURE...
IDE – IRIS  PRESSURE EXCHANGER ROVEX  PRESSURE EXCHANGER DYPREX PRESSURE EXCHANGER ERI – TITAN PX  PRESSURE EXCHANGER FEDC...
AQUALING – ORIGINAL RECUPERATOR  PRESSURE EXCHANGER AQUALING –  NEW RECUPERATOR  PRESSURE EXCHANGER Energy Recovery Device...
Biofouling –  Still the Key “Energy Chellenge”  of SWRO Desalination
Membrane Pretreatment is Becoming More Popular for Large Plants! <ul><li>300 MLD Adelaide SWRO Plant, Australia  </li></ul...
New “Tools” for Combating Biofouling <ul><li>Wider Membrane Element Spacers; </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Fouling Membrane Mate...
“ The Best” of Seawater Desalination Present Status & Future Forecasts Parameter Today Within 5 Years Within 20 Years Cost...
Selected Tariffs City Combined Tariff Average Domestic use (L/head/day) Adelaide $3.60/m 3  605 Brisbane  $4.85/m 3 605 Ch...
The Sustainability of SWRO
The Sustainability of SWRO In 1896 the worlds largest desalination plant was built in Western Australia at Coolgardie Mamm...
It’s not about water. It’s about   energy!
Theoretical minimum SEC for seawater @ 35000 mg/L TDS is 2.83 kWh/kgal (0.748 kWhr /m 3  )   To convey 1 kgal of untreated...
Responding to the Clear Trend of Global Warming! The total Energy Needed to Operate All California Desalination Projects  ...
The Sustainability of SWRO Process Electrical Thermal  Total (kWh/m 3 )  (kWh/m 3 )  (kWh/m 3 ) MSF 3.2 – 3.7 9.8 – 6.8 13...
Unit Costs of Carbon Footprint Reduction Alternatives CF Reduction Alternative Unit Cost of Carbon Footprint Reduction (US...
$0.62 $1.07 $1.16 $5.10 0.5 1.0 <3.5 and reducing to 3.3 by 2010  12.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Current metro bulk water South W...
Energy Comparison The Sustainability of SWRO Old Fridge Energy Requirement  = 1300 kWh/Year Efficient Desalination Plant (...
Energy Comparison – The MacMansion The Sustainability of SWRO Temperature under black roof 61 ° C.  Radiated heat 26  ° C ...
Energy Comparison – The MacMansion The Sustainability of SWRO If you look at all the energy requirements of  new homes (Ci...
Energy Comparison – The MacMansion The Sustainability of SWRO The West Australian Tuesday March 8 2007 Record heat ruins f...
<ul><li>How Many Jumbos? </li></ul>So …
= + + + + + The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons
or, how many PSDP’s? The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons = + +
and the answer is! Taking Off Power  = 77 MW  Cruising Power = 65 MW Full Power of One Engine = 26 MW Full Power Requireme...
<ul><li>How Many Queen Mary II’s? </li></ul>So …
= + + + + + The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons
or, how many PSDP’s? The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons = + + +
and the answer is! <ul><li>Guest Capacity:  </li></ul><ul><li>3,056 maximum capacity (Incl. third and fourth berths) </li>...
Surface Water Source – Serpentine Dam Courtesy of the Water Corporation Not So Sustainable
Seawater Desalination vs.  Surface Water Source <ul><li>Constructed from 1957 to 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Catchment area = 6...
Where Future Cost Savings Will Come From?
Main Areas Expected to Yield Cost Savings in the Next 5 Years (20 % Cost Reduction Target) <ul><li>Improvements in Membran...
Nano-Structured SWRO Membranes
Potential to Reduce 60 to 80 % of Energy Costs & 15 to 25 % of Cost of Water Source: OASYS
Harnessing Osmotic Power Source: Statkraft
Osmotic Power – A Competitive Energy Source Source: Statkraft
Desalination Energy Use Factors
Why SWRO is Sustainable & the Future Solution <ul><li>SWRO reflects the  “true benchmark value of water” , the  “triple bo...
Why SWRO is Sustainable & the Future Solution <ul><li>SWRO submerged intakes adequately designed, entrain negligible algae...
Why SWRO is Sustainable & the Future Solution <ul><li>The deployment of SWRO plants on coasts ensures that there is a wate...
Concluding Remarks <ul><li>The Ocean Is Becoming One of the Key Sources of Reliable and Draught-Proof Coastal Water Supply...
“ I have said that I thought if we could ever competitively get fresh water from saltwater…that it would be in the long ra...
Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Awarded GWI World Membrane Desalination Plant of the Year 2007 ERI Awarded GWI Environme...
Gold Coast Desalination Plant Awarded GWI World Membrane Desalination Plant of the Year   2009 Courtesy of WaterSecure
International Desalination Association Awarded 2011 World Congress - to Perth  Western Australia See You There!
Questions? Thank you.
Pseudo Greenies and Nimby’s
<ul><li>BBC News Program – Can be down loaded onto i-pod </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4...
Nuclear Fusion (Hans Bethe) 1938 <ul><li>Fusion works on the principle that energy can be released by forcing together ato...
Nuclear Fusion (Hans Bethe) 1938 <ul><li>Project estimated to cost $15bn and will run for 35 years </li></ul><ul><li>It wi...
Nuclear Fission (Otto Hahn, Leis Meitner and Fritz Strassmann) 1938 <ul><li>Nuclear Fission works on the principle splitti...
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Desalination Sustainably Drought Proofing Australia

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Presentation by Gary J. Crisp, Global Business Leader – Desalination: GHD, BSc. Civil Engineering, C Eng., MICE, CP Eng., FIE Aust., PMP

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  • This version edited August 26, 2009.
  • ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CUST. ADVISORY COUNCIL A key tool to assist in the Water Corporation’s endeavours to anticipate customer needs and deliver innovative customer service. The Corporation is committed to establishing closer links with its customers and establishing avenues for effective two-way communication. A close working relationship with groups such as the Customer Advisory Council helps the Corporation to understand and keep pace with changing customer needs and to shape our business accordingly. Residential/Commercial customer satisfaction levels high (86%) Thank the Customer Advisory Council for their contribution to improving the Corporation’s relationship with its customers
  • ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CUST. ADVISORY COUNCIL A key tool to assist in the Water Corporation’s endeavours to anticipate customer needs and deliver innovative customer service. The Corporation is committed to establishing closer links with its customers and establishing avenues for effective two-way communication. A close working relationship with groups such as the Customer Advisory Council helps the Corporation to understand and keep pace with changing customer needs and to shape our business accordingly. Residential/Commercial customer satisfaction levels high (86%) Thank the Customer Advisory Council for their contribution to improving the Corporation’s relationship with its customers
  • Lets look at energy use across the complete water cycle. What we have seen in the last 100 years is that urbanisation and demand for higher water quality is driving up the energy footprint of water. Originally most schemes linear and very low energy footprints Source water close to population and limited treatment Mention Kalgoorlie, State Water project Briefly go over each element – higher water quality –more energy Western Corridor, NewWater at the other end
  • ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CUST. ADVISORY COUNCIL A key tool to assist in the Water Corporation’s endeavours to anticipate customer needs and deliver innovative customer service. The Corporation is committed to establishing closer links with its customers and establishing avenues for effective two-way communication. A close working relationship with groups such as the Customer Advisory Council helps the Corporation to understand and keep pace with changing customer needs and to shape our business accordingly. Residential/Commercial customer satisfaction levels high (86%) Thank the Customer Advisory Council for their contribution to improving the Corporation’s relationship with its customers
  • A membrane consists usually of three layers. The active separating layer is cast on a polysulphone microfiltration membrane, and the whole is supported on a non-woven polyester for mechanical stability
  • Complex integrated scheme Unique in Australia (one dam systems in Melbourne and Sydney) Multiple sources provide robust system + security Groundwater + surface water - spread geographically, complex system Variability of chemical constituents of water Dams - 10 major, 3 pump backs, 2 pipehead Groundwater schemes – 8 and 12 independent artesian bores 202 bores in total, 41 turned off for environmental reasons ***Integrating the desalination supply adds further complexity Investment $678M over past decade Increased source capacity 192GL
  • The procurement strategy consisted of four broad phases being: 1. Registration of Interest 2. Preselection process [3 months] Presentations, Interviews and evaluation / selection of top two: Australian Desal Company - Ondeo Degremont, Multiplex Constructions, and Australian Water Services Perth Desal Company - Vivendi Water, United KG, Leightons &amp; Sinclair Knight &amp; Merz Development of participation; Award of Project Development Phase 3. Project development phase [~6 months] Delivering a detailed technical and commercial proposal Two teams work in competition and are paid for their work on a cost-reimbursable basis 4. Construction and operations phase [18-20 months] Project Structure Beneficial, as hasn’t committed industry to large sums of money Can accommodate either PPP or DBO Alliance. Provides significant flexibility to cope with changing circumstances and constraints
  • The procurement strategy consisted of four broad phases being: 1. Registration of Interest 2. Preselection process [3 months] Presentations, Interviews and evaluation / selection of top two: Australian Desal Company - Ondeo Degremont, Multiplex Constructions, and Australian Water Services Perth Desal Company - Vivendi Water, United KG, Leightons &amp; Sinclair Knight &amp; Merz Development of participation; Award of Project Development Phase 3. Project development phase [~6 months] Delivering a detailed technical and commercial proposal Two teams work in competition and are paid for their work on a cost-reimbursable basis 4. Construction and operations phase [18-20 months] Project Structure Beneficial, as hasn’t committed industry to large sums of money Can accommodate either PPP or DBO Alliance. Provides significant flexibility to cope with changing circumstances and constraints
  • The procurement strategy consisted of four broad phases being: 100% Traveling Band Screens Wet Well (Dry Well Forwarding Pumps, through duel media filters, cartridge filters and on to HP pumps) Media Filters 2 Banks 12 pressure filters (52 m2 each) SDI &lt; 3 Two Pass Bromide &lt; 0.1 mg/L TDS approximately &lt; 45 mg/L Energy Recovery Pressure Exchangers PX by ERI
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • Time Constraints Power Consumption Power Consumption - 14-17 MW daily average required to produce 30 GL/a for plant efficiency of between 4 &amp; 5 kWh/kL. Seawater Conditions Favourable indicating that pre-treatment costs likely to be minimised Deliverables Environmental Approval Obtained Two consortia selected for PDP Site Selection narrowed to two sites Feasibility Study completed
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CUST. ADVISORY COUNCIL A key tool to assist in the Water Corporation’s endeavours to anticipate customer needs and deliver innovative customer service. The Corporation is committed to establishing closer links with its customers and establishing avenues for effective two-way communication. A close working relationship with groups such as the Customer Advisory Council helps the Corporation to understand and keep pace with changing customer needs and to shape our business accordingly. Residential/Commercial customer satisfaction levels high (86%) Thank the Customer Advisory Council for their contribution to improving the Corporation’s relationship with its customers
  • ACKNOWLEDGE THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CUST. ADVISORY COUNCIL A key tool to assist in the Water Corporation’s endeavours to anticipate customer needs and deliver innovative customer service. The Corporation is committed to establishing closer links with its customers and establishing avenues for effective two-way communication. A close working relationship with groups such as the Customer Advisory Council helps the Corporation to understand and keep pace with changing customer needs and to shape our business accordingly. Residential/Commercial customer satisfaction levels high (86%) Thank the Customer Advisory Council for their contribution to improving the Corporation’s relationship with its customers
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • TechnoBiz Training Program (www.technobiz-asia.com)
  • The procurement strategy consisted of four broad phases being: 100% Traveling Band Screens Wet Well (Dry Well Forwarding Pumps, through duel media filters, cartridge filters and on to HP pumps) Media Filters 2 Banks 12 pressure filters (52 m2 each) SDI &lt; 3 Two Pass Bromide &lt; 0.1 mg/L TDS approximately &lt; 45 mg/L Energy Recovery Pressure Exchangers PX by ERI
  • Desalination Sustainably Drought Proofing Australia

    1. 1. Chemical Panel Engineers Australia WA Division & The Institution of Chemical Engineers (WA) Gary J. Crisp Global Business Leader – Desalination: GHD BSc. Civil Engineering, C Eng., MICE, CP Eng., FIE Aust., PMP Auditorium, Engineers Australia 712 Murray Street, West Perth, WA Monday, 14 March 2011 Desalination Sustainably Drought Proofing Australia
    2. 2. It’s not about water. It’s about energy!
    3. 3. “ Energy is eternal delight!” Energy is liberation. William Blake, author, poet, visionary, 1757 – 1827
    4. 4. Energy Use Across the Water Cycle (1kWh/m 3 = 3.79 kWh/kgal - 4 kWh/m 3 = 15.14 kWh/kgal) California State Water Project = 2.5 kWh/m 3 = 9.50 kWh/kgal Gold Coast Desalination Plant = 3.23 kWh/m 3 = 12.24 kWh/kgal SOURCE TRANSPORT WTP DISTRIBUTION WWTP COLLECTION USE DISPOSAL/ RECYCLE
    5. 5. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Reverse Osmosis Basics Plus </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Six </li></ul><ul><li>The Sustainability of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) </li></ul><ul><li>Future RO Developments </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    6. 6. Desalination – Where Are We Today? 14,754 Desalination Plants Worldwide – 16,700 MGD Source : IDA Desalination Yearbook 2009-2010
    7. 7. Source: WDR, July 2010 Projected New Desalination Capacity in 2010 6.8 GL/day Actual New Capacity in 2009 3.9 GL/day
    8. 8. Water Resource Cost Trends: US $/m 3 <ul><li>Water from the oceans is still perceived as a ‘technology’ solution, but desalination should be recognised as a ‘policy’ solution </li></ul>Cost ($/m 3 ) Year THE TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE The TRUE Value of Water Obtained with Minimal Environmental Impact The Environmental “ Forgotten” Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Water Cost 0.90 $/m 3 Global Water Intelligence - October 2006
    9. 9. Membrane Separation - Filtration Spectrum Courtesy of Osmonics
    10. 10. Reverse Osmosis Water Molecules Protozoa Bacteria Virus Organics Inorganics An RO Membrane is like a Microscopic Strainer that allows Water Molecules to pass through
    11. 11. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO)
    12. 12. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) 0.77 bar per 1000 mg/L
    13. 13. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) <ul><li>Theoretical minimum SEC for seawater @ 35000 mg/L TDS is 0.75 kWhr/kL. </li></ul><ul><li>(0.77 bar/1000 mg/L) x (35000 mg/L) = 27 bar = 2700 kPa (2700 kN/m2) required to overcome seawater osmotic pressure for water at 35000 mg/L. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore energy to desalinate 1 kL or 1 m3 of seawater @ 35000 mg/L = 2700 kN/m2 x 1 m3 = 2700 kN-m = 2700 kJ = 2700 x 2.778 x 10-4 kWh = 0.75 kWh (1 kN-m = I kJ = 1 kW second = 0. 0002778 = 2.778 x 10-4 kWhr) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore 2700 kilojoules = 0.75 kWh for 1kL results in an SEC of 0.75 kWh/kL . </li></ul>
    14. 14. 0.2 µm 40 µm 120 µm Polyamide Polysulfone Ultra thin Barrier Layer Microporous Polysulfone Substrate Reinforcing Polyester Fabric Cross-Section TFC
    15. 15. Membrane arrangement Membrane element Feed spacer Permeate spacer Membrane leaf
    16. 16. Reverse Osmosis Spiral Wound Membrane
    17. 17. The Desalination Process
    18. 18. <ul><li>Australia’s six big desalination plants </li></ul>The Big 6
    19. 19. <ul><li>Gold Coast Desal Plant (operating)_ </li></ul><ul><li>133 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>25 km distribution pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney Desal Plant (operating) </li></ul><ul><li>250 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>25 km distribution pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian Desal Plant (under const.) </li></ul><ul><li>450 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>~84 km distribution pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Perth 1 Desal Plant (operating) </li></ul><ul><li>144 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>~11 km distribution pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Perth 2 Desal Plant (under const) </li></ul><ul><li>150 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>~26 + 80 km distribution pipeline </li></ul>1143 mm 533 mm 787 mm *Average annual rainfall <ul><li>Adelaide Desal Plant (under const.) </li></ul><ul><li>300 MLD capacity </li></ul><ul><li>~11 km distribution pipeline </li></ul>508 mm Australia Rainfall and Seawater Desalination Courtesy – Bob Yamanda - SDCWA
    20. 20. The Big Six – No. 1 Perth Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth I) - 38 mgd (144 MLD) <ul><li>Client: Water Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 38 mgd (144 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Capital Cost: $266 million </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting System (IWSS): $51 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Capital Cost: $317 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Operating Cost: $16 million/year </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Cost: $1,172/AF (AU$1.00/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioning Completion: 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>GHD Involvement: Production of Basis of Design and Basis of Construction Documents, 3 rd Party Review of Designs from both Competing Consortia, Durability Reviews During Design and Construction Phase, Integration Network Concept and Detailed Design including the largest Pumping Station in the Perth Integrated System, the Nicholson Road Pumping Station (10 MW). Seaglider Oceanographic Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration: Open Intake, Diffuser Outfall, Travelling Band Screens, Dual Media Pressure Filtration, 5 Micron Cartridge Filtration, 2 Pass SWRO System, Lime and CO 2 Re-mineralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Feed Quality: 35000 – 38000 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality: < 200 mg/L </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy Consumption (SEC): < 13.58 (13.18) kWh/kgal - 3.59 (3.48) kWh/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Contractor: Degremont (France/Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Method Competitive Alliance - DBO </li></ul><ul><li>Awards: GWI Membrane Desalination Plant of Year 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>ERI Awarded GWI Environmental Contribution of the Year 2006 </li></ul>
    21. 21. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant <ul><li>Located in Kwinana </li></ul><ul><li>144 MLD Capacity: 50 GL/Y </li></ul><ul><li>24 MW Power Required </li></ul><ul><li>140 mg/L Product Water </li></ul><ul><li>Commenced operation in Nov. ‘06 </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Power is used as offset </li></ul>Courtesy of Water Corporation 6.5 ha
    22. 22. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant 6.5 ha 3 ha
    23. 23. Integrated Water Supply Scheme GROUNDWATER SOURCE SURFACE WATER SOURCE AREA SERVED TRUNK MAINS PERTH Goldfields & Agricultural WS Mandurah Stirling Sth Dandalup Serpentine Nth Dandalup Mundaring Victoria Canning Wungong Pinjar Wanneroo Lexia Mirrabooka Neerabup Sth Whitfords Gwelup Jandakot <ul><li>Ground water north of Swan River </li></ul><ul><li>Dams south of Swan River </li></ul><ul><li>Transport over 115 miles between top & bottom </li></ul>Harvey Dam and Wokalup Pipehead Dam 2002 Yarragadee Bores Samson Pipehead Dam 2001 Yarragadee Expansion Harris Pumpback PSDP Nicholson Rd Pumpstn
    24. 24. Seawater Intake Pre-treatment SWRO & BWRO Remineralisation/Storage Potable water pump station Residuals Treatment Brine discharge HV substation Admin/Lab Chemical Storage Aerial View of Desalination Plant Raw Seawater screen and pump station Brine discharge Courtesy of Water Corporation
    25. 25. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Seawater Intake System – Inlet Structure Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    26. 26. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Courtesy of the Water Corporation Seawater Intake System – Inlet Structure
    27. 27. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Courtesy of the Water Corporation Courtesy of the Water Corporation Seawater Intake System – Pipes and Works
    28. 28. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Onshore Active Screening – Band Screen Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    29. 29. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Seawater Intake and Outlet Works Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    30. 30. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Single Stage Dual Media Pressure Filtration and Cartridge Filters
    31. 31. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Each Pump Equivalent to 15 Toyota Lexus GX Wagon 8st 4dr Man 6sp 4x4 4.0i 0.179 MW @ 5200rpm each.* *Red Book (Australia) specifications High Pressure Pumps 2.6 MW Each (6 in total) Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    32. 32. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant PRETREATED WATER PRODUCTION HP Pump Energy Recovery System (12 x 16 in Parallel) REJECT (Common By-pass) 2 nd Stage 1 st Stage 1 ST PASS FEEDING (recycling) First Pass Second Pass MDJV in Alliance with Water Corporation Reverse Osmosis Process Flow – Operating Principals & Arrangement
    33. 33. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Circulation Pumps 134 kW each (12 in total) Courtesy of the Water Corporation Each Pump Equivalent to 1 Toyota RAV 4 5st 4dr Man 4x4 2.0i 0.132 MW @ 5200rpm each.* *Red Book (Australia) specifications
    34. 34. Perth Seawater Desalination Project (PSDP) First Pass Reverse Osmosis Racks
    35. 35. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant RO Building Looking South – 2 nd Pass RO Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    36. 36. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Each Rack Equivalent to 8 Ford Escape Wagon 4dr Auto 4sp 4x4 3.0i 0.152 MW @ 4750rpm each.* *Red Book (Australia) specifications Pressure Exchanger Rack 1.2 MW each (12 in total) Courtesy of Water Corporation
    37. 37. Perth Seawater Desalination Project PX Process
    38. 38. Perth Seawater Desalination Project Beyond Tomorrow
    39. 39. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Potabilization System and Drinking Water Storage Tank Courtesy of Water Corporation
    40. 40. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Drinking Water Transfer Pump Station Courtesy of Water Corporation
    41. 41. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Concentrate Discharge Courtesy of Water Corporation
    42. 42. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Concentrate Discharge Courtesy of Water Corporation
    43. 43. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant
    44. 44. Perth Seawater Desalination Project Long Term Monitoring Macrobenthic To monitor the response of the sediment fauna over several years Benthic macrofauna pilot survey – complete Benthic macrofauna comprehensive baseline survey – commenced March 2006 Annual monitoring (for three years initially)
    45. 45. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant 50 m limit for mixing zone 30 m mixing zone – achieve 42 x dilution Outfall pipeline Brine Discharge System 20 diffuser ports at 5 m spacing 3 Ha
    46. 46. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Initial mixing zone = 100 metres 45x dilution farfield diffuser Courtesy of Water Corporation Seawater Concentrate - Salinity water surface
    47. 47. Perth Seawater Desalination Project Baseline DO
    48. 48. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Real Time Monitoring Courtesy of Water Corporation
    49. 49. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant These tests proved the Mathematical / Computer Model analyses. Note the marine growth on the diffuser ports. Rhodamine Dye Test Courtesy of Water Corporation
    50. 50. Under the Surface Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    51. 51. Sustainable Power - Wind Energy for PSDP Greenhouse Gas Emissions (tonnes per annum) Stanwell/Griffin Joint Venture - Emu Downs wind generation facility – 100 Miles North of Perth Water Corporation is purchasing 68 percent of the energy output 0 85,000 231,000 24 MW (21.1 MW average - 185 GW hrs/annum) Renewable or Sequestration Gas Grid Option Energy
    52. 52. Courtesy of the Water Corporation Zero Greenhouse Gas Emissions Stanwell/Griffin Joint Venture - Emu Downs wind generation facility – at Badgingarra 200 north of Perth Water Corporation is purchasing 66 percent of the energy output 24 MW (185 GW hrs/annum) Opened on 12 November 2006 Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Sustainable Power - Wind Energy
    53. 53. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Sustainable Power - Wind Energy <ul><li>Capacity = 80 MW </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Turbines = 48 </li></ul><ul><li>Hub Height = 68 m </li></ul><ul><li>Blade Length = 41 m </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Farm Area = 45 km 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Farm (66%) = 31 km 2 </li></ul>
    54. 54. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Courtesy of the Water Corporation
    55. 55. The Big Six – No. 1 Perth Seawater Desalination Plant – Demonstration Plant
    56. 56. Perth Seawater Desalination Project Plant Load Requirements Single Source 132 kV supply from Western Power 417 V Yes     Minor Drives Only Post Treatment Switchboard 416 V Yes 560 4 Drinking Water Pumps Drinking Water Switchboard 415 V Yes 110 12 RO Pass 1 HP Booster Pumps RO Auxiliary Switch Board 690 V Yes 630 6 RO Pass 2 HP pumps RO Pass 2 Switchboard 11 kV No 2,500 6 RO Pass 1 HP pumps Main Switchboard 690 V Yes 560 6 Seawater Intake Pumps Seawater Intake Switchboard     (kW)       Voltage Selected Variable Speed Requirement Drive Size Number Drives Serviced Application
    57. 57. Perth Seawater Desalination Project Specific Energy Consumption of Components and Total *approx 7 miles of conveyance to Perth Integrated Water Supply System (IWSS) 3.60 3.48 0.21* 0.19 516,487 7,988* 501,271 7,228 144 kWh/kL kWh/kL kWh/kL kWh/kL kWh kWh kWh kWh ML Total Plant Desal Plant Only Potable Water Pumping Intake Pumping Excluding Pre-Treatment Total Plant Potable Pumping Desal Plant Plus Pre-Treatment Only Intake Pumping Total Potable Water Production Perth Seawater Desalination Plant - Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) for Components of Plant
    58. 58. <ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalination Plant $290 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting System (IWSS) $ 58 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total $348 million </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating and Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desalination and transfer pumps+ membranes $ 17 million/year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unit Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Unit Cost $ 1.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fence Unit Cost $ 1.16 </li></ul></ul>Perth Seawater Desalination Project Costs (2007)
    59. 59. Perth, Australia: Two-year Feed Back on Operation and Environmental Impact (Steve Christie – Water Corporation, Véronique Bonnélye - Degremont) <ul><li>Unprecedented marine monitoring programme included: </li></ul><ul><li>computer modelling for diffuser design and validation </li></ul><ul><li>rhodamine dye tracer tests </li></ul><ul><li>extensive far field dissolved oxygen tests </li></ul><ul><li>a water quality monitoring programme </li></ul><ul><li>diffuser performance monitoring programme </li></ul><ul><li>WET testing </li></ul><ul><li>Macrobenthic surveys. </li></ul><ul><li>All studies have proven that the PSDP is having negligible impact on </li></ul><ul><li>the surrounding environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on seawater habitat are limited by a validated diffuser design </li></ul><ul><li>and treatment of suspended solids. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 35 mgd (133 MLD) <ul><li>Client: Water Secure - Queensland </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 36 mgd (133 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Capital Cost: $745 million (tunnels $213 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting System (IWSS): $198 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Capital Cost: $943 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Operating Cost: $32 million/year </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Cost: $2,932/AF ($2.03/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioning Completion: 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>GHD Involvement: Owners Engineer Construction and Design Review, Durability, 3 rd Party Review, overall alliance project management from owners viewpoint, water quality (raw and product), instrumentation and commissioning, M&E Review, SCADA Review </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration: Open Intake, Diffuser Outfall, Drum Screens, Dual Media Gravity Filtration, 5 Micron Cartridge Filtration, 2 Pass SWRO System, Lime and CO 2 Re-mineralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Feed Quality: 35000 – 38000 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality: < 200 mg/L </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy Consumption (SEC): < 12.38 kWh/kgal (3.30 kWh/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Contractor: Veolia (France) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Method Alliance - DBO </li></ul><ul><li>Awards: GWI Membrane Desalination Plant of Year 2008 </li></ul>The Big Six – No. 2
    61. 61. Gold Coast Desalination Plant <ul><li>Located in Tugin </li></ul><ul><li>36 mgd Capacity: 38,427 AF/Y </li></ul><ul><li>22 MW Power Required </li></ul><ul><li>140 mg/L Product Water </li></ul><ul><li>Commenced operation in Nov. ‘08 </li></ul><ul><li>Green Energy as offset </li></ul>
    62. 62. REVERSE OSMOSIS RESIDUALS REMINERALISATION OUTFALL PRETEATMENT INTAKE
    63. 63. Seawater Intake & screen Pre-treatment SWRO & BWRO Remineralisation/Storage Potable water pump station Residuals Treatment Brine discharge shaft HV substation Admin/Lab Chemical Storage Aerial View of Desalination Plant
    64. 64. Twin 2.5 OD intake/outfall tunnels 2.2 km & 2.0 km sized for 340 MLD 125 MLD Plant ave. 94% availability 133 MLD peak daily production 26 km 1.1 m distribution main 30 ML reservoir & pump station
    65. 65. Marine Tunnels
    66. 66. Marine Tunnels <ul><li>10 m diameter & 70 m deep vertical shaft </li></ul>
    67. 67. Marine Tunnels <ul><li>Specially built TBMs (75 m /week) </li></ul>
    68. 68. Marine Tunnels <ul><li>outlet </li></ul><ul><li>inlet </li></ul><ul><li>SEP supported by tug drawn </li></ul><ul><li>barge- install inlet/outlet risers </li></ul>
    69. 69. <ul><li>Intake riser 4 m from seabed 18 m water depth </li></ul><ul><li>Coarse screen 150 mm – vertical bars. Horizontal flow, low velocity to prevent entrainment <0.15 m/s </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater flows (340 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>3mm fine screening – drum screens </li></ul><ul><li>Shock dosing of Hypochlorite </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of seawater quality EPA & process </li></ul>Seawater Intake Contra-shear Drum Screen
    70. 71. 2.11 m 6.32 m Seawater Intake - Coarse Screen
    71. 72. <ul><li>6 Months piloting of pretreatment </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical addition, two static mixers </li></ul><ul><li>Four flocculation tanks </li></ul><ul><li>18 dual media gravity filters </li></ul><ul><li>24 h filter run time </li></ul>Pretreatment
    72. 73. Pretreatment
    73. 74. <ul><li>Filter backwash (5 mgd), neutralised CIP wastewater, lime sludge treated in Residuals Section </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater is coagulated with ferric sulphate/polymer and clarified in lamella separator </li></ul><ul><li>Sludge (15% solids) dewatered by centrifuge and sent to isolated cell in landfill (max. 50 cubic metre) </li></ul>Residuals
    74. 75. <ul><li>Filtered seawater split into 2 streams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% to RO % 55% to ERD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RO booster pumps provide suction pressure for HP pumps & ERD booster pumps to feed ERD </li></ul><ul><li>Cartridge filters – 5 µm </li></ul>Desalination Plant Feed
    75. 76. <ul><li>Four HP Torishima VSD pumps (5 MW feed) 9 SWRO trains through common HP manifold </li></ul><ul><li>9 trains at 100% capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Each SWRO train has Calder DWEER ERD </li></ul><ul><li>45% recovery </li></ul>First Pass SWRO
    76. 77. 4 x High Pressure Pumps 4.8 MW Each (Each equivalent to 28 Toyota Lexus GX Wagon 8st 4dr Man 6sp 4x4 4.0i 0.179 MW @ 5200rpm each - Red Book Specifications) Desalination Plant Feed – 1 st Pass
    77. 78. Seawater Reverse Osmosis - ERD PRETREATED WATER <ul><ul><li>Operating Principles & Arrangement </li></ul></ul>PRODUCTION 3+1 HP Pumps Energy Recovery System (1 per rack) REJECT (Common By-pass) 2 nd Stage 1 st Stage 1 ST PASS FEEDING (recycling) First Pass Second Pass (Partial Split)
    78. 79. Energy Recovery Device - 1 st Pass Pressure Exchanger Rack 1.6 MW Each (9 racks in total) (Equivalent to 11 Mazda Tribute Wagon 4dr Auto 4sp 4x4 3.0i 0.152 MW @ 4750rpm each - Red Book Specifications) Re-circulation Pumps 180 kW Each Equivalent to 11 Toyota Lexus GX Wagon 8st 4dr Man 6sp 4x4 4.0i 0.179 MW @ 5200rpm each - Red Book Specifications)
    79. 80. RO Building Pressure Vessel Racks - 1 st Pass
    80. 81. <ul><li>Rear permeate from SWRO </li></ul><ul><li>3 trains at 100% capacity </li></ul><ul><li>85% recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Brine re-circulated back to filtered seawater tank </li></ul><ul><li>Total desalination energy consumption <3.4 kWh/m 3 </li></ul>Second Pass SWRO
    81. 82. <ul><li>Carbon dioxide and lime water addition </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorination </li></ul><ul><li>Two 4 mg glass fused bolted steel tanks (5 h storage) to provide disinfection contact time and for control </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality monitoring TDS< 220 mg/L etc </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately Fluoridation. </li></ul>Remineralisation and Storage
    82. 83. <ul><li>Brine (185 MLD) from first pass RO mixed with supernatant from residuals, sent back to sea </li></ul><ul><li>Brine diluted and dispersed through 20 diffusers 60° to the horizon staggered on 306 yd long diffuser manifold </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive modeling to ensure optimum mixing to background levels in near field </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing zone 120 m x 400 m </li></ul>Brine Discharge
    83. 84. Diffuser 6.0 yd 6.5 yd 1200mm PE
    84. 85. Network Connection <ul><li>4 potable water transfer pumps </li></ul><ul><li>26 km of 1.1 m pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>30 ML reservoir “Robina Mixing Reservoir” Desalinated water mixed with water from Mudgeraba WTP </li></ul><ul><li>Pump Station Tarrant drive </li></ul>
    85. 86. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2
    86. 87. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2
    87. 88. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 35 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2
    88. 89. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 My Office for 2 years
    89. 90. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD)
    90. 91. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 Minimal Drum Screen Screenings (note the “Wheelie Bin”) Drum Screen 1/8 inch (3mm) mesh American Translation “Trash Can”
    91. 92. Courtesy of WaterSecure Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 3 duty 1 standby High Pressure Pumps (4.8 MW each)
    92. 93. Gold Coast Desalination Plant Specific Energy Consumption of Components and Total *approx 26 km of conveyance to system with high static head 3.54 3.05 0.35* 0.15 489,256 47,725* 463,590 20,941 36,137 kWh/kL kWh/kL kWh/kL kWh/kL kWh kWh kWh kWh kgal Total Plant Desal Plant Only Potable Water Pumping Intake Pumping Including Pre-Treatment Total Plant Potable Pumping Desal Plant Plus Pre-Treatment Only Intake Pumping Total Potable Water Production Gold Coast Desalination Plant - Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) for Components of Plant
    93. 94. Gold Coast Desalination Plant - 36 mgd (133 MLD) The Big Six – No. 2 Why So Expensive? Wonthaggi Desalination Plant – Electricians $220,000/year Connecting System (IWSS): $198 million Total Capital Cost: $943 million Total Operating Cost: $32 million/year Unit Cost: $2.38/kL
    94. 95. <ul><li>Client: Sydney Water – New South Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 66 mgd (250 MLD) - expandable to 132 mgd (500 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Capital Cost: $787 million (tunnels $189 million) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting System: $410 million </li></ul><ul><li>Other: $246 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Capital Cost: $1,443 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Operating Cost: $37 million/year </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Cost: $1,950/AF ($1.74/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioning Completion: 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>GHD Involvement: Feasibility Study, Preparation of Environmental Statement and Secured Approvals. Prepared Reference Design and Basis of Design and Construct, Seawater quality sampling program, All Geotechnical Investigations (on & offshore), Pilot Plant Infrastructure Design and Facilitation, Procurement Method Evaluation, Tender Documentation, Tender Evaluation (Owners Engineer), Technical Advisor – Design Review of Contractors Design, Durability, Construction Surveillance & Commissioning Support, Marine & Estuarine Monitoring Program Management, Represented Owner’s Interest During Construction. </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration: Open Intake, Diffuser Outfall, Drum Screens, Dual Media Gravity Filtration, 5 Micron Cartridge Filtration, 2 Pass SWRO System, Lime and CO 2 Re- mineralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Feed Quality: 32000 – 41000 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality: < 140 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy Consumption (SEC): < 14.76 kWh/kgal (3.9 kWh/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Contractor: Veolia (France) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Method DBO </li></ul><ul><li>Awards: A Great Contender for 2011 GWI Award, Multiple Australian Awards </li></ul>Sydney Desalination Plant - 66 mgd (250 MLD) – Expandable to 132 mgd (500 MLD) The Big Six – No. 3
    95. 96. The Big Six – No. 3 Courtesy of Sydney Water Sydney Desalination Plant - 66 mgd (250 MLD) – Expandable to 132 mgd (500 MLD)
    96. 97. <ul><li>Client: South Australia Water </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 40 mgd + 40 mgd (150 MLD + 150 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Capital Cost: $1,255 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting System (IWSS): $246 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Capital Cost: $1,500 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Operating Cost: $67 million/year (80 mgd) </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Cost: $3,033/AF ($2.70/m 3 ) Estimated levelised cost </li></ul><ul><li>First Water: December 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>GHD Involvement: Owners Engineer due diligence review during project development phase, Environmental Impact Statement and Development Approvals, Water Quality Integration Review and Ongoing Support. </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration: Open Intake, Diffuser Outfall, capacity to 72 mgd 2 Pass SWRO System, initial capacity 54 mgd Lime and CO 2 Re-mineralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Feed Quality: 35000 – 38000 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality: < 200 mg/L </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy Consumption (SEC): < 18.9 (17.0) kWh/kgal - 5 (4.5) kWh/ m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Contractor: Acciona (Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Method BOOT </li></ul><ul><li>Awards: Not Completed Yet </li></ul>Adelaide Desalination Plants I and II – 40 + 40 mgd (150 MLD each) The Big Six – No. 4
    97. 98. Adelaide Desalination Plants I and II – 40 + 40 mgd (150 MLD each) The Big Six – No. 4 Courtesy of SA Water
    98. 99. Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth II) - 40 mgd (150 MLD) to 80 mgd (300 MLD) <ul><li>Client: Water Corporation of Western Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 40 mgd (150 MLD) 1 st Stage, 80 mgd (150 MLD) 2 nd Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Capital Cost: $640 million (Estimated with double intake/outfall) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting System (IWSS): $98 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Capital Cost: $738 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Operating Cost: $29 million/year (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Cost: $2,042/AF ($1.81/m 3 ) Estimated </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioning Completion: 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>GHD Involvement: Alliance Team / Plant Engineering/ Bid (note, out of 8 expressions of interest, which were reduced to two by the Water Corporation, the GHD – Acciona - United Utilities Team was one and did not win the Alliance Contract. It should be noted that Acciona using this design went on to win both Adelaide desalination plant projects from which GHD were excluded due to their partial owners role in this project and their Owners Engineer Role on Melbourne, for whom Acciona was also bidding, hence another set of consulting engineers was selected by the contractor). Seaglider Oceanographic Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration: Open Intake, Diffuser Outfall, Travelling Band Screens, UF PVDF Pressure Filters, 5 Micron Cartridge Filtration, 2 Pass SWRO System, Lime and CO 2 Re-mineralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Feed Quality: 35000 – 38000 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality: < 200 mg/L </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy Consumption (SEC): < 16.04 (12.97) kWh/kgal - 4.24 (3.36) kWh/m 3 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Contractor: Tecnicas Reunidas, Valoriza Agua (Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Method Competitive Alliance - DBO </li></ul><ul><li>Awards: Not Completed Yet </li></ul>The Big Six – No. 5
    99. 100. Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth II) 150 MLD (40 mgd) Expandable to 300 MLD (80 mgd) The Big Six – No. 5 Courtesy of Water Corporation
    100. 101. The Big Six – No. 6 The Victorian Desalination Project - 120 mgd (450 MLD) to 160 mgd (600MLD) <ul><li>Client: Victorian Government </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity: 120 mgd (450 MLD) 1 st Stage, 160 mgd 2 nd Stage (600 MLD) </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Capital Cost: $1,840 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting System (50 Mile Pipeline): $820 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Underground power connection $246 million (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Total Capital Cost: $2,870 million </li></ul><ul><li>Total Operating Cost: $98 million/year (Estimated) </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Cost: $2,550/AF ($2.27/m 3 ) Estimated </li></ul><ul><li>Commissioning Completion: 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>GHD Involvement: Feasibility Study, Environment Effects Statement and Approvals, Reference Design, Seawater quality sampling program, all geotechnical investigations (on & offshore), Pilot Plant facilities and support, Marine growth experiment, Management of Landowner Engagement, GIS & Mapping, Data Management, Tender Preparation and Evaluation, Design Review, Strategic Direction and Ongoing Support to Completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Configuration: 4 m Dia. Undersea Inlet and Outlet Tunnels, Drum Screens, Dual Media Pressure Filtration, Cartridge Filtration, 2 Pass SWRO System, Lime and CO 2 Re-mineralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Feed Quality: 35 000 – 38 000 mg/L TDS </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality: < 120 mg/L </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Energy Consumption (SEC): < 18.17 (15.90) kWh/kgal - 4.8 (4.2) kWh/ m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Contractor: Degremont (France/Spain) </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Method PPP - BOO </li></ul><ul><li>Awards: Not Completed Yet </li></ul>
    101. 102. The Victorian Desalination Project - 120 mgd (450 MLD) then 160 mgd (600 MLD) The Big Six – No. 6 Courtesy of Victorian Government
    102. 104. Future Desalination Developments <ul><li>SWRO will still become more efficient due to: </li></ul><ul><li>New high rejection membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine Tolerant Membranes </li></ul><ul><li>New large diameter membranes </li></ul><ul><li>New energy recovery devices </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane pre-treatment advances </li></ul><ul><li>New materials (more plastics and composites) </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced pre-treatment and post treatment </li></ul>
    103. 105. Future Desalination Developments <ul><li>Non-chemical treatments for disinfection pre- and post treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Changing of WHO Boron Guidelines to 2.4 mg/L from 0.5 mg/L (hence only one pass required with a potential savings of 15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal Control Systems and Configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Nano-technology and smart membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Forward Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>High efficiency reverse osmosis (HERO) and Electro Dialysis Reversal (EDR) may become the solution for inland towns where groundwater sources are limited </li></ul>
    104. 106. Desalination – Key Trends? <ul><li>SWRO Desalination Technologies Dominate; </li></ul><ul><li>Large - (over 50 MLD) and Mega - (over 360 MLD) Desalination Plants Are the Wave of the Future! </li></ul><ul><li>Most Large Urban Coastal Centers Worldwide Have Established a Target to Produce 25 % of their Drinking Water from Desalination. </li></ul><ul><li>R&D Activities are in 10-Year High – Expected to Yield Breakthroughs in Membrane and Desalination Technologies by 2012. </li></ul><ul><li>Large SWRO Projects Are Aiming at Sustainability – Green is In! </li></ul>
    105. 107. Year 2005-2010 The Five Lowest-Cost SWRO Projects Worldwide SWRO Plant Cost of Water (US$/kL) Power Use of RO System (kWh/kL) & TDS (ppt) Sorek, Israel – 409 MLD (startup – 2014) 0.53 2.59 (40 ppt) Mactaa, Algeria – 719 MLD (startup – 2013) 0.56 2.56 (39 ppt) Tuas, Singapore – 136 MLD (startup – 2007) 0.57 3.04 (34 ppt) Tenes, Algeria – 200 MLD (startup – 2011) 0.59 2.85 (38 ppt) Hadera, Israel – 329 MLD (startup – 2010) 0.60 2.67 (40 ppt)
    106. 108. Key Factors Affecting Costs <ul><li>Source Water Quality - TDS, Temperature, Solids, Silt and Organics Content. </li></ul><ul><li>Product Water Quality – TDS, Boron, Bromides, Disinfection Compatibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate Disposal Method; </li></ul><ul><li>Power Supply & Unit Power Costs; </li></ul><ul><li>Project Risk Profile ; </li></ul><ul><li>Project Delivery Method & Financing; </li></ul><ul><li>Other Factors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Country (Australia is very expensive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location (Remote is more expensive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intake and Discharge System Type; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pretreatment & RO System Design; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Capacity Availability Target. </li></ul></ul>
    107. 109. Reducing Power Use for SWRO Separation - Still a Hair Rising Challenge? Lowest Theoretical Energy Use = 0.75 kWh/kL (100 % Recovery) Lowest Theoretical Energy Use @ 50 % Recovery = 1.09kWh/kL ADC - Lowest Energy Use @ 42 % Recovery & 10.2 LMH = 1.59 kWh/kL ADC – “Most Affordable Point” 48 % Recovery & 15.3 LMH = 2.01 kWh/kL Low Bracket of Energy Use for Large SWRO Projects (45-50 % Recovery & 14.3 to 16.3 LMH ) = 2.51 to 2.74 kWh/kL Note: All Energy Use Values for Seawater @ TDS = 35 ppt & 25ºC
    108. 110. SWRO Power Consumption (July 1, 2001)
    109. 111. 50 MGD SWRO Plant – Key Energy Uses Intake – 5 % (0.19 kWh/kL) Product Water Delivery 6 % RO System – 71 % Pretreatment – 11 % (0.40 kWh/kL) (2.54 kWh/kL) (0.20 kWh/kL) Other Facilities 7 % (0.24 kWh/kL) Total Energy Use 3.57 kWh/kgal
    110. 112. Optimizing RO System Performance <ul><li>Higher Productivity 8-inch RO Elements; </li></ul><ul><li>Large –Diameter RO Membranes; </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative RO System Configurations; </li></ul><ul><li>Pump-Center or Three -Center Designs; </li></ul><ul><li>Larger Energy Recovery Devices. </li></ul>
    111. 113. 2008-11 Evolving SWRO Membrane Performance <ul><li>Larger Membrane Element Area: 37.2 vs. 41.9 m 2 (440 ft 2 vs. 400 ft 2 ); </li></ul><ul><li>Larger RO Element Productivity: 34 to 47 m 3 /day (9,000 to 12,500 gpd); </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Salt Rejection: 99.7 to 99.8 %; </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Boron Rejection: 90 to 93 %; </li></ul><ul><li>Wider Membrane Spacers: 28 mil vs. 34 mil (mil thou – one thousandth of and inch) </li></ul>
    112. 114. 2.6 MGD Power Seraja SWRO Plant, Singapore – 16-inch Elements
    113. 115. Large RO Elements – Key Manufacturers/Models Source: IDA Journal, Vol. 2, 2010
    114. 116. Optimizing Performance by Redistributing Flux/Energy <ul><li>Flux of First Element Can Be Reduced by: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in Permeate Pressure: </li></ul><ul><li>Permeate Pressure Control Valve; </li></ul><ul><li>Permeate Interconnector Disk (Acciona). </li></ul><ul><li>2. “Inter-stage” Design: </li></ul><ul><li>Low Permeability/High </li></ul><ul><li>Permeability Membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Combo. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Decrease in Feed Pressure: </li></ul><ul><li>Two Pass RO System </li></ul><ul><li>w/ Interstage Booster Pump; </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nano-Nano” Configuration. </li></ul>Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Flux is Proportional to the Difference of the Feed and Permeate Pressures
    115. 117. Second (Brackish RO) Pass Concentrate – Second Pass Permeate Conventional RO System Configuration (Perth Seawater Desalination Plant – Perth I) HP Pump Booster Pump Concentrate – First Pass to ERD First (SWRO) Pass Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Feed Seawater
    116. 118. First (SWRO) Pass Smaller Second (Brackish RO) Pass Permeate Smaller Booster Pump Split “Regulated” First Pass RO System Configuration (Gold Coast Desalination Plant) 20% to 40% of Total Permeate Concentrate – Second Pass HP Pump Concentrate – First Pass to ERD Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Feed Seawater
    117. 119. First (SWRO) Pass Smaller Second (Brackish RO) Pass Permeate Smaller Booster Pump Split “Regulated” First Pass RO System Configuration (Adelaide Desalination Plant) 20% to 40% of Total Permeate Concentrate – Second Pass HP Pump Plug Concentrate – First Pass to ERD Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Feed Seawater
    118. 120. I nternally S taged D esign (1-1-5) <ul><li>Element Flow at Standard Test Conditions </li></ul>Compared to Standard SWRO Design, ISD SWRO Offers: - Higher average permeate flux with same lead element flux; - Good permeate quality; - Energy Savings - 5% - 10%. Courtesy: Dow Filmtec Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Low Productivity/ High Salt Rejection High Productivity/ Low Salt Rejection 7,500 gpd 9,000 gpd 12,500 gpd
    119. 121. Second (Brackish RO) Pass Concentrate – Second Pass Permeate HP Pump Lower Feed Pressure Booster Pump Concentrate to ERD Low Productivity/ High Rejection High Productivity/ Low Rejection Internally-Staged Design (ISD) Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Feed Seawater
    120. 122. First SWRO Pass Smallest Second (Brackish RO) Pass Permeate Smallest Booster Pump ISD + Split “Regulated” RO System Configuration Southern Seawater Desalination Plant (Perth II) 20% to 40% of Total Permeate Concentrate to ERD Concentrate – Second Pass HP Pump Lowest Feed Pressure Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov Feed Seawater
    121. 123. 3-Center Design – Pump, Energy Recovery & RO Membrane Centers Courtesy: IDE Highly Efficient Energy Use 2.5 to 2.6 kWh/kgal Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov
    122. 124. Bigger Pumps Rule! Pump Efficiency Increases with Size <ul><li>Pump Efficiency ~ </li></ul><ul><li>n x (Q/H) 0.5 x (1/H) 0.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul><ul><li>n = pump speed (min - ¹); </li></ul><ul><li>Q = nominal pump capacity (m³/s); </li></ul><ul><li>H = pump head (m). </li></ul><ul><li>Pump Efficiency : </li></ul><ul><li>One Pump Per Train – 83 %; </li></ul><ul><li>One Pump Per 2 Trains – 85 %; </li></ul><ul><li>Three Pumps Per 16 Trains – 88 %. </li></ul>Perth, Australia – 6 Pumps for 12 RO Trains Ashkelon, Israel – (3+1) 7,100-hp Pumps per 16 RO Trains Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov
    123. 125. Radially Split Case Pumps <ul><li>Occupy Less Space; </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to Maintain; </li></ul><ul><li>Less Vibrations; </li></ul><ul><li>Only One Mechanical Seal </li></ul><ul><li>on the Drive End (Horizontally Split Case Pumps Have2 seals); </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Fiber-Composite Bearings (Water Lubricated) – vs. External Grease Lubricated; </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Pumps First Installed for Expansion of Dhekelia SWRO Plant (Cyprus) to 14 MGD; </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Capacity – 7 MGD (2,800 hp) – </li></ul><ul><li>87 % Efficiency. </li></ul>Courtesy - Nikolay Voutchkov
    124. 126. Energy Recovery Systems are Getting Bigger & More Efficient!
    125. 127. Pressure Exchangers Allow the Use of Larger Pumps/RO Trains Pelton Wheel Pressure Exchanger Provides 40 - 42 % of the Energy Provides 2 % of the Energy Provides 44-46 % of the Energy
    126. 128. ERI System – Current Status <ul><li>Largest In Operation - Hamma (Algeria) – 50 MGD </li></ul><ul><li>Largest in Construction – Hadera (Israel) – 73 MGD; </li></ul><ul><li>Base Unit – PX 220; </li></ul><ul><li>(0.37 MGD) in ops since 2002; </li></ul><ul><li>10 to 16 Units per RO Train </li></ul><ul><li>(2.5 – 4 MGD RO Train). </li></ul>
    127. 129. ERI – New Energy Recovery Equipment <ul><li>PX 260 </li></ul><ul><li>- 18 % Larger Capacity than PX220; </li></ul><ul><li>- Wider Flow Paths to Higher Throughput @ Minimum Pressure Losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Titan 1200 </li></ul><ul><li>- 500% Larger Capacity than PX220; </li></ul><ul><li>- Similar Overall Energy Recovery (Slightly Lower Efficiency Compensated by Lower Mixing); </li></ul><ul><li>- Side-ported Design Allows to Maximize Flow Production. </li></ul><ul><li>PX 300 (45 to 68 m3/hr) </li></ul><ul><li>- 36 % Larger Capacity than PX220 </li></ul><ul><li>- Reduced Cycle Speed - Less Mixing </li></ul><ul><li>than PX 220 and 260 </li></ul><ul><li>- Quieter Unit </li></ul><ul><li>- Site-ported Housing </li></ul>
    128. 130. DWEER System – Current Status <ul><li>Used in Ashkelon, Gold Coast, Sorek, and Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>1.34 MGD SWRO Train – One DWEER System – Model 1100; </li></ul><ul><li>Ashkelon – 2 x 40 DWEER 2200 Systems; </li></ul><ul><li>RO w/ DWEER – 0.5 to 0.7 kWh/M3 Less Energy than Pelton Wheel @ </li></ul><ul><li>(45 % Recovery). </li></ul>Tuas, Singapore Triple DWEER 1100 4 MGD SWRO Trains
    129. 131. Calder AG (Flowserve) – ROVA 300 <ul><li>Can Handle 6.8 MLD of Brine Flow (Three Times Bigger than Existing Units); </li></ul><ul><li>Duplex Stainless Steel; </li></ul><ul><li>New Seal Design Reduces Brine Mixing < 1.5 %. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently Tested in Oman and Cayman Islands. </li></ul>
    130. 132. Calder AG (Flowserve) – DWEER GA <ul><li>25 % Higher Capacity Than DWEER 1100; </li></ul><ul><li>FRP Instead of Steel Vessels; </li></ul><ul><li>New LinX Valve With Two Seal Rings for Lowest Leakage; </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Power Consumption Losses Reduced by 26 %. </li></ul>
    131. 133. Hydraulic Turbocharger – Large Installations (8.9 to 10.0 kWh/kgal) <ul><li>720 MLD Mactaa, Algeria – 2.6 kWh/kL </li></ul><ul><li>114 MLD Plant in Jebel Ali, UAE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 RO Trains; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 Single-stage HP RO Pumps; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 525 psi (40 bar) of Boost; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HP RO Pumps Operating @ Full Flow @ ½ Pressure – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-7 % Extra Efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>150 MLD NEWater Ulu Pandan Plant, Singapore </li></ul>Pump Efficiency ~ n x (Q/H) 0.5 x (1/H) 0.25
    132. 134. CALDER – DWEER PRESSURE EXCHANGER CALDER - PELTON WHEEL IMPULSE TURBINE KSB – SALTEC PRESSURE EXCHANGER ERI - PX PRESSURE EXCHANGER PEI – TURBO BOOSTER AXIAL PISTON PRESSURE EXCHANGER PUMP Energy Recovery Devices The Sustainability of SWRO
    133. 135. IDE – IRIS PRESSURE EXCHANGER ROVEX PRESSURE EXCHANGER DYPREX PRESSURE EXCHANGER ERI – TITAN PX PRESSURE EXCHANGER FEDCO HYDRAULIC PRESSURE BOOSTER Energy Recovery Devices The Sustainability of SWRO
    134. 136. AQUALING – ORIGINAL RECUPERATOR PRESSURE EXCHANGER AQUALING – NEW RECUPERATOR PRESSURE EXCHANGER Energy Recovery Devices The Sustainability of SWRO
    135. 137. Biofouling – Still the Key “Energy Chellenge” of SWRO Desalination
    136. 138. Membrane Pretreatment is Becoming More Popular for Large Plants! <ul><li>300 MLD Adelaide SWRO Plant, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>– Disk Filters + Submersible UF; </li></ul><ul><li>– Largest SWRO Facility with Submerged Membrane Pretreatment. </li></ul><ul><li>150+150 MLD Southern Seawater Desalination Plant, Australia </li></ul><ul><li>– Disk Filters + Pressure UF; </li></ul><ul><li>– Largest SWRO Facility with Pressure Membrane Pretreatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Where Membrane Pretreatment Has Worked Well? – for Source Waters of Low Bio-fouling Potential: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsurface or Deep Open Ocean Intakes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants w/ DAF or Other Pretreatment Ahead of UF/MF Membranes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where Membrane Pretreatment Has Faced Challenges? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow Open Intakes Exposed to Heavy Algal Blooms; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Designed for Overly High Flux Rates Based on Short-term Piloting. </li></ul></ul>
    137. 139. New “Tools” for Combating Biofouling <ul><li>Wider Membrane Element Spacers; </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Fouling Membrane Materials; </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Means of Controlling Biofouling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Deeper Open Intakes (over 40 ft deep); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DAF Pretreatment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Granular Media Bio-filtration; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine Dioxide Oxidation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous Membrane Cleaning; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Balancing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membrane Bioreactors for SWRO Pretreatment. </li></ul></ul>
    138. 140. “ The Best” of Seawater Desalination Present Status & Future Forecasts Parameter Today Within 5 Years Within 20 Years Cost of Water (2010 US$/kgal) US$2.0-3.0 US$1.5-2.5 US$1.0-1.5 Construction Cost (Million US$/kL/day) 1200-2150 1060-1720 530-930 Power Use of SWRO System (kWh/kL) 2.5-2.8 2.1-2.6 1.3-1.7 Membrane Productivity (gallons/day/membrane) 24-47 34-57 95-151 Membrane Useful Life (years) 5-7 7-10 10-15 Plant Recovery Ratio (%) 45-50 50-55 55-65
    139. 141. Selected Tariffs City Combined Tariff Average Domestic use (L/head/day) Adelaide $3.60/m 3 605 Brisbane $4.85/m 3 605 Chicago $0.99/m 3 616 Copenhagen $8.00/m 3 114 Los Angeles $2.49/m 3 606 Melbourne $4.36/m 3 606 San Diego $4.93/m 3 616 Sydney $5.03/m 3 606 Costs in US$ per cubic metre of water = Water + Wastewater fixed costs + Water Variable costs Wastewater variable costs Total Sales Tax Summary of key data from the 2010 GWI Global Water Tariff Survey
    140. 142. The Sustainability of SWRO
    141. 143. The Sustainability of SWRO In 1896 the worlds largest desalination plant was built in Western Australia at Coolgardie Mammoth Water Condenser, Coolgardie Water Distillery, 132,000 gpd The ultimate in un-sustainability
    142. 144. It’s not about water. It’s about energy!
    143. 145. Theoretical minimum SEC for seawater @ 35000 mg/L TDS is 2.83 kWh/kgal (0.748 kWhr /m 3 ) To convey 1 kgal of untreated water horizontally over 260 miles uses 12.38 kWh/kgal (3.3 kWh/m3) The Sustainability of SWRO Affordable Desalination Collaboration (ADC) Gold Coast Desalination Plant produces high quality water locally at 12.38 kWh/kgal (3.3 kWh/m3)
    144. 146. Responding to the Clear Trend of Global Warming! The total Energy Needed to Operate All California Desalination Projects (1514 MLD) Will Result in 0.03 – 0.04 % Increase in the Current California Water Sector Energy Demand.
    145. 147. The Sustainability of SWRO Process Electrical Thermal Total (kWh/m 3 ) (kWh/m 3 ) (kWh/m 3 ) MSF 3.2 – 3.7 9.8 – 6.8 13.0 – 10.5 MED 2.5 - 2.9 6.6 - 4.5 9.0 – 7.4 METC 2.0 - 2.5 12.0 - 6.5 14.0 - 9.0 MVC 8.0 - 17.0 N/A N/A SWRO 3.3 - 8.5 N/A 3.3 - 8.5 BWRO 1.0 - 2.5 N/A 1.0 - 2.5 Waste Water Reuse 1.0 - 2.5 N/A 1.0 - 2.5 Conventional 0.2 – 1.0 N/A 0.2 – 1.0 Water piped > 250 Miles 3.3 N/A 3.3 Specific Energy Consumption for Different Water Sources
    146. 148. Unit Costs of Carbon Footprint Reduction Alternatives CF Reduction Alternative Unit Cost of Carbon Footprint Reduction (US$/tons CO2 reduced) 1. Collocation & Energy Efficient Technology US$20/ton CO2 2. CO2 Use for Water Production US$70/ton CO2 3. Purchase of Carbon Credits US$100/ton CO2 4. Re-forestation US$200/ton CO2 5. CO2 Sequestration in Coastal Wetlands US$400/ton CO2 6. Solar Panels US$1,900/ton CO2 7. Green Building Design US$3,400/ton CO2
    147. 149. $0.62 $1.07 $1.16 $5.10 0.5 1.0 <3.5 and reducing to 3.3 by 2010 12.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Current metro bulk water South West Yarragadee Seawater Desalination Kimberley Pipeline Unit cost ($/m 3 ) Power (kWh/m 3 ) To convey 1 kL over 370 miles uses 3.3 kWh/m 3 Water Source Comparison (including another unsustainable concept) The Sustainability of SWRO
    148. 150. Energy Comparison The Sustainability of SWRO Old Fridge Energy Requirement = 1300 kWh/Year Efficient Desalination Plant (SEC) Specific Energy Consumption = 15.52 kWhr/kgal (4.1 kWh/m 3 )Total Equivalent Annual Water Production = 84000 gallons /year (317 m 3 /year) Garage Fridge = A single total domestic water use per year inside and outside Reverse Cycle Air 8 kW @ 4 h/day in Winter and Summer (6 months) = 5760 kW/h (Water for 4.5 homes)
    149. 151. Energy Comparison – The MacMansion The Sustainability of SWRO Temperature under black roof 61 ° C. Radiated heat 26 ° C inside house Temperature under reflective roof 31 ° C. Radiated Heat 39 ° C inside house.
    150. 152. Energy Comparison – The MacMansion The Sustainability of SWRO If you look at all the energy requirements of new homes (City Beach 8858 kW/hr per year average per home) you would not believe there is a greenhouse gas emission issue. Some Big Mac’s (supersized) have up to 15 kW air conditioning systems. To add insult to injury, the latest fashion is a black roof with no eaves – additional air conditioning required (high calories – just like the Big Mac supersized). Reverse Cycle Air 15 kW @ 4 hr/day in Winter and Summer (6 months) = 10800 kW/h (SWRO water for 8.5 homes I did not see one black roof on the Canary Islands (and I do not think it was just because the islanders have aesthetic appreciation).
    151. 153. Energy Comparison – The MacMansion The Sustainability of SWRO The West Australian Tuesday March 8 2007 Record heat ruins fruit, drains power Western Power claimed it coped with the increased demand despite using temporary generators as power consumption hit a peak of 3574MW at 4.55 pm, beating Tuesday’s high of 3533 MW. The Perth Seawater Desalination Plant uses 0.67% of this energy, whilst Perth was using over 30% of the energy for air-conditioning. Note the new umbilical cords to ensure that the black roof keeps the Big Mac cool inside
    152. 154. <ul><li>How Many Jumbos? </li></ul>So …
    153. 155. = + + + + + The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons
    154. 156. or, how many PSDP’s? The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons = + +
    155. 157. and the answer is! Taking Off Power = 77 MW Cruising Power = 65 MW Full Power of One Engine = 26 MW Full Power Requirement PSDP = 24 MW The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons Water for 405,000 homes (Aus) 300,000 homes (USA) or a total 116,000 passengers transported in one year assuming Jumbo is always full, and Jumbo’s cannot use renewable energy. + + = One Jumbo Jet
    156. 158. <ul><li>How Many Queen Mary II’s? </li></ul>So …
    157. 159. = + + + + + The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons
    158. 160. or, how many PSDP’s? The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons = + + +
    159. 161. and the answer is! <ul><li>Guest Capacity: </li></ul><ul><li>3,056 maximum capacity (Incl. third and fourth berths) </li></ul><ul><li>Crew: </li></ul><ul><li>1,253  </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><li>118 MW, gas turbine/diesel electric plant </li></ul><ul><li>= Power for Water for 1.7 Million People </li></ul>The Sustainability of SWRO Energy Comparisons = + + +
    160. 162. Surface Water Source – Serpentine Dam Courtesy of the Water Corporation Not So Sustainable
    161. 163. Seawater Desalination vs. Surface Water Source <ul><li>Constructed from 1957 to 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Catchment area = 664 km 2 (vs. 31 km 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Surface area at FSL = 1067 ha (vs. 9.5 ha) </li></ul><ul><li>No in-stream flow allocations </li></ul><ul><li>Yield estimated in early 50s @ 50 million m 3 /year - 98% reliability </li></ul><ul><li>PSDP yield: 50 million m 3 /year + @ 100% reliability - 0% failure </li></ul><ul><li>Yield in 2006 was 5 million m 3 /year ; a 90% reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Desalination 0% failure = 50 million m 3 /year - 100% reliability </li></ul>Footprint Comparison – Serpentine Dam
    162. 164. Where Future Cost Savings Will Come From?
    163. 165. Main Areas Expected to Yield Cost Savings in the Next 5 Years (20 % Cost Reduction Target) <ul><li>Improvements in Membrane Element Productivity : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymetric Membranes (Incorporation of Nano-particles Into Membrane Polymer Matrix); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Nanotube Membranes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased Membrane Useful Life and Reduced Fouling: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoother Membrane Surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Membrane Material Longevity; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Systems for Continuous RO Membrane Cleaning; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UF/MF Membrane Pretreatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial Forward Osmosis Systems; </li></ul><ul><li>Larger RO Elements, Trains and Equipment; </li></ul><ul><li>New configurations and control systems; </li></ul><ul><li>New Materials (especially pipework), more HDPE and FRP. </li></ul>
    164. 166. Nano-Structured SWRO Membranes
    165. 167. Potential to Reduce 60 to 80 % of Energy Costs & 15 to 25 % of Cost of Water Source: OASYS
    166. 168. Harnessing Osmotic Power Source: Statkraft
    167. 169. Osmotic Power – A Competitive Energy Source Source: Statkraft
    168. 170. Desalination Energy Use Factors
    169. 171. Why SWRO is Sustainable & the Future Solution <ul><li>SWRO reflects the “true benchmark value of water” , the “triple bottom line” as environmental, social and financial costs are all included in the unit cost of water. No conventional source adequately caters for environmental costs. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO is drought free and provides a totally new (original) source, contrary to recycling. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO does not disturb rivers, estuaries, delta’s, the sea and associated habitat (fish, siltation, stagnation and in-stream flows). Dams result in the sea getting saltier in confined gulfs e.g. Arabian Gulf. Even semi – confined Cockburn Sound in Perth has not shown any signs of salinity increase after 3 years of operation (DB09-278 Perth, Australia: Two-year Feed Back on Operation and Environmental Impact). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO does not disturb aquifers and associated habitat (water table, seawater intrusion, springs, acid sulphate soils and stygofauna). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO brine discharges and residuals can be environmentally managed (this has been proven beyond any doubt in Perth (DB09-278). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO is efficient and becoming more efficient with constant advances. </li></ul>
    170. 172. Why SWRO is Sustainable & the Future Solution <ul><li>SWRO submerged intakes adequately designed, entrain negligible algae, zooplankton and no fish. Entrainment of sea life is minimal with well designed submerged open intakes with low velocity. Only some algae and zooplankton (and no fish) in minuscule quantities are entrained. Proven by Perth and Gold Coast Desalination Plants. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO can use wind or any renewable energy to ensure no emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO has the smallest environmental and terrestrial footprint of any source (Perth 16 acres Land + 6 acres Sea + wind farm 12 miles 2 for 17% of the city’s water). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO can be located near to where it is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO need not utilise long pipelines/canals (no need for millions of tons of steel, cement or massive excavations – such as required when “bringing water down from the north” and using 4.5 times less energy). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO results in minimal greenhouse gas production during the manufacture of components. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO results in minimal greenhouse gas production during the construction of the plant. </li></ul>
    171. 173. Why SWRO is Sustainable & the Future Solution <ul><li>The deployment of SWRO plants on coasts ensures that there is a water catchment plan in place (for water quality purposes), ensuring the highest degree of ocean protection. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO results in zero evaporation, siltation or salt build-up in dams (e.g. Wellington Dam, WA). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO water quality is not affected by bush fires, first rain or activities in catchments which can affect water quality and future run-off (e.g. Melbourne). </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO could ultimately be partially powered by osmotic power (a new form of renewable energy). Locate SWRO Plants adjacent to WWT Plants. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO can utilise greenhouse off–sets from renewable energy development from anywhere in the world, after all climate change is a global issue. </li></ul><ul><li>SWRO can be provided at guaranteed full capacity within two years of environmental clearances being obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>The future development potential of SWRO is still amazing (especially membranes, materials, control systems and logic and energy reduction). </li></ul>
    172. 174. Concluding Remarks <ul><li>The Ocean Is Becoming One of the Key Sources of Reliable and Draught-Proof Coastal Water Supply in the Next 10 Years; </li></ul><ul><li>Seawater Desalination is Economical Today and Will Become Even More Cost-Competitive in the Future; </li></ul><ul><li>The Future of Seawater Desalination Is Bright – 20% Cost of Water Reduction in the Next 5 Years; </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Investment In Research and Development Has the Potential to Reduce the Cost of Desalinated Water by 80 % In the Next 20 Years. </li></ul>
    173. 175. “ I have said that I thought if we could ever competitively get fresh water from saltwater…that it would be in the long range interests of humanity which would really dwarf any other scientific accomplishment.” John F. Kennedy, September 22, 1961  “ If we could produce clean unlimited energy at a viable cost, that would indeed be a great service to humanity and would dwarf any other scientific accomplishment.” Gary J. Crisp, 2006
    174. 176. Perth Seawater Desalination Plant Awarded GWI World Membrane Desalination Plant of the Year 2007 ERI Awarded GWI Environmental Contribution of the Year 2007 Courtesy of ERI Courtesy of Water Corporation
    175. 177. Gold Coast Desalination Plant Awarded GWI World Membrane Desalination Plant of the Year 2009 Courtesy of WaterSecure
    176. 178. International Desalination Association Awarded 2011 World Congress - to Perth Western Australia See You There!
    177. 179. Questions? Thank you.
    178. 180. Pseudo Greenies and Nimby’s
    179. 181. <ul><li>BBC News Program – Can be down loaded onto i-pod </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4627237.stm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Energy Originates from the Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal Visual, CO 2 , acid rain, mercury. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro Carbons Visual, CO 2 . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Visual, Noise, Birds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave Visual, terrestrial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Visual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro Visual, terrestrial, fauna and flora. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Independent of the Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Fission Visual, Slow Radioactive Decay Period, Meltdown potential, Waste Disposal is Big Issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear Fusion Visual, Fast Radioactive Decay Period, No Meltdown, Potential, Waste Disposal is not a Big Issue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal Visual, terrestrial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal Visual. </li></ul></ul>Fuelling the Future
    180. 182. Nuclear Fusion (Hans Bethe) 1938 <ul><li>Fusion works on the principle that energy can be released by forcing together atomic nuclei rather than by splitting them. </li></ul><ul><li>A decision was made (June 2005) to site the $16bn ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) nuclear fusion reactor at Cadarache in France. </li></ul><ul><li>ITER is an experimental reactor that will attempt to reproduce on Earth the nuclear reactions that power the Sun and other stars. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of ITER is to produce 500 MW of Fusion Power, with and input of 50 MW of Power. </li></ul><ul><li>Not Expected to be in commercial operation before 2040. </li></ul>
    181. 183. Nuclear Fusion (Hans Bethe) 1938 <ul><li>Project estimated to cost $15bn and will run for 35 years </li></ul><ul><li>It will produce the first sustained fusion reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Final stage before full prototype of commercial reactor is built </li></ul><ul><li>Temperatures to produce fusion need to be above 100 million degrees Celsius, contained in a magnetic bottle (Tokamak) </li></ul>
    182. 184. Nuclear Fission (Otto Hahn, Leis Meitner and Fritz Strassmann) 1938 <ul><li>Nuclear Fission works on the principle splitting atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Fission reactions drive existing nuclear power stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited uranium available. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to handle, transfer and store nuclear waste. </li></ul>
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