OZONE in Urban Forests
EMoNFUr Project - LIFE+ 10 ENV/IT/399
Urban Forests the lungs of the city
MILAN, Tuesday, June 17thth, 2014
OZONE in Urban Forests
Matej Rupel, Department of Forest Ecology,
Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI – 1000 LJUBLJANA, Slovenia
Is O3 good or
Statement: OZONE is a
serious air pollution
affecting crop yield
quantity), tree health
Both ozone in the stratosphere
(90%) and ground-level ozone in
the troposphere (10%) occur
Elevated OZONE effects on
• Lipid peroxidation
Good quality of life
• Soil microbes
• Methane emissions
What's going on?
VOCNOx + +
Ground level or
produced in the
VOC with NOx
And what does it mean in urban
forest? •• AlsoAlso SlovenianSlovenian forests, urbanforests, urban
forests andforests and periurbanperiurban forests areforests are
endangeredendangered from pollution by airfrom pollution by air
1. Injury leaves on the forest trees and shrubs,
2. Smaller surface area for photosynthesis,
3. Worse growth and health of trees…
a) less oxygen,
b) wasting trees,
c) less water retention,
d) more dry
and warmer air…
e) worse health
Changes of O3 concentration in future
AOT40 Ozone Levels in Europe. High AOT40 levels are harmful for
crops. In the light green areas, the pollution levels are under the
critical value of 3000 ppb.hours. In the dark green areas the critical
level is exceeded up to two times. In the yellow areas the critical level is
exceeded from two to three times. In the orange areas the critical level
is exceeded from three to four times. In the most polluted areas of
Europe, the red areas, the critical level is exceeded by more than four
times. The results are obtained by running the Danish Eulerian Model
(DEM), discretized on a (96x96) grid, i.e. by using (50 km x 50 km)
grid-squares, over a space domain covering the whole of Europe
together with parts of Africa, Asia and the Atlantic Ocean.
Modeling prediction on geographical
distribution of ground-level ozone
concentrations in 1993 above (average
from May to August) and 2025 below.
The forecasts are global increase of
What we done?
The Slovenian Forestry Institute have more than
ten year study period (2004 – 2013), assessing
ozone visible injury on forest vegetation in
Slovenia, observed as foliage damage on the
forest trees and shrubs species.
The Slovenian Forestry
Institute has been
sampling of ozone for more
than 10 years. In 2013, we
embarked on measuringforest trees and shrubs species.
Our first observations of negative impacts of
ozone on forest tress were in year 2003. During
these years the visible ozone demages were
observing at 5 to 11 intensive monitoring plots
(ICP-Forest Level II)
and in the years 2013 and 2014 with
Project - LIFE+ 10 ENV/IT/399
also in Ljubljana urban and peri-urban forests.
embarked on measuring
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen
dioxide and ammonia. We
monitor air pollution with
passive samplers also in
the capital of Slovenia –
Ljubljana. We perform
measurements in urban
areas and urban and peri-
urban forests (city parks,
nature park Tivoli, Rožnik,
Šišenski hrib, forest
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
99 Ljubljana GIS ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
99 a Ljubljana Tivoli ¤
99 b Ljubljana Debeli
Identification of visible ozone or visible ozone like symptoms
in small trees and shrubs in Ljubljana urban forests
Visible foliar injury by ozone we survey on off-plots,
on light-exposed sampling sites at urban forest edge.
Tropospheric ozone increases during summer –
during the growth of vegetation.
Long dry season and high air temperatures in the second half
of July, are dried approximately 20% of the leaves on trees
and shrubs, so that they turn yellow and fall off in early August 2013.
11stst observationobservation betweenbetween 1818thth andand 1717thth JulyJuly 20132013 -- NONO VISIBLE OZONEVISIBLE OZONE
22ndnd observationobservation betweenbetween 2121stst andand 2828thth September 2013September 2013 -- NO VISIBLE OZONENO VISIBLE OZONE
damages are diferent
each year. Typical
Nature park Tivoli, Rožnik and
in LjubljanaTree species and shrubs observed on plot Ljubljana
Viburnum opuluseach year. Typical
ozone visible damages
were in the year 2013
in Ljubljana urban
forests not found.
Tree species and shrubs observed on plot Ljubljana
- DEBELI HRIB
What we can do in Ljubljana,
Different species show different sensibility to the same ozone dose.
Planting native species that are not on LIST OF EUROPEAN OZONE
Strong street and park tree programme.
RIGHT TREE to RIGHT PLACE (“Managing Trees in one American city — Charlotte, North
Educating of the importance of trees, forest, tree
Photo: Andrej Verlič
Due to the environment pollution and impacts on the forest
vegetation, we present the acquired conclusions to the wider
Typical ozone visible injury on a Populus nigra L. leaf.
Thank you for your attention!