Reclamation of Oilfield Produced Water using a Hydrophilic Pervaporative Membrane May Sule (PhD Candidate)*, Dr Michael R....
Project Aims <ul><li>Experimentally evaluate and model the removal of salts, petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (benzene, tol...
Why oilfield produced water? <ul><li>Oilfield produced water  is by far the largest waste stream in the oil and gas indust...
Current treatment methods <ul><li>Current treatment methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, chemical ,biological, reinjec...
What is Pervaporation? Membrane Evaporation Permeate   vapour Feed   liquid Dissolution δ Diffusion
Pervaporation theory <ul><li>1. Property of polymer material </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of holes in the polymer is an ...
Pervaporation theory
Physical properties of solvents at 25 o C  Ref: Haxo and Lahey, 1988, Peng et al., 2003, Islam and Rowe, 2009 Material  Mo...
H-bonding, polar and dispersion coefficients <ul><li>Comparison of polar and dispersion contribution of solvents </li></ul...
Current study <ul><li>Pipes are made with a unique hydrophilic DuPont polymer that allows water vapour—which cannot carry ...
Methodology immersion/sorption tests (bottle tests) permeation/diffusion tests
Initial Results <ul><li>Sorption curve for polymer membrane immersed in deionised water indicating Fickian pattern  </li><...
Initial Results Volume sorbed using NaCl  Volume sorbed using humic acid solution
Initial Results Volume sorbed using MgCl 2 Volume sorbed using NaCl
Current / Future work <ul><li>Further bench-experiments based on solution-diffusion to  determine transport properties on ...
References <ul><li>HAXO, H. E. & LAHEY, T. P. 1988. TRANSPORT OF DISSOLVED ORGANICS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS THROUGH ...
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ICWES15 - Reclamation of Oilfield Produced Water using Hydrophilic Pervaporative Membrane. Presented by May N Sule, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

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ICWES15 - Reclamation of Oilfield Produced Water using Hydrophilic Pervaporative Membrane. Presented by May N Sule, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom

  1. 1. Reclamation of Oilfield Produced Water using a Hydrophilic Pervaporative Membrane May Sule (PhD Candidate)*, Dr Michael R. Templeton (Supervisor) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London m.sule08@imperial.ac.uk
  2. 2. Project Aims <ul><li>Experimentally evaluate and model the removal of salts, petroleum hydrocarbon compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene) and arsenic from water by a pervaporative hydrophilic membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the practicability of using the pervaporative membrane for treating oilfield produced water and possibly as an irrigation pipe technology for use in water-scarce regions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why oilfield produced water? <ul><li>Oilfield produced water is by far the largest waste stream in the oil and gas industry worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Composition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salts (sodium chloride ≈ 80%, i.e. 70-300 g/l), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissolved or suspended hydrocarbons , VOCs (aromatic hydrocarbons of BTEX 0.068-578 mg/l) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total dissolved solids TDS (100mg/l -300,000 mg/l) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy metals (Arsenic etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cations (sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anions (chloride, sulphate, bicarbonate) </li></ul></ul>http://www.amcol.com/ http://www.jccp.or.jp/english/ ;
  4. 4. Current treatment methods <ul><li>Current treatment methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, chemical ,biological, reinjection* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of current treatments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High energy requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost of chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High operational & maintenance costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing chemical residuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tackling high TDS concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental implications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injectivity decline </li></ul></ul>http://www.unep.org/conflictsanddisasters/ ; www.veoliawaterst.com
  5. 5. What is Pervaporation? Membrane Evaporation Permeate vapour Feed liquid Dissolution δ Diffusion
  6. 6. Pervaporation theory <ul><li>1. Property of polymer material </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of holes in the polymer is an intrinsic property of the polymer material and depend on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymer structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosslink density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polymer property determines permeability and selectivity of membrane material </li></ul><ul><li>2. Transport mechanisms in polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Jump event and concept of free volume </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular dynamics simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Hopping motion </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrants in cavities </li></ul>Ref: Mullerplathe, 1994 Schematic representation of penetration of solvent molecules in the polymer matrix
  7. 7. Pervaporation theory
  8. 8. Physical properties of solvents at 25 o C Ref: Haxo and Lahey, 1988, Peng et al., 2003, Islam and Rowe, 2009 Material Molecular weight (g/mol) Solubility in water (mg/L) Molar volume (cm 3 /G.Mole) Water Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene 18 78.11 92.13 106.17 106.17 106.17 106.17 133 133 132 1,780 515 152 175 196 190 1,320 1,318 1,100 18 89.11 106.847 123.064 121.193 123.456 123.919 99.2 92.4 90.4
  9. 9. H-bonding, polar and dispersion coefficients <ul><li>Comparison of polar and dispersion contribution of solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Grouped organics in terms of the two-dimensional solubility parameter </li></ul>Ref: Shao and Huang, 2007 Hansen solubility parameters HSP δ 2 = (δ D ) 2 + (δ P ) 2 + (δ H ) 2
  10. 10. Current study <ul><li>Pipes are made with a unique hydrophilic DuPont polymer that allows water vapour—which cannot carry salts—to diffuse through the pipe walls, while the contaminants are retained within the pipes. </li></ul><ul><li>Trials by DTI - allow plant growth with similar salted/brackish water. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly effective, no chemical use, no energy required, environmentally friendly, simple in design, operationally convenient. </li></ul>Illustration : Lindsay Todman
  11. 11. Methodology immersion/sorption tests (bottle tests) permeation/diffusion tests
  12. 12. Initial Results <ul><li>Sorption curve for polymer membrane immersed in deionised water indicating Fickian pattern </li></ul>Ave water uptake= 4.51 x 10 -4 m 3 /m 2 /d Diffusion coefficient = 3.3 x 10 -3 m 2 /d =
  13. 13. Initial Results Volume sorbed using NaCl Volume sorbed using humic acid solution
  14. 14. Initial Results Volume sorbed using MgCl 2 Volume sorbed using NaCl
  15. 15. Current / Future work <ul><li>Further bench-experiments based on solution-diffusion to determine transport properties on oilfield contaminants (BTEX, salts, arsenic) </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the operational performance of the pipe technology for treating oilfield produced water by investigating the impact of ambient conditions (i.e. the composition/constituents, concentration, temperature, humidity, soil homogeneity) on water flux and water quality using soil columns. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to further determine polymer characteristics in its swelled (water-carrying) state </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical modelling to describe the mass transfer rate and relate it to the water quality parameters i.e concentrations of relevant constituents, temperature and membrane proportions for successful treatment implementation at geographically diverse field sites. </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>HAXO, H. E. & LAHEY, T. P. 1988. TRANSPORT OF DISSOLVED ORGANICS FROM DILUTE AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS THROUGH FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS. Hazardous Waste & Hazardous Materials, 5 , 275-294. </li></ul><ul><li>ISLAM, M. Z. & ROWE, R. K. 2009. Permeation of BTEX through Unaged and Aged HDPE Geomembranes. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 135 , 1130-1140 </li></ul><ul><li>MULLERPLATHE, F. 1994. PERMEATION OF POLYMERS - A COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH. Acta Polymerica, 45 , 259-293. </li></ul><ul><li>PENG, M., VANE, L. M. & LIU, S. X. 2003. Recent advances in VOCs removal from water by pervaporation. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 98 , 69-90. </li></ul><ul><li>SHAO, P. & HUANG, R. Y. M. 2007. Polymeric membrane pervaporation. Journal of Membrane Science, 287 , 162-179. </li></ul><ul><li>Websites: www.veoliawaterst.com ; http://www.jccp.or.jp/english/ ; http://www.amcol.com/OilfieldProducedWaterTreatment.aspx ; http://www.oilplus.co.uk/ ; http://www.unep.org/conflictsanddisasters/ </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions???
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