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Applying The LED System instead Of The RFID System In Transportations Toll

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Applying The LED System instead Of The RFID System In Transportation Toll

Applying The LED System instead Of The RFID System In Transportation Toll


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  • 1. Saudi Arabia College of Engineering
    King Saud University Electrical Engineering Department
    Applying the LED System instead of the RFID system in transportation’s toll.
    EE-411 Optoelectronic Systems and Devices
    2009-2010 (2nd Semester)
    Dr. HabibFathallah
    Dr. NacerDebbar
    By: Ahmad Hani Ismail –42710173
    Mohammed Al-Masoudy– 425113782
  • 2. The principle of the Optoelectronic System in the Television Remote Control
    The Circuit Board of the Television Remote Control
    LED Description
    LED as Sensor
    Comparison between RFID system and LED system
    • Chapter Two
    Parameters and calculations for the System
    Distance
    Wavelength, Frequency and Photon Energy
    Divergence & Intensity & Power
    LED Driver circuit
    LED photo-receiver drive circuit
    Programming Code
    • Conclusion
  • What is theapplication of the (RFID System) which is already existed?
    Introduction
    • RFID (radio frequency identification) Salik was already applied In Dubai City in toll gates of 4 different places in the city.
    • 5. Its purpose is not to effect impact to traffic flow.
    • 6. It allows vehicles to move freely through the tolling point at highway speeds without stopping.
     
  • 7.
    • RIFD loaded with sufficient credits must be affixed to your windshield.
    • 8. It operates with no battery or moving parts and must not be removed from the windshield without damaging the tag.
    • 9. this tag consist of a small ship inside which appear in black.
    • 10. This ship is how the system identify each vehicle passing through.
     
  • 11.
    • Each time one passes through a Salik tolling point, the toll of 4 AED (0.75 U.D) will be deducted from his prepaid toll account.
  • We are going to replace the RFID technology used with LED technology which has the similar concept of the remote tv control LED System.
  • 12. 1.1
    The principle of the optoelectronic System in the Television Remote Control.
    • Our new system will apply the same principle of the TV remote control.
    • 13. When you take off the back cover of the control you can its circuit board.
  • The components like:
    • integrated circuit (chip)18 pin Dual Inline Package, or a DIP.
    • 14. Diode.
    • 15. transistor (black, with three leads).
    • 16. resonator (yellow).
    • 17. two resistors (green)
    • 18. a capacitor (dark blue
    • 19. resistor (green)
    • 20. translates the key into a sequence something like (morse code), The chip sends that signal out to the transistor to amplify the signal and make it stronger.
  • 1.2
    Led Description
    • LEDs are based on the semiconductor diode.
    • 21. the diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes and energy is released in the form of light.
    Symbol LED LED structure
    • The color of the LED depends on the band gap energy of the materials forming the p-n junction.
  • 1.2.1.1
    Led Work Principle
  • 22. 1.2.1.1
    Diode in the LED
  • 23. 1.2.1.1
    Diode in the LED
  • 24. 1.2.3 LED As Sensors
    A LED light sensor is a Light-Emitting Diode used as a photodiode, But it is biased in reverse voltage, and it work as current source. (look at Figure down)
  • 25. Comparison between
    RFID system and LED system
    1.2.4
  • 26. Chapter Two
    Parameters and calculations for the System.
    2.1
    • We're going to determine the parameters for the components of our new LED system by calculations and formulas, which are:
    Distance
    Wavelength, Frequency and Photon Energy
    Divergence & Intensity & Power
  • 27. Distance
    2.1.1
    Distance between LED transmitter and Photo-Receiver was assumedto be 5 meters.
    5 m.
  • 28. Wavelength, Frequency and Photon Energy
    2.1.2
    We studied that we can determine all of the wavelength, frequency and photon energy by a given Figure to be determined and known as standards. (Look at the Figure)
    From the figure above we find that Infrared has a frequency of ,
    wavelength of and energy of .
  • 29. Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    Wavefronts of a Gaussian light beam.
    Light intensity across beam cross section.
    (c) Light irradiance (intensity) vs. adial distance r from beam axis (z).
  • 30. Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    • Laser beam approximated or represented by a Gaussian beam
    • 31. Slowly divergent beam and rays
    • 32. Finite extent light source 2wo
    • 33. 2wois called the (waist of the beam) or (Spot Size)
    • 34. wois the waist radius of the beam.
    • 35. The beam diameter 2wincreases linearly with distance z making an angle 2θ at O
  • Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    [we assume it is 0.5 mm]
  • 36. Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    By Fethagorse we find (X) which is in the cross section of the beam at receiving.
    . . X = 3.18 cm
    (Cross section area of the beam at receiver in at distance 5m )= X * 2 = 3.18cm*2 =6.36 cm
    .
  • 37. Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    Due to the divergence we found, we come up with some designing issue like the ability of detecting the LED Beam even in the worst cases of weather or temperature.
    We started a designing the photo-receiver by designing a system with one LED Photo-receiver as shown in Figure below.
  • 38. Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    After the previous design we considered the divergence and the attenuation of the air medium, We suggested that we better put many photo-receiver instead of one so it can receive the beam in different photo-receivers then it can be gathered in the end as one code.
  • 39. Divergence & Intensity
    2.1.3
    And then we thought of developing the system to make it work in more effective way to receive all beams heading toward all directions by creating conditions most suited. We applied a Photo-receiver in the right and the left side of thePassageway, also we used a kind of medium which is suitable to reflect any beam heading toward the two sides of the passageway so we applied a surface of medium such as mirror on the two sides of the passage way. As in Figure.
  • 40. LED driver circuit.
    2.2
    This is the components and its details that can be determined due to the parameters and the calculations, the circuit is as shown in Figure:
    -For the previous circuit the manufacture has determined that:
    Minimum input voltage for 1 LED : 5VAC
    The evaluation board is designed to display the full functionality as a LED driver to drive 1W at 12Vac input. Based on this circuit, there are nine different configurations with different input voltages and output power levels that could be derived by making minor components changes to the evaluation board.
  • 41. LED Photo-receiver drive circuit
    2.3
    This is an example of the photo-receiver drive circuit that takes advantage of the photo-voltaic voltage of an ordinary LED. The LED voltage is buffered by a junction FET transistor and then applied to the inverting input of an op-amp with a gain of about 20. This produces a change of about 5 volts.
  • 42. programming code.
    2.4
    • Each vehicle must have a different code that can be determined as pulses and this should be done by programming codes due to the transmitter and receiver ships inside the LED drive circuit and LED photo-receiver.
    • 43. The LED drive circuit can be contains of PCI Controller or 555 ship to generate LED beam with pulses and we applied the PCI controller because the 555 need more programming than the PCI which is better.
  • Conclusion:
    The principle of our new optoelectronic system has the same principle of the applications of the LED system in Television remote control.
    LEDs can have a relatively long useful life. It can estimate 35,000 to 50,000 hours of useful life, which means up to 6 years, though time to complete failure may be longer.
    LED less harming for humans and will decrease the danger of radiations in the RFID system.
    The LED drive circuit can be contains of PCI Controller or 555 ship to generate LED beam with pulses, and we applied the PCI controller.
  • 44. Light Emitting Diode (LED) consists of a chip of semiconducting material doped with impurities to create a p-n junction.
    The principle of our new optoelectronic system has the same principle of the applications of the LED system in Television remote control.
    Each vehicle will have its own coding just like the coding in the television remote control.
    We are studying the system to develop a successful LED optoelectronic system so it can be used instead of the RFID system in Toll gates for transportation.
    We design the system of the LED regarding to our calculations of distance, wavelength, divergence, frequency, and power.
    Due to the distance, we can determine the power needed with regard to that the photo-receiver sensor must have properties that allow receiving a determined power.
    Conclusion:
  • 45. Development:
    We Can develop our LED System and apply a small Solar-cell part instead of car Battery.
    That would :
    1- Save power in car’s Battery
    2- Make LED life longer
  • 46. Development:
    We Can connect our LED system with the car’s system so the code can contain information such as some more information about how many Kilometers the vehicle has go and what is the speed of the car and that must be connected with the car’s system of Speed and the Meter’s counter.
    This would :
    • help the Government in statistics and other services existing in Saudi (Saher) system, and can be an alternative.
  • Applying the LED System instead of the RFID system in transportation’s toll.
    The END
    Thank You!
    Ahmad Hani Ismail & Mohammed Al-Masoudy
    Email: ahmad.eismaeil@gmail.com & moh55@hotmail.com