Ozone upf rupel_emonfur_17062014_pptx


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Ozone upf rupel_emonfur_17062014_pptx

  1. 1. OZONE in Urban Forests EMoNFUr Project - LIFE+ 10 ENV/IT/399 Urban Forests the lungs of the city FINAL CONFERENCE MILAN, Tuesday, June 17thth, 2014 OZONE in Urban Forests Matej Rupel, Department of Forest Ecology, Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI – 1000 LJUBLJANA, Slovenia matej.rupel@gozdis.si
  2. 2. Today is OZONE very popular! Realy? BAR
  3. 3. Is O3 good or bad? Statement: OZONE is a serious air pollution problem, adversely affecting crop yield (quality and quantity), tree health and growth. Both ozone in the stratosphere (90%) and ground-level ozone in the troposphere (10%) occur naturally. and growth.
  4. 4. Elevated OZONE effects on trees O3 LEAVES • Symtoms • Respiration • Photosynthesis • Lipid peroxidation • Growth Good quality of life of citizens ROOTS SOIL INDIVIDUAL Growth • Quality • Biomass • Yeild • Biomass • Physiology • Exudate • Respiration • Humidity • Soil microbes • Methane emissions
  5. 5. What's going on? VOCNOx + + Ground level or tropospheric ozone is produced in the reaction of Volatile Organic Compounds - VOC with NOx and sunlight.
  6. 6. Fraxinus ornus Ulmus glabra What happens? Acer platanoidesCorylus avellana Fagus sylvatica Ozone visible injury • bronzing, • intercostal stippling…
  7. 7. And what does it mean in urban forest? •• AlsoAlso SlovenianSlovenian forests, urbanforests, urban forests andforests and periurbanperiurban forests areforests are endangeredendangered from pollution by airfrom pollution by air (ozone).(ozone). 1. Injury leaves on the forest trees and shrubs, 2. Smaller surface area for photosynthesis, 3. Worse growth and health of trees… and cyclically; a) less oxygen, b) wasting trees, c) less water retention, d) more dry and warmer air… e) worse health of citizen…
  8. 8. Changes of O3 concentration in future AOT40 Ozone Levels in Europe. High AOT40 levels are harmful for crops. In the light green areas, the pollution levels are under the critical value of 3000 ppb.hours. In the dark green areas the critical level is exceeded up to two times. In the yellow areas the critical level is exceeded from two to three times. In the orange areas the critical level is exceeded from three to four times. In the most polluted areas of Europe, the red areas, the critical level is exceeded by more than four times. The results are obtained by running the Danish Eulerian Model (DEM), discretized on a (96x96) grid, i.e. by using (50 km x 50 km) grid-squares, over a space domain covering the whole of Europe together with parts of Africa, Asia and the Atlantic Ocean. Modeling prediction on geographical distribution of ground-level ozone concentrations in 1993 above (average from May to August) and 2025 below. (Lelieveldand Dentener 2000)
  9. 9. The forecasts are global increase of ozone!!! What we done? The Slovenian Forestry Institute have more than ten year study period (2004 – 2013), assessing ozone visible injury on forest vegetation in Slovenia, observed as foliage damage on the forest trees and shrubs species. The Slovenian Forestry Institute has been performing passive sampling of ozone for more than 10 years. In 2013, we embarked on measuringforest trees and shrubs species. Our first observations of negative impacts of ozone on forest tress were in year 2003. During these years the visible ozone demages were observing at 5 to 11 intensive monitoring plots (ICP-Forest Level II) and in the years 2013 and 2014 with Project - LIFE+ 10 ENV/IT/399 also in Ljubljana urban and peri-urban forests. embarked on measuring sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia. We monitor air pollution with passive samplers also in the capital of Slovenia – Ljubljana. We perform measurements in urban areas and urban and peri- urban forests (city parks, nature park Tivoli, Rožnik, Šišenski hrib, forest
  10. 10. No Plot Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 99 Ljubljana GIS ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ 99 a Ljubljana Tivoli ¤ 99 b Ljubljana Debeli hrib ¤ Identification of visible ozone or visible ozone like symptoms in small trees and shrubs in Ljubljana urban forests Visible foliar injury by ozone we survey on off-plots, on light-exposed sampling sites at urban forest edge. hrib Tropospheric ozone increases during summer – during the growth of vegetation. Long dry season and high air temperatures in the second half of July, are dried approximately 20% of the leaves on trees and shrubs, so that they turn yellow and fall off in early August 2013. 11stst observationobservation betweenbetween 1818thth andand 1717thth JulyJuly 20132013 -- NONO VISIBLE OZONEVISIBLE OZONE SYMPTOMS.SYMPTOMS. 22ndnd observationobservation betweenbetween 2121stst andand 2828thth September 2013September 2013 -- NO VISIBLE OZONENO VISIBLE OZONE
  11. 11. Foliage ozone damages are diferent each year. Typical Nature park Tivoli, Rožnik and Šišenski hrib in LjubljanaTree species and shrubs observed on plot Ljubljana TIVOLIFagus sylvatica Tilia cordata Corylus avellana Juglans regia Tilia sp. Sorbus aria Acer pseudoplatanus Acer platanoides Quercus rubra Quercus sessiliflora Salix sp. Carpinus betulus Populus nigra Sambucus nigra Sorbus aucuparia Viburnum lantana Viburnum opuluseach year. Typical ozone visible damages were in the year 2013 in Ljubljana urban forests not found. Tree species and shrubs observed on plot Ljubljana - DEBELI HRIB Fagus sylvatica Picea abies Abies alba Populus tremula Cornus mas Castanea sativa Acer pseudoplatanus Acer platanoides Corylus avellana Fraxinus excelsior Laburnum sp. Robinia pseudoacacia Prunus avium Crataegus oxyacantha Crataegus leavigata Cornus sanguinea Malus domestica Acer platanoides Cornus sp. Viburnum opulus
  12. 12. What we can do in Ljubljana, Milan…? Different species show different sensibility to the same ozone dose. Planting native species that are not on LIST OF EUROPEAN OZONE SENSITIVE SPECIES. Strong street and park tree programme. RIGHT TREE to RIGHT PLACE (“Managing Trees in one American city — Charlotte, North
  13. 13. Educating of the importance of trees, forest, tree care… Photo: Andrej Verlič
  14. 14. Due to the environment pollution and impacts on the forest vegetation, we present the acquired conclusions to the wider public.
  15. 15. Typical ozone visible injury on a Populus nigra L. leaf. Thank you for your attention!