ICWES15 - Good Practices to Promote Women in Science and Engineering: The Indian Context. Presented by Ms Nilanjana Rao, New Delhi, India

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ICWES15 - Good Practices to Promote Women in Science and Engineering: The Indian Context. Presented by Ms Nilanjana Rao, New Delhi, India

  1. 1. GOOD PRACTICES TO PROMOTE WOMEN IN SCIENCE & ENGINEERING – THE INDIAN CONTEXT NILANJANA RAO,PRERNA SOHAL & RAHUL GABA 15 th International Conference for Women Engineers and Scientists ADELAIDE
  2. 2. WOMEN IN SCIENCE & ENGINEERING – INDIAN SCENARIO <ul><li>Census of India, 2011 – Women literacy rates – 65.46% as compared to 82.14% of male literacy rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolment of girls in primary school (Grades I–V) increased from 49.5 million in 1999-2000 to 61.56 million in 2004-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Only 22.96 million girls enrolled for upper primary stages (Grades VI-VIII) in 2004-2005---- Huge Dropout Rate </li></ul><ul><li>41% of girls enroll in Secondary stage education – the benchmark for entering technical education </li></ul>
  3. 3. WOMEN IN SCIENCE & ENGINEERING – SOME FACTS & FIGURES Source: Indian National Science Academy UNIVERSITY ENROLMENT OF GIRLS IN VARIOUS DISCIPLINES Faculty / Year 1995-1996 2000-01   Total enrolment % Women Total enrolment % Women Arts 31,62,582 40.6 38, 75, 106 44.2 Science 12,27,359 37.0 16,70,263 39.4 Medicine 1,88,117 39.8 2,62, 753 44.0 Agriculture 40,505 14.3 50,308 17.4 Veterinary Sciences 12,340 18.0 13,588 20.9 Engineering & Technology 3,86,879 16.0 57,664 21.5 Commerce & management 11,23,633 32.5 15,00,609 36.5 Law 2,61,130 16.8 2,67, 043 20
  4. 4. WOMEN IN SCIENCE & ENGINEERING – SOME FACTS & FIGURES Enrollment of Students in Engineering/Technological Institutes in India 1980 1990 2000 2006
  5. 5. PREFERRED PROFESSIONS AMONGST WOMEN SCIENTISTS & ENGINEERS
  6. 6. CAREER MOVEMENT OF WOMEN SCIENTISTS & ENGINEERS The number of women decreases while moving up the corporate ladder as family and other social commitments take a priority over career goals
  7. 7. CAREER TRENDS OF WOMEN SCIENTISTS & ENGINEERS – COMMON OBSERVATIONS <ul><li>Lesser number of women involved in management activities vis a vis men (29% vs 71 %) </li></ul><ul><li>37 institutes of CSIR – Not a single women director for any of its labs </li></ul><ul><li>No women has become the director of Indian National Science Academy </li></ul><ul><li>Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Awards for excellence in Science – 14 women has received it till 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s representation in government constituted research advisory bodies : 0-21% </li></ul><ul><li>Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BAARC) working on Nuclear Science - % of women is less than 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) 950 women scientists & engineers amongst 7000 scientific posts </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Science Research Organization (ISRO) – 7.18% of women in technical position </li></ul>
  8. 8. LESS NUMBERS OF WOMEN SCIENTISTS & ENGINEERS - REASONS <ul><li>Less intake at school levels </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of Role Models – Men are portrayed as scientists/engineers and women as housekeepers, mothers, nurses in the text books </li></ul><ul><li>Male Dominated Society and Glass Ceiling in Academic Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Barriers – Lack of campus facilities, husband-wife not allowed to work in the same organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Societal Factors – Mid-career breaks due to child rearing and makes it difficult to re-entry </li></ul><ul><li>Science & Engineering involves long hours of work at field conditions. In India lack of basic infrastructure and safety concerns deter women to go for field works </li></ul>
  9. 9. GOOD PRACTICES <ul><ul><li>Flexible timings for women employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation / Working women hostels near workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport facilities for women employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option of working from home for women employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of communication technologies like video conferencing, net meetings etc to avoid travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing creche facilities for children of women employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age relaxation for women, Allow mid-career breaks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational policies to avoid gender bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Sensitization Programmes / Grievance Cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Compensation at par with men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging work assignments and more responsibilities to women engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counseling and mentoring for women professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation of women in decision-making bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Husband & wives to be allowed to work in same organization and given transfer to the same places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines to reserve some percentage of women at least in government institutions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. SURVEY ON GOOD PRACTICES <ul><li>A small survey was carried out amongst the WISE members to know their perception on good practices in their offices </li></ul><ul><li>100% of the respondents reported that they had a good work environment and they received the same compensation as their male counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 25 % of the respondents complained that they received works that were of lesser challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Longer and late working hours – major reason for receiving less challenging jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the women cited family reason for their unwillingness to relocate to remote places for their work. </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE WAY AHEAD <ul><li>Integrated Approach required at : </li></ul><ul><li>Government Level – Implement the recommendations as policies, guidelines, programmes for the entire state and the country </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional / Organizational Level – Frame policies to benefit women employees </li></ul><ul><li>Women – Efforts to make their positions better </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>www.wiseindia.org [email_address]

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