Evolution of earth’s processes
• The earth is the third planet in the solar
system, millions of years ago the earth start
forming with meteorites that years laters will
become into oxygen centuries ago the earth
was only covered by water but then the
tectonic plates appear and the continents
Evolution of earth’s processes
• The earth moon formed up by the collision
between mars and the earth this collision
made that earth moon appear.
• The moon give the gravity to the earth, the
gravity in the earth is very important for the
• Rotation:Earth's rotation is the rotation of the
solid Earth around its own axis. The Earth rotates
from the west towards the east. This movement
takes 24 hours this movement is the responsible for
the day and night in the earth.
• Translation: this movement takes 365 and 6 hours to
be complete this movement is the responsible for
the seasons in the earth: winter, summer, spring and
• the earth is made of many different layers.
The deeper layers are composed of heavier
materials;they are hotter, denser and under
much greater pressure than the outer layers.
The layers are: inner core , outer core,matle,
surface and crust.
• Earth's inner core is Earth's innermost part
and is a primarily solid ball with a radius of
about 1,220 km (760 mi), according to
seismological studies. (This is about 70% of
the Moon's radius.) It is believed to consist
primarily of an iron–nickel alloy and to be
approximately the same temperature as the
surface of the Sun: approximately 5700 K
• Earth's outer core is a liquid layer about 2,266 km
(1,408 mi) thick composed of iron and nickel that lies
above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle.
Its outer boundary lies 2,890 km (1,800 mi) beneath
Earth's surface. The transition between the inner
core and outer core is located approximately 5,150
km (3,200 mi) beneath Earth's surface.
• Earth’s outer core temperature is about 4,030 °C.
• The mantle is composed of silicon, oxygen,
magnesium, iron, aluminum, and calcium. the
upper mantle is rigid and is part of the
• The asthenosphere is a part of the upper
mantle that exhibits plastic properties.
• The earth’s mantle temperature is about
• The earth’s surface is composed mostly of
water, basalt and granite oceans cover about
70% of earth’s surface. This oceans are up to
3.7 km deep.
• The earth have 5 oceans atlantic, pacific, indic,
artic, and antartic also the earth have more
than 10 seas one of the most important seas is
• The earth’s thin rocky crust is composed of silicon,
aliminum, calcium, sodium and potasium.
• The crust is divided into continental plates which
drift slowly also called tectonic plates.
• Continental crust is about 25-90km thick. The
mohorovic discontinuity is the separation between
the crust and the upper mantle.
• is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale
motion of Earth's lithosphere. The model builds on
the concept of continental drift which was developed
during the first few decades of the 20th century. The
geoscientific community accepted the theory after
the concepts of seafloor spreading were developed
in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
• The tectonic plates also make movements ; when
tectonic plates crash can cause an earthquake.
The earth’s continents
• is one of several very large landmasses on Earth.
They are generally identified by convention rather
than any strict criteria, with up to seven regions
commonly regarded as continents. These are (from
largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North
America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and
• In geology, continents are described by means of
tectonic plates. Plate tectonics is the process and
study of the movement, collision and division of