Chupe’s Post-Classical Period Test! ANSWERS TO REVIEW(:
1. How did Muhammad and Islam address the fundamental problems in bedouin society?• Ended conflict between clans• Bedouin society was made up of nomadic peoples who migrated through the deserts to find grass and water for their animals. The Bedouin organized themselves in family and clan groups. Individuals and their immediate families depended heavily on their larger kinship networks for support. Because the Arabian desert was such a harsh environment to live, cooperation with kin often made the difference between death and survival. Bedouin people developed a strong sense of loyalty to their clans. Clan identities and loyalties survived for centuries after the appearance of Islam.
2. What were the basic beliefs of Islam?• 5 pillars: declaration of faith - alms - prayer - pilgrimage to Mecca - fasting during Ramadan• Montheistic- Allah, Suprmeme God, Muhammad his prophet• People were not forced to convert to Islam, they could pay a tax to keep their own religion• Teaches equality - no priesthood• Jihad - "to struggle" - word of Muhammad and Allah in the Koran
3. What motivations led Islam to transform itself from anomadic society to a global civilization? In what sense was it a global civilization by 850?• Islam needed to provide for its ppl. That was the calpih• Spread rapidly through trade/military expansion• also started attacking others to prevent intra-clan conflict - became more cosmopolitan as the empire grew - especially in cities such as Baghdad• It was global by 850 since it expanded through Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. At this time, no one knew abut the Americas, so that was as global as a religion could get
4. What were the major characteristics of the Abbasid Caliphate?• Golden Age; changed capital to Baghdad• Arts and Sciences• used paper money, also receipts and bills, etc.• Economy greatly expanded, fought the Crusades, preserved Western culture• increased trade; central location• merchant class highly valued• They also copied the Greek and Roman scripts• Medicine/literature/development of mathematics (algebra, Arabic numerals, decimal system, zero
5. How did the position of women in Islamic Society change from Muhammad to the Abbasid Empire?• The Islams were introduced to the Persian culture- +veiling• Introduction of harems• Women were gradually getting treated worse after Muhammads rule. But still equal in eyes of Allah• Society became increasingly patriarchal - womens primary role was to be loyal to and care for husband/family
6. What was Islams attitude towards slavery?• According to Wikipedia - only children of slaves or non-Muslim prisoners of war could enter slavery - Muslim slaves were held higher than non-Muslim free men• Slaves shipped along Indian Ocean trade routes• Mamluks were also slaves
7. To what extent was Islam successful in converting India to Islam? Sutheast Asia? Sub-Saharan Africa?• India - converted mainly lower classes in the northern areas• Islam was not successful in converting all of India.• Southeast Asia - peaceful conversion - spread by Muslim traders• And Muslims did not succeed in converting Sub-Saharan Africa to Islam• Between 600 C.E. and 1200 C.E., India was not unified. The Gupta Empire, the last state to provide any sort of unity, collapsed in 550 C.E. Muslim invaders reached the Indus Valley and Afghanistan in the 700’s and converted it to Islam. In 1022, Muslim armies began the conquest of northern India. In 1206, the Muslims captured the city of Delhi and most of northern India fell into their hands. Muslim generals established the Delhi Sultanate. Islam did not displace earlier faiths like Hinduism and Buddhism but joined them as one of the country’s major religions• As the coastal trade and shipping of India came to be controlled (from the 8th century onward) increasingly by Muslims, elements of Islamic culture began to filter into Southeast Asia. Almost everywhere in the islands of the region, trading contacts paved the way for conversion. Muslim merchants and sailors introduced local peoples to the ideas and rituals of the new faith and impressed on them how much of the known world had already been converted. The first areas to be won to Islam in the last decades of the 13th century were several small port centers on the northern coast of Sumatra. There were large Muslim communities in the cities, but not in the rural areas due to the trade networks• Ghana fought a holy war against a Muslim group - led to its decline - eventually sub-Saharan Africa converted (Mansa Musa and his pilgrimage...)• Islam arrived in the 7th century for Sub-Saharan Africa- Trans-Saharan trade
8. What were the major characteristics of the Sudanic states,Great Zimbabwe, and the Swahili city-states? What impact did Islam have upon them?• Zimbabwe was named after the Zimbabwe, a stone enclosure• Dominated Africa from 9th-16th century• Sudanic states were dominated by the gold and salt trade - included Ghana/Mali/Songhai• Great Zimbabwe traded raw materials to the ports on the Swahili coast - built giant stone enclosures known as zimbabwes• Trade led to the rise of Sudanic states• Swahili city states - controlled Indian Ocean trade routes - mix of Arabic and Bantu cultures led to rise of new language (Swahili) - gold/slaves/ivory
9. What were the major characteristics of the Byzantine Empire?• Constantine established Constantinople, 2nd Rome, as capital. Greek=official language• Geography helped prevent them from nomadic invasions• Justinian- Byzantine conquered most area during this time• similar to earlier patterns in china, women could serve as emperor, emperor was head of church as well as head of state• System of government bureaucracy similar to Chinas• Justinian created Justinian code• Arabs cnquered parts of Byzantine Empire. Survived partly because of Greek fire• Built Hagia Sophia - famous for mosaics - monoplized silk trade• Fell in 1453 with capture of Constantinople by Ottoman Turks• Churches, were Catholics• Seperated from the West; Great Schism(1054)• Dispute over use of icons• West=Icon; East=No icon: because of low literacy rates in West• Catholics spoke Latin; pope was leader; most important holy day=Christmas (Easter for Orthodox Christians - used local languages in services)• Held chariot races that caused the burning down of Constantinople• And the Crusaders sacked Byzantine at the start of the 13th century
10. What events led to the creation of the Orthodox Church in 1054?• Great Schism(1054); excommunication• debate over use of icons; whether priest could marry• eventually caused Russia to become culturally different from the rest of western Europe• Interestingly enough - in 1965 the leaders of the two churches "un-excommunicated" each other
11. What accounts for the decline of the Byzantine Empire?• The Crusades; Ottoman Turks• Sack of Constantinople by the Venetians during the 4th Crusade, invasions by Seljuk Turks, civil wars, rise of the Ottomans
12. How did the Byzantine Empire influence Russia?• Converted Russia to Orthodox Christianity (St. Cyril and Methodius)• prince Vladimir converted to Christianity. Served as Russias religion
13. Explain manorialism and feudalism• "Manorialism was the organizing principle of rural economy"- Wikipedia (Pretty much Manorialism is the exchange of loyalty for portection, with sometime money thrown in)• manorialism is an economic structure, feudalism is a set of "legal and military customs" (Wikipedia)• Whole thing considered "feudal society“• Feudalism dealt mainly with upper classes (lords/vassals/fiefs) - manorialism was what bound peasants to the lords land
14. What was the role of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages?• It acted as a powerful social force that united the disconnected people of Western Europe - also sponsored education• Knowledge kept alive in monasteries - later became first universities
15. What was the role of the women during the Middle Ages?• Islam- Women were viewed equally in eyes of Allah. After confrontations with the Persians and other regions, women were veiled and some of their rights were taken away• Europe- they were seen as property• And before Islam, women were viewed as property of men• Europe - seen as needed to be protected due to their feminine traits (beauty, etc.)• China- were treated as completely insignificant and were forced to observe the painful practice of foot-binding.• In the Byzantine empire, Justinians wife Theodora held power. So therefore women could hold power in the empire• India - pretty much the same as China (according to the AP book) due to the patriarchal caste system• Mongol women were treated fairly well, if I remember correctly• Aztec made them grind corn? They could also inherit property.• Inca and Aztec societies they were supposed to look after the household and played a big part in textiles• Africa - relatively equal to men - many societies matrilineal/matriarchal - seen as a valuable source of wealth (bride price instead of dowry)• The women in Japan helped to create the Japanese culture-tale of Genji• And the women in Japan held a more prominent role in society, but the women in the elites family did not hold as much freedom• The Trung sisters in Vietnam held great power in the military and led Vietnam to freedom.
16. What were the causes for the Crusades? What was the impact of the Crusades on Europe?• The Crusades spread Christianity through Europe.• Pope Urban wanted to recapture the holy land from the Muslims.• Exposed Europe to Asian/Islamic influences/culture/technology• Holy land= Jerusalem.• The later Crusades were prompted more by money then the spread of religion or culture• GOLD!!! Economic incentives as well
17. What were signs of economic and cultural revival in Western Europe after 1000?• Feudalism helped to defend the lands.• Agriculture expanded – urbanization• Specialization of labor• trade, merchant class becomes more valuable• Trade increased (Hanseatic League) - rise of middle class• crop rotation and 3-field system helped with agricultural economy• Population growth was directly tied with the expansion of agriculture• new technology- plow, new horse collar and new horseshoe (also helped economy in agricultural purposes)• Aristotles works were rediscovered.• And that helped to spread the Greek culture. Thomas Aquinas. Ancient Roman culture was also spread this way
18. What were the basic characteristics of the Olmec, Maya, Aztec and Inca? Cmpare the Aztec and Inca• Aztecs- women milled corn. Worked in the house most of the time. Same as Inca women• Okay, they all believed in paying tribute to the Gods, whether that be through human sacrifice or by killing animals.• Inca-grew potatoes• Aztec conquered land for human sacrifices• Aztec - expanded through conquest - capital at Tenochtitlan - founded on island in Lake Texcoco• Economy was based on agriculture• Inca - used llamas - quipu (knots) used for record-keeping - founded 1450• Both had rulers that were seen as near-gods - also both conquered by Spanish in 16th century• Aztec wasnt a bureaucracy but Inca was• Aztecs had city-states• Religious system was tied to warfare because of sacrifices• Roads/bridges built by Inca• Inca had the system of split inheritance, where the oldest son got the power and the wealth was divided between younger sons.• Aztecs - used chinampas• Inca involved in not very little trading• Incas had capital @ Cuzco• In the Inca, the nobles ran the bureaucracy• They were all polytheistic.
19. What were the basic characteristics of the Tang and Song dynasties? How did they change from the Han Dynasty?• Tang had paper money and developed receipts, credit, etc...• China had a golden age during these periods• China also expanded greatly during the Tang (military-wise)• Neo-Confucianism developed/greatly influenced Song• They completed repairs on the Great Wall as well• Buddhism introduced during the Tang dynasty - blamed for problems• used a scholar-gentry for political purposes• Song where marriage was put off for the scholar-gentry• 1st and only empress of China -Wu Zhao - during Tang dynasty• The Tang was brought to its end by Emperor Xanzong and his concubine Yang Guifei• Eventually conquered by Mongols• Neo-Confucianism did not like new technology• Silk roads reopened!• Song paid tribute to nomads to avoid being overthrown, did not work• Many countries paid tribute to the Tang (Vietnam, Korea, Tibet, central Asian kingdoms)• Civil service exams integrated more during Song dynasty. 3 classes; district, provincial, and imperial. Took test every 3 years• In the Song, the land was broken up among the peasants so the nobles lost their power.• Increase of taxes to pay for military. People didnt like that• Song became rump state! haha :P ... after north attacked• Introduction of Champa rice from Vietnam allowed for increase in food supplies/population
20. Discuss the status of women during the Tang-Song era.• It was AWFUL. Footbinding, no rights, heavily subordinate to men.• in some cases, noble women could divorce, but it was very strict• Footbinding was to decrease mobility which shows that the men didnt allow them to do much.• Chinese Women made silk
21. What innovations were made during the Tang-Song era?• junks, compass, gunpowder• Moveable type• Abacus/Bridges• paper money, credit, receipts, etc...• Song produced iron like no other... A whopping 120,000 tons annually• WATER CLOCK• flying money
22. What was Neo-Confucianism? How did it change the political and social nature of China?• Basically New-Confucian Did not like new technology• Very conservative - emphasized rank and obligation/morality• Did not like foreigners ideas or other ideas• They stressed tradition.• It affected China because it became their dominant cultural system. And it spread through Chinas conquering in the Tang dynasty• Also emphasized gender divisions. Sorry women... :/• Promoted individual and creative thought
23. Describe Japan during the Heian era.• Rise of women that created Japanese culture. Tale of Genji• developed their own culture. Moved away from Chinese culture• And Japan developed a new writing system called kana• Didnt they hold on to the belief that pedigree> ability?• Developed feudal system (similar to Europes)• And the Heian ended because of the rise of military clans. Gempei Wars• Emperor became figurehead• Minamoto!• Rise of the shogun• Code of Bushido – Samurai• The whole samurai thing started at the very end of the Heian period - just when all the clans started fighting
24. Compare and contrast European and Japanese feudalism.• Same purpose>> Protection for services• Europeans=Knights; Japanese=Samurai• The samurai had to commit seppuku if they failed as a warrior. The knights battle armor was harder to move in and they werent as elaborate as the samurais.• Code of Bushido similar to Code of Chivalry
25. Compare and contrast the degree of Sinification in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam• Vietnam wasnt having any of that! Trung sisters=Independence• Japan - almost identical copy of China (before Heian, at least)• Korea learned pottery from Chinese, but shortly exceeded them at their own art• Korea - copied some things (bureaucracy, Confucianism to an extent, Buddhism) - served as a vassal state to China• Vietman- their earlier traditions differed, such as women having more status than in China.• So basically its Japan<-Korea<-Vietnam, in order of increasing Sinification from right to left... (In order of most to least influenced by China)
26. How was Genghis Khan able to build one of historys largest empires?• Fast moving and well organized army• Used scouts/messengers/maps• He organized the Mongols into tumens of 10,000 warriors. Divide and conquer• He brought unity to the Mongols and patronized artists and intellectuals of conquered lands• Flow of culture/technology between Europe and Asia• They didnt really force the people to change culture, it was either listen to us or die, so they would rather keep their culture and live than imminently die if they refused.
27. What was the impact of the Mongol conquest of Russia? Islamic heartland? China?• The Mongol invasion of Russia set Russia apart from other countries• Mongols prevented Russia from unifying quickly like Europe did• China - founded new dynasty (Yuan), But later taken back.... so not too much impact overall in China• Plus they didnt force assimilation, so China held on to their beliefs.• Islamic heartland - something about Baghdad - Baibars was also the first person to defeat Mongols (Ain Jalut - 1260)• Mongol invasion promoted hegemony in Russia• hegemony-"leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others, as in a confederation." (Dictionary.com)
28. What were the positive impacts of the Mongol conquests? Negative impacts?• Pax Mongolica was a definite +. Meant peace for the conquered lands of the Mongols• Postive- we were given insight on a lot of Asian culture.• Negative-it isolated Russia from the rest of Europe• Negative- Many people died in the wars and conquering. Prevented Russia from having contact with Europe• The Mongols united people under a single ruler