• There are different kind of kingdoms .
• The most known kingdoms are:
• Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of
the kingdom Animalia . Their body plan
eventually becomes fixed as they develop,
although some undergo a process of
metamorphosis later on in their lives. Most
animals are motile, meaning they can move
spontaneously and independently.
• The animalia kingdom are divided in vertebrates
• The vertebrates divide in another groups:
reptiles, fish, mammals, amphibians and birds.
• Reptiles, the class Reptilia, are an evolutionary
grade of animals, comprising today's turtles,
crocodilians, snakes, lizards and tuatara, as well
as many extinct groups. A reptile is any amniotes
(a tetrapod whose egg has an additional
membrane, originally to allow them to lay eggs
on land) that is neither a mammal nor a bird.
Unlike mammals, birds, and certain extinct
reptiles, living reptiles have scales or scutes
(rather than fur or feathers) and are cold-
• A fish is any member of a paraphyletic group of
organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic
craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Included in this definition are the living hagfish,
lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well
as various extinct related groups. Most fish are
ectothermic ("cold-blooded"), allowing their body
temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures
change, though some of the large active
swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a
higher core temperature.
• Mammals are a clade of endothermic amniotes
distinguished from the reptiles and the birds by
the possession of hair, three middle ear bones,
mammary glands in females, and a neocortex (a
region of the brain). The mammalian brain
regulates body temperature and the circulatory
system, including the four-chambered heart. The
mammals include the largest animals on the
planet, the rorquals and some other whales, as
well as some of the most intelligent, such as
elephants, some primates and some cetaceans.
• Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of
the class Amphibia. They inhabit a wide variety of
habitats with most species living within terrestrial,
fossorial, arboreal or freshwater aquatic ecosystems.
Amphibians typically start out as larva living in water,
but some species have developed behavioral
adaptations to bypass this. The young generally
undergo metamorphosis from larva with gills to an
adult air-breathing form with lungs. Amphibians use
their skin as a secondary respiratory surface and some
small terrestrial salamanders and frogs lack lungs and
rely entirely upon skin.
• Birds are feathered, winged, two-legged, warm-
blooded, egg-laying vertebrates. Aves ranks as
the tetrapod class with the most living species,
approximately ten thousand. Extant birds belong
to the subclass Neornithes, living worldwide and
ranging in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee
hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. The
fossil record indicates that birds emerged within
the theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic
period, around 150 million years ago. Most
researchers agree that modern-day birds are the
only living members of the Dinosauria clade.
• Invertebrates are animal species that do not
possess or develop a vertebral column, derived
from the notochord. This in effect includes all
animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata.
Familiar examples of invertebrates include
insects, worms, clams, crabs, octopus, snails, and
starfish. Taxonomically speaking, "invertebrate" is
no more than a term of convenience. The
overwhelming majority of animal species are
invertebrates, because only about 4% of animal
species include a vertebral column in their
• Plants, also called green plants, are living multicellular organisms of
the kingdom Plantae. They form a clade that includes the flowering
plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses,
hornworts, liverworts and mosses, as well as, depending on
definition, the green algae. Plants exclude the red and brown algae,
and some seaweeds such as kelp, the fungi, archaea and bacteria.
• Green plants have cell walls with cellulose and characteristically
obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis using
chlorophyll contained in chloroplasts, which gives them their green
color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce
normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are
also characterized by sexual reproduction, modular and
indeterminate growth, and an alternation of generations, although
asexual reproduction is common.