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ICWES15 - The Outcomes of 19 Institutional Transformation Efforts to ADVANCE Gender Equality. Presented by Diana Bilimoria, Case Western Reserve University, United States
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ICWES15 - The Outcomes of 19 Institutional Transformation Efforts to ADVANCE Gender Equality. Presented by Diana Bilimoria, Case Western Reserve University, United States


Presentation from ICWES 15 Conference - July 2011, Australia

Presentation from ICWES 15 Conference - July 2011, Australia

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  • 1. Outcomes of 19 Institutional Transformation Efforts to ADVANCE Gender Equity Diana Bilimoria & Xiangfen Liang Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH, USA [email_address] ICWES, Adelaide, Australia July 20, 2011
  • 2. Why Focus on Gender Equity in Academic Science and Engineering?
    • Women’s under-representation and lack of inclusion at all faculty ranks and in leadership has detrimental implications for the future of the U.S. scientific workforce and is a lost opportunity for U.S. academic S&E to compete globally
    • Systematic, historical, and widespread inequities in women’s representation and inclusion persist at every stage of the S&E academic pipeline, counter to science’s ethos of openness to talent
  • 3. Source: NCSES: Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 2006
  • 4. The NSF ADVANCE Initiative
    • Program Goal : Increase the participation and advancement of women at all levels in academic science and engineering careers.
    • Three program components :
      • Institutional Transformation
      • IT-Catalyst
      • Partnerships for Adaptation, Implementation, and Dissemination (PAID)
  • 5. Institutional Transformation (IT)
    • The IT component has been in all program solicitations since 2001
    • 5-year projects
    • $2 M to $5 M total
    • Comprehensive, institution-wide, projects to transform the culture of the university or college
    • Examples of project activities:
      • Reviewing, updating, and clarifying hiring, promotion and tenure policies
      • Developing dual career hiring policies
      • Establishing mentoring programs
      • Providing training for departmental leaders
      • Climate surveys and data analysis
  • 6. ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Grantees 2001-2008
    • Small IT awards to promote promising practices:
    • Duke University
    • Marshall University
    • New Jersey Institute of Technology
    • University of Maryland, Eastern Shore
  • 7. ADVANCE Portfolio Institutional Type 2001-2009
    • One hundred and eleven (111) different Institutions of higher education
      • 84 public and 27 private
    • Nine professional and non-profit STEM-related organizations
    • Twelve Minority-Serving Institutions (10.8% of ADVANCE institutions):
      • 7 Hispanic-Serving Institutions,
      • 6 Historically Black Colleges and Universities (including one women’s college),
      • 1 Alaskan Native-Serving Institution, and
      • 1 institution primarily serving persons with disabilities
    • Three women’s colleges (including 1 HBCU)
  • 8. Our Study – Purpose
      • To describe the initiatives and assess the outcomes of the institutional transformation experience of 19 US universities, funded as the first two cohorts of NSF’s ADVANCE IT program, that have aimed to increase the participation of female faculty in all S&E ranks and in leadership
      • To develop a generalized framework for how higher education institutions can enable gender equity through transforming their structures and cultures
  • 9. Methods
      • We analyzed the annual reports, final reports, websites, research publications, and evaluation reports of 19 universities (Cohorts 1 & 2) funded by NSF ADVANCE IT awards
      • We also drew on interviews with 54 ADVANCE IT project PIs, team leaders, and senior faculty at these universities about the nature and outcomes of their efforts (results presented by D. Bilimoria & V. Valian at 2006 NSF ADVANCE PI Meeting, Washington, D.C.)
      • Early findings reported (in Bilimoria, D., Joy, S. & Liang, X.F. (2008). Breaking Barriers and Creating Inclusiveness: Lessons of Organizational Transformation to Advance Women Faculty in Academic Science and Engineering, Human Resources Management , 47, 3: 423-441.
      • Book manuscript submitted for publication by Taylor & Francis (Routledge) in 2011 (“Gender Equity in Science and Engineering: Advancing Change in Higher Education”)
  • 10. Sample: The first two cohorts of ADVANCE IT awardees (19 universities)
    • Cohort 1 (2001-2006)
    • Georgia Institute of Technology
    • Hunter College, the City University of New York
    • New Mexico State University
    • University of Colorado, Boulder
    • University of California, Irvine
    • University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    • University of Puerto Rico, Humacao
    • University of Washington
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
    • Cohort 2 (2003-2008)
    • Case Western Reserve University
    • Columbia University
    • Kansas State University
    • University of Alabama, Birmingham
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
    • University of Montana
    • University of Rhode Island
    • University of Texas, El Paso
    • Utah State University
    • Virginia Polytechnic Institute
  • 11. Sample Characteristics
      • Carnegie Classification:
        • 17 Research Universities: 11 Very High, 6 High
        • 1 Masters, 1 Baccalaureate
      • Type:
        • 17 Public, 2 Private
      • STEM Faculty Size Ranges over ADVANCE duration:
        • Over 1200: 1 (Wisconsin)
        • 498-890: 3 (Michigan, GT, K-State)
        • 293-497: 7 (VT, Washington, Colorado, UCI, Utah State, Columbia, CWRU)
        • 106-251 : 6 (URI, NMSU, UTEP, UMBC, Montana, UAB)
        • < 100: 2 (UPRH, Hunter)
  • 12. Findings (1) - Factors Facilitating Transformation
    • Internal Factors
      • Senior administrative support and involvement
      • A champion of institutional transformation
      • Collaborative, cross-disciplinary leadership
      • Widespread and synergistic partnerships across campus
      • Visibility of actions and outcomes (small wins strategies)
    • External
      • Legitimacy, funding, and coordination from NSF
      • A network of peer institutions for best practice sharing and support
  • 13. Findings (2) - Transformational Initiatives Undertaken
    • Pipeline Initiatives , aimed at:
      • increasing the inflow of women into the pipeline
      • better equipping women to successfully progress in the pipeline
      • improving the institutional structures and processes related to academic career transition points (recruitment, tenure, promotion, leadership)
    • Climate Initiatives , aimed at:
      • engaging in efforts to make departments (micro-climates) more collegial, egalitarian, equitable and transparent
      • increasing organizational awareness of diversity, equity and inclusion issues
  • 14. Improving School/College and University (Macro) Climate Targeting the increase of women in administrative and faculty leadership positions Work-life integration, academic career flexibility, and family- friendly initiatives, child care initiatives Visiting distinguished scholars programs Gender equity awareness training workshops Interactive theatre presentations Improving Departmental (Micro) Climate Faculty climate surveys Department transformation funding and programs Facilitated micro-climate interventions Leadership development and climate awareness training of department chairs Department-specific seminars/workshops Increasing the Flow into the Pipeline For non-tenure track faculty - Research Funds - Mentoring, coaching - Training For undergraduate, graduates & post-docs - Special programs for academic career tracks - Scholarships - Summer research experiences - Mentoring - Mentoring training for faculty advisors - Information & networking sessions For high school students - Specially developed science & math courses - Introductory programs into engineering Academic Climate Academic Pipeline for Women Receiving PhD Entering a tenure-track position as Assistant Professor Promotion to Professor Rank Advancement to leadership Tenure and/or Promotion to Associate Professor Rank Off-track position experience Junior women Senior women faculty experience Senior women faculty experience faculty experience Improving Institutional Structures & Processes Related to Transition Points Equipping Women to Successfully Progress in the Pipeline quipping Women to Successfully Progress in the Pipeline Recruitment Assistance, tools and resources to search committees in identifying and meeting with candidates Training to search committees on potential biases and best practices Funding for targeted recruitment Dual career hiring policies & practices Promotion, Tenure, Retention & Advancement to Leadership Tools & training for decision makers on evaluation biases & best practice Special workshops, consultants and mentors for women reaching promotion/tenure Tenure clock extension policies Salary equity studies Offer letter & start-up package analyses Lab and office space equity studies Junior Women Career development programs Professional/academic training and development related to teaching, research, lab & student supervision, work-life integration, leadership Information sharing series Mentoring/role models Coaching Networking Funding for research & career advancement Showcasing women scholars Senior Women Leadership development programs Professional/academic training and development Mentoring others Funded professorships Funding for research and career development Special funding and programs for re-starting research after a hiatus (transition support) Showcasing women leaders Pipeline Initiatives Climate Initiatives
  • 15. Findings (3) – Institutionalizing the Transformation
      • New Positions and Structures : e.g., new positions such as ombudspersons, equity advisors, endowed chairs, institutional researchers, and provosts/deans for faculty development and diversity; family-friendly structures, such as child care facilities and lactation centers for nursing mothers
      • New and Modified Policies : e.g., automatic tenure clock extension, dual-career hiring, job sharing , work release policies (such as maternity/paternity leave in case of child birth or adoption; family medical leave in case of sickness of any member of the family, including parents) and family-friendly benefits policies (e.g., domestic partner health benefits)
      • New Programs : e.g., new funding for successful programs, continuation of leadership development and mentoring programs
      • New and Improved Practices : e.g., systematic documentation of best practices in the form of tool kits, guidelines, best practice guides, evaluation forms, training manuals, presentations, and pamphlets
  • 16. Findings (4) – Research and Evaluation in Support of Transformation
      • Systematic efforts to:
      • Track Key Indicators of Representation, Equity, and Inclusion : e.g., NSF ADVANCE indicators, additional monitoring tools as cohort analyses and flux charts.
      • Conduct Faculty Climate Studies : e.g., climate surveys, interview and focus group studies, resource equity studies
      • Conduct Benchmarking Studies of leading departments and universities
      • Evaluate Programmatic Interventions
      • Strengthen the Institutional Research Infrastructure (Improve Internal Collection, Analysis, and Use of Data): e.g., templates for faculty databases, initial resources for database creation and maintenance, just-in-time training tools for more equitable personnel decision making, and presentations of analyses and recommendations to senior administrators
  • 17. Findings (5) The Outcomes of Institutional Transformation
    • Changes over the ADVANCE award period in numbers and percentages of women at all ranks and in leadership
    • Number of institutions showing % increase, no change, or % decrease in women
    • Changes over the ADVANCE award period in numbers and percentages of women in specific disciplines
  • 18. Changes in Numbers of STEM Women & Men Faculty over ADVANCE Awards Note. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 Variables (# of universities with valid indicators) Baseline Year Final Year Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test Mean SD Mean SD Z p-value Women Faculty # women assistant professors (n = 18) 19 18 27 21 3.32 0.001 ** # women associate professors (n = 18) 18 11 20 15 1.16 0.245 # women professors (n = 18) 17 19 25 22 3.66 0.000 *** Total number of women faculty (n = 19) 53 44 71 55 3.73 0.000 *** Men Faculty # men assistant professors (n = 18) 57 44 61 50 1.45 0.148 # men associate professors (n = 18) 73 49 73 46 0.17 0.868 # men professors (n = 18) 183 163 187 160 1.21 0.227 Total number of men faculty ( n = 19) 311 240 320 243 1.58 0.115
  • 19. Percentage of Women Faculty in STEM over ADVANCE Awards
  • 20. Changes in Numbers of Faculty in Disciplines over ADVANCE Awards Note. ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 Bilimoria & Liang, I CWES , Adelaide, Australia, 7-20-2011 Variables (# of universities with valid data) Baseline Year Final Year Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test Mean SD Mean SD Z p-value Engineering (n = 16) # female faculty in engineering 14.4 11.3 19.9 14.6 3.42 .001 ** # male faculty in engineering 128.3 88.2 134.6 94.1 1.73 .083 Natural Sciences (n = 19) # female faculty in natural sciences 27.3 10.0 36.5 14.5 3.77 .000 *** # male faculty in natural sciences 151.4 73.6 154.5 76.8 0.70 .485 Social and Behavioral Sciences (SBS) (n = 13) # female faculty in SBS 39.8 53.6 48.8 59.9 3.06 .002 ** # male faculty in SBS 80.3 102.8 78.7 95.6 -0.36 .721
  • 21. Changes in Numbers of Women in Faculty and Administrative Leadership Positions over the ADVANCE Award Period a Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test; * p < .05, + p < .10 Bilimoria & Liang, I CWES , Adelaide, Australia, 7-20-2011 Variables N Baseline Year Final Year Z a Mean SD Mean SD Number of women with endowed chairs/named professorships 10 8.00 12.03 12.3 18.35 1.895 + Number of women department heads 14 4.86 5.38 6.00 7.43 .763 Number of women deans 14 4.07 3.77 5.07 4.83 1.707 + Number of women central administrators 8 3.13 2.85 4.50 3.93 2.232 * Total number of women in administrative leadership positions 14 10.71 8.42 13.64 11.86 2.140 *
  • 22. Study Conclusions - At the 19 Universities studied, ADVANCE IT has:
    • Created new permanent positions, offices and structures supporting diversity, equity, and inclusion
    • Improved faculty practices of recruitment, advancement and retention
    • Improved university policies to support work-life integration
    • Increased the monitoring of gender equity indicators and improved the capacity for institutional research
    • Improved the gender awareness and leadership of S&E department chairs
    • Increased the workforce participation of women faculty in academic S&E
      • Increased the representation of women faculty in STEM at assistant and full professor ranks
      • Increased the representation of women faculty in the disciplines of engineering, natural sciences, and social & behavioral sciences
    • Increased women holding endowed professorships in S&E
    • Increased women in administrative leadership positions
  • 23. A Model of Institutional Transformation for Gender Equity and Inclusion 1. Factors Facilitating Transformation Internal - Senior administrative support and involvement - Collaborative leadership - Widespread and synergistic partnerships - A champion of institutional transformation - Visibility of actions and outcomes External - NSF funding - Network of NSF ADVANCE peer institutions 3. Institutionalizing the Transformation - Creating new structures, positions and groups - Implementing new and modified policies - Incorporating successful change i nitiatives - Creating tool kits and guidelines, and providing resources for improved practices 2. Transformational Initiatives To Remove Inequities and Create Inclusiveness Pipeline Initiatives: - Increasing the flow into the pipeline - Improving organizational structures and processes related to key career transition points  Recruitment  Promotion  Advancement to leadership - Equ ipping women and minorities to successfully progress in the pipeline  Career stage - specific inputs Organizational Climate Initiatives: - Improving the awareness and practices of male colleagues and decision makers - Improving departmental (micro) c limates - Increasing organization - level attention to diversity, equity, and inclusion issues 4. Research & Evaluation in Support of Transformation - Tracking Key Indicators of Representation, Equity, and Inclusion - Benchmarking and Climate Studies - Evaluation of Interventions - Improving Internal Collect ion, Analysis , and Use of Data 5. Transformation Outcomes - Increased representation of women and minorities at all ranks and in leadership - Equitable and inclusive workplace for all
  • 24. Conclusions - Enabling Gender Diversity, Equity and Inclusion Requires Comprehensive Institutional Transformation
        • Simplistic or piecemeal solutions cannot eradicate systematic, historical, and widespread gender inequities in the workforce participation of women in academic S&E.
        • Institutions that implement wider and deeper change, systematically transforming their structures, processes, work practices and mental models, can engender improved diversity, equity and inclusion.
        • In the process of such transformation, the academic workplace improves for all.