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Reforms to media legislation in mexico edit

  1. 1. QUA-DERNSDEL CACwww.cac.catEducation in audiovisualcommunication25Issue 25May - August 2006
  2. 2. SummaryQuaderns del CAC Issue. 25, May - August 2006E-mail: quadernsdelcac@gencat.netEditorial Board:Victòria Camps i Cervera, Núria Llorach i Boladeras,Jaume Serrats i OlléDirector:Josep GifreuEditorial Chief:Martí PetitGeneral coordination:Sylvia MontillaEditorial staff:Anna Estrada, Mònica Gasol, Sylvia Montilla,Carme OrtínTranslation:Tracy ByrnePage Layout:D6ALegal diposit book: B-17.999/98ISSN: 1138-9761Catalonia Broadcasting CouncilPresident: Josep M. Carbonell i AbellóVice president: Jaume Serrats i OlléSecretary: Rafael Jorba i CastellvíMembers of the Catalonia Broadcasting Council: VictòriaCamps i Cervera, Dolors Comas d’Argemir i Cendra,Núria Llorach i Boladeras, Josep Micaló i Aliu, SantiagoRamentol i Massana, Fernando Rodríguez Madero,Domènec Sesmilo i RiusGeneral secretary: Jordi Pericàs i TorguetGeneralitat de CatalunyaEntença, 32108029 BarcelonaTel. 93 363 25 25 - Fax 93 363 24 78audiovisual@gencat.netwww.cac.catContents.Introduction 2.Monographic: Education in Audiovisual CommunicationEducation and Audiovisual Communication, Shared 3ResponsibilitiesVictòria CampsEducation in Audiovisual Communication in the Digital Era 5Joan Ferrés PratsCompetence in Audiovisual Communication: Proposal Organised 9Around Dimensions and IndicatorsJoan Ferrés PratsEducation in Audiovisual Communication: Perspectives and 19Proposals for Action in CataloniaFòrum d’entitats de persones usuàries de l’audiovisualOverview of Education in Audiovisual Communication 29Mercè Oliva RotaManifesto for Audiovisual and Multimedia Education 41Conclusion of the White Paper: Education in the Audiovisual 43Environment.ObservatoryHealth and Radio: an Analysis of Journalistic Practice 51Amparo Huertas and Maria GutiérrezReforms to Media Legislation in Mexico 63Rodrigo Gómez García and Gabriel Sosa PlataWomen, Identities and Television: How News Programmes 81Constructed the 8th of MarchMontserrat Ribas and Lydia Fernández.AgendaCritical Books Review 91Books Review 97Journal Review 99Webs Review 101
  3. 3. In our culture of image and omnipresent audiovisual narratives, it is inconceivable that school curricula shouldignore learning skills and abilities in audiovisual communication. Girls and boys, children and teenagers, grow upimmersed in iconographic and multimedia environments and do not have sufficient or efficient tools to interpret,understand and critically judge the audiovisual proposals insistently offered by the media.The Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC) has promoted various initiatives in this respect. Number 25 of theQuaderns del CAC (CAC Notebooks) contains some recent contributions of interest to make education inaudiovisual communication a fundamental aspect of learning and formal schooling. “Thinking of audiovisualeducation” is the general proposal of this single-themed work, as noted in the introduction of the article by VictòriaCamps, and as argued by Joan Ferrés (“Education in audiovisual communication in the digital era”), coordinatorof the working group under the auspices of the CAC to define the concept of competence in audiovisualcommunication. Ferrés also presents results from a wide consultation among experts in this area (“Competencein audiovisual communication: proposal organised around dimensions and indicators”). In Catalonia, the Forum ofentities of audiovisual users put forward some specific proposals at the end of 2004 (“Education in audiovisualcommunication: perspectives and proposals for action in Catalonia”), whereas Mercè Oliva presents a report onkey international initiatives in this area (“An overview of education in audiovisual communication”). Finally, thiscollection includes a manifesto for audiovisual and multimedia education by a group of Spanish experts, as wellas the conclusions of the White Paper: education in the audiovisual environment (2003).In the “Observatory” section we have published three articles of applied research. Firstly, a summary of thefindings of a study on how health is treated on the radio by Amparo Huertas and Maria Gutiérrez (“Health andradio: an analysis of journalistic practice”). There is also an appraisal of the new audiovisual andtelecommunications regulations in Mexico by Rodrigo Gómez García and Gabriel Sosa Plata (“Reforminglegislation on radio, television and telecommunications in Mexico”). And, finally, a study of how women wererepresented on International Women’s Day 2005 (“Women, identities and television: how news programmesconstructed the 8th of March”) by Montserrat Ribas and Lydia Fernández.Josep GifreuDirector2Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25Presentation
  4. 4. on television. According to this directive, protecting childrenmeans ensuring that television channels do not broadcastprogrammes that are harmful or detrimental to minors.Although harm and detriment may derive directly from theuse of television content that is not appropriate for children,we should also bear in mind the fact that the preparation,knowledge, capacity to discern and critical skills of receiversgo to make up an essential vaccine against possible injury.Consequently, thinking about education does not meanignoring what television channels may programme andtransferring the responsibility that the audiovisual media inparticular should shoulder to the schools. It is not a questionof replacing supervision of operators with an education thatimmunises children from possible hazards and risks. It israther a question of acting simultaneously on both fronts,given that it is not easy to determine accurately what mightbe detrimental, nor is it possible to predetermine the resultsof education. It is rather a question of not scrimping on anyinstrument within our reach in order to take full advantage ofthe huge potential audiovisuals undoubtedly have insocialising minors.It is this belief that led the Catalonia Broadcasting Councilto draw up, four years ago now, its White Paper: Educationin the audiovisual environment. In this case the aim was todiagnose the issue and propose the most suitable treatmentin order to correct any dysfunctions detected. One of themost distressing discoveries was low level and littlerecognition existing concerning the importance of educationin audiovisual communication as a vital element in formaleducation in general. Although the European Commissionconstantly insists and makes recommendations in thisrespect, there are few European countries that can statewith satisfaction and in no uncertain terms that theirrespective states have taken care of the problem. Ingeneral, the simplest step has been taken, namely theMonographic: Education and Audiovisual Communication, Shared ResponsibilitiesLiteracy no longer means just reading and writing. In thenew audiovisual and digital environment, the instruments ofknowledge are becoming increasingly more diversified. Thelanguage of image complements and sometimes evenreplaces verbal language. It is a language that impacts moredirectly on the senses, that has more intense persuasiveand seductive powers and, therefore, a great capacity toproduce collective imaginaries and to influence people’sbehaviour. Audiovisual communication employs a newlanguage that needs to be specifically learned just like awritten language. We don’t only need to know how a certainmessage is produced in technical terms in order to achievethe planned effect but also have to prepare the receiver ofthe messages so that he or she knows how to establishdistinctions and become active and critical. Given thatcommunicative action can always have a manipulativecomponent and that it occurs in a totally business-basedcontext, it is reasonable to think that education cannotremain apart or ignorant, given the possible perversions ofaudiovisual communication that may confuse theappropriate socialisation of children and young adults.Although education is not one of the functions given toaudiovisual councils, most of these organisms haveapproached education one way or the other, turning it intoan important part of their study and analysis. We shouldremember that one of the key functions of audiovisualcouncils is to protect children and young people, inaccordance with the regulations of the European directiveEducation and Audiovisual Communication, SharedResponsibilitiesVictòria CampsVictòria CampsMember of the Catalonia Broadcasting Council3
  5. 5. 4quantitative one. Schools have been filled with audiovisualequipment that, given the speed with which communicationtechnologies are advancing, are becoming obsolete andmust be replaced by other equipment. In the best of cases,education in audiovisual communication has been limited tothe work of educating with communication media. Educationin and for the media has been more difficult, that which isproperly known as communication literacy. It is not enoughto use the new media but these same media, andparticularly their content, must also become a specific objectof study.This is the aim that, with the sponsorship of the CataloniaBroadcasting Council, the working group has proposed, ledby Joan Ferrés, with the result that now it is being presentedas a working document. Efforts have been made to reflecton and determine, as precisely and thoroughly as possible,the concept of competence in audiovisual communication.What must a person know in order to be declared“competent”, “literate”, in audiovisual communication? Whatmust a person know to have what we might call an“audiovisual culture”?The document now being published, whose key chapter isentitled “Competence in audiovisual communication”, hasno precedents. This is a groundbreaking project and anessential instrument in assessing, among other things,whether education in audiovisual communication is beingcarried out well or not, if the results that should be achievedare actually being achieved. This is yet another attempt atpromoting an idea that, in our country, is still in theembryonic stage. It is absolutely vital for those in charge ofeducation policy to commit themselves to bringing educationin audiovisual communication into the classroom. We mayargue about how this should be done but we cannot denythe need to talk about it and to put it into practice. Theconsequences of ignoring this enterprise will not only becultural but also political and social. For example, the needexpressed in the last educational reform to introduce asubject to educate citizens as citizens cannot ignore what isbeing done by the audiovisual media and, specifically, bytelevision, constantly bombarding the audience with imagesand models that are not always coherent with the valuesthat should shape citizen behaviour.No-one can deny that television is a fundamental means ofsocialisation. Empirical studies based on teenagers’perception of television clearly reveal that, in addition toentertaining, television is also a source of information for theyoungest among us. As stated by a former head of theFederal Communications Commission, the audiovisualcouncil in the United States, “television is always instructive.The question we have to ask ourselves is: what is itteaching?”. All the articles published in this document helpto ask this question and also to answer it by encouragingcriticism and reflection. In short, they help to convert theinevitable consumption of television into consumption withthe discernment to be able to choose intelligently.Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  6. 6. 5Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication in the Digital EraGroundbreaking initiativesDuring the 2005-2006 school year, and within the frame-work of the Educational Innovation Projects, the Generalitatde Catalunya directed an initiative entitled Programme ofEducation in Audiovisual Communication (PECA inCatalan). It was a groundbreaking proposal in Spain, alongthe lines that had been promoted by the Ministry forEducation and Science of the government of the Principalityof Asturias, now six years ago, on introducing an optionalsubject in all schools in the autonomous community entitledaudiovisual communication and multimedia.However, it seems paradoxical that, in academia, weshould consider initiatives as groundbreaking and innova-tive that consist of introducing a kind of communication intocurricula, namely audiovisual, that has been in existence forover one hundred years and that, throughout this century,has impregnated and continues to impregnate the collectiveimaginary of many generations of children, young peopleand adults.This is yet more proof of the traditional disassociationbetween the educational world and popular culture or, inother words, of the distance between the classroom and theeveryday life of children and young people.The paradox is that these initiatives are truly ground-breaking and innovative because they are exceptional. Theyare the only initiatives to introduce education in audiovisualcommunication into the curricula of formal education. And,curiously, with a well differentiated approach. In thePrincipality of Asturias they have resorted to an optionalsubject. This formula allows the content to be dealt with ona broad basis, but only reaches a circle of pupils whochoose the subject. Catalonia has opted for a “transversal”or across-the-board approach, spreading the contentthroughout different subjects. This formula means that allEducation in Audiovisual Communicationin the Digital EraJoan Ferrés PratsJoan Ferrés PratsLecturer at the Department of Journalism and AudiovisualCommunication at the Pompeu Fabra UniversityThe fact that audiovisual literacy does not form partof school curricula is a demonstration of the gulfseparating the academic world from the everyday lifeof citizens.Paradoxically, the appearance of digital technolo-gies and multimedia has widened this gulf evenfurther, creating new conceptual and operationalconfusion. The opposite of what one normallysupposes, digital or multimedia competence does notentail audiovisual competence. In fact, it often servesto hide its incompetence..KeywordsEducation, audiovisual communication, competence,multimedia, digital, school curriculum.
  7. 7. pupils can be reached, fundamentally through the areas ofsociety, language and plastic arts, but limits the amount ofcontent covered.In any case, the exceptional nature of these initiatives isworrying, as it demonstrates the extent of disassociationbetween school and society. In the social area, throughoutthe 20th century, audiovisual communication graduallygained ground not only with regard to leisure pursuits butalso as a vehicle of culture, above strictly verbal, oral orwritten communication, becoming the framework of theinformation society in the form of hegemonic communica-tion. On the other hand, in the academic world, audiovisualcommunication was first neglected and then forgotten infavour of the dominant verbal culture and, finally, with theadvent of new technologies, the concept of audiovisualcommunication was diluted (and consequently alsomarginalised and forgotten) within the generic andconfusing concept of information and communicationtechnologies (TIC).Audiovisuals in the digital eraThe appearance of digital and multimedia technologiesdoes not seem to have helped to put things in their place.On the contrary, it seems to have increased confusion andmisunderstanding.In fact, from comments made by some experts, we maydeduce that audiovisual literacy has been replaced by digitalliteracy. These comments suggest a lack of knowledge ofwhat this important technological advance entails.The possibility to digitalise a whole range of texts has ledto an extraordinary strengthening of their communicativecapacities, increasing the possibilities not only to produce,store and handle information but also to ensure that thereceiver interacts with it creatively.Bu this happens both in audiovisual and in verballanguage, which means that, both in one area and in theother, digital literacy does not preclude literacy in therespective codes of expression. Currently, a person cannotbe considered literate, not verbally nor in audiovisual terms,without a certain digital literacy. But digital literacy alonedoes not confer any kind of competence in verbal oraudiovisual communication.Similar comments may be made with regard to the conceptof multimedia literacy. Technological advances, such as theappearance of multimedia, substantially modify communica-tion and strengthen its persuasive and seductive effects. Inmultimedia communication, as it increases the quantity ofmechanisms and codes available, the transmitter can takeadvantage of the specific potential of each one of thesemechanisms and codes.But this does not mean that, if the receiver tries to confrontthese effects, he or she does not need to know their pecu-liarities, conventions and expressive mechanisms of eachand every code and vehicle. In other words, competence inmultimedia does not replace audiovisual competence, as itdoes not replace verbal competence. Quite the contrary; itactually requires them.It is because of all this confusion, contradiction, divergenceand discrepancy that we feel the need to promote initiativesaimed at introducing or strengthening education inaudiovisual communication, not only in the school sector butin all educational areas, including universities and adulteducation.The aim of publishing this special edition of Quaderns delCAC is to help to ensure that education in audiovisualcommunication is recognised as necessary and relevantcurricular content within current social and culturalenvironments. In other words, we must ensure thatcompetence in audiovisual communication is recognised asa deficiency that must be resolved in school and universitystudy plans and in adult education.The organisation of the volumeThis single themed edition of Quaderns del CAC, dedicatedto education in audiovisual communication, is fundamentallymade up of a series of studies carried out over the last fewyears concerning initiatives related directly or indirectly tothe Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC in Catalan). Somearticles have been added to complete the volume, providinga more global view of the issue:Competence in audiovisual communication: proposalbased on dimensions and indicatorsThe concept of competence is one of the axes on which the6Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  8. 8. most recent educational reforms have been based in allcountries of the European Union and is the central axis ofthe educational reform being promoted in Spain.One of the most evident proofs that education inaudiovisual communication has been neglected by theacademic world is the fact that, in Spain and amongeducational professionals concerned about this area, therehas been no initiative aimed at defining and agreeing on theconcept of competence in audiovisual communication.The article on this issue offered here is the result ofresearch carried out with the collaboration of a large numberof experts in audiovisual communication, sponsored by theCatalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC) and promoted by theUNICA group from the Pompeu Fabra University.A preliminary document was drawn up at this university onthe concept of audiovisual communication, based on theprofessional experience of the members of the team behindthe initiative and based on an analysis of similar studiescarried out around the world.This initial document was analysed and evaluated byaround fifty renowned experts in audiovisual communicationin the Iberian-American area. The contributions of theseexperts were incorporated into the initial document. Thissecond document was analysed and debated by aroundfifteen experts from Spain, meeting in a seminar. The aimwas to come to an agreement on a document that wouldexplain the criteria and characteristics that would definecompetence in audiovisual communication. The articlepresented is the result of this collaborative work.Education in audiovisual communication: perspectivesand proposals for action in CataloniaThis document systematically analyses in detail the differentaspects from which education in audiovisual communicationshould be tackled: based on a justification of its need and anoutline of its history, a definition should be reached of thecontent that should be covered or a presentation of the mosturgent steps that should be taken in the different areas, fromschool education to university and adult training, withoutforgetting the role of the mass media in this field.One of the elements that makes this document so valuableis probably the fact that it has been drawn up and approved,within the framework of the Catalonia Broadcasting Council(CAC), by the Forum of Entities of Audiovisual Users, whichmeans it has been approved and agreed on by representati-ves form more than forty entities in Catalan civil society,interested in some way in the social consequences ofaudiovisual communication.The CAC has sent this document to the academicauthorities, both at a state level and for Catalonia, so thatthey may know the concerns, desires and demands of thoseCatalan institutions that are most worried about education inaudiovisual communication.Approach to education in audiovisual communicationin the worldThis article aims to place the problems of integratingaudiovisual literacy in school curricula in a world context,from an academic and conceptual perspective.The article, written by Mercè Oliva from the UNICA groupof the Pompeu Fabra University, reviews the most signifi-cant experiences in education in audiovisual communicationthat have been carried out in the world, underlining thedifferences in approach, both in terms of theoreticalconcepts and also in how these are structured and locatedwithin the different curricular frameworks.Fundamentally, those experiences are mentioned, carriedout in countries that have stood out or still stand out forhaving given these problems preferential attention: fromCanada and the United Kingdom to Australia and thecountries in the north of Europe. At the end of the article,before the conclusions, a detailed analysis is carried out ofthe situation in education in audiovisual communication inCatalonia.Manifesto for education in audiovisual communicationThis Manifesto for audiovisual and multimedia educationwas drawn up by a group of experts in audiovisual commu-nication meeting in Galicia in December 2005, at a seminarheld within the framework of the International Meeting onAudiovisual Education.The Manifesto was addressed to the academic, Spanishand local authorities at a historic time, because the educa-tional reform was being drawn up. This was therefore consi-dered to be an ideal opportunity to introduce content relatedto audiovisual communication into the new school curricula.7Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication in the Digital Era
  9. 9. Conclusions of the White Paper: education in theaudiovisual environmentIn 2002, the Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC)publicised its White Paper: education in the audiovisualenvironment, with the aim of promoting one of the mostimportant tasks among those assigned to the Council,namely that of attending to and protecting children andteenagers.This single-themed edition reproduces the third block ofthe paper, dedicated to the conclusions and proposalsstructured around five broad lines: that of knowledge andresearch; that of information, training and education; that ofproduction and dissemination; that of involvement and thatof regulation and self-regulation.The aim of reproducing these conclusions and proposalsfrom the White Paper is to offer a local and pragmaticframework for the problems of education in audiovisualcommunication.8Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  10. 10. Monographic: Competence in Audiovisual Communication: Proposal Organised Around Dimensions and Indicators9The concept of competence came about associated with theworld of employment, in the business sphere. Then itgradually became integrated into the academic world,becoming the conceptual axis for educational reforms inmost countries in the European Union, including Spain.Competence is usually understood as a combination ofknowledge, capacity and attitude believed necessary for aspecific context. The neglect in which education inaudiovisual communication (EAC) finds itself is thereforemade clear in the fact that, in spite of our cultural contextbeing markedly audiovisual, EAC is hardly present in theeducational curricula.It must be acknowledged that there are highly valuableexperiences in education in audiovisual communication inour country. But looking at the whole of society, theseexperiences are one-off, anecdotal and not veryrepresentative. Furthermore, from the point of view ofcompetences, very few attempts have been made, explicitor implicit, to define what a person competent in audiovisualcommunication would be like.As a member of the UNICA group (Audiovisual Commu-nication Research Unit) of the Pompeu Fabra University, in2005 Joan Ferrés, in collaboration with Mercè Oliva andsponsored by the Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC),carried out an initiative aimed at defining and coming tosome agreement as to this concept. An initial document wasdrawn up based on the research team’s experience and onan analysis of the most successful experiences carried outin the most outstanding countries in the subject.Competence in Audiovisual Communication: ProposalOrganised Around Dimensions and IndicatorsJoan Ferrés PratsJoan Ferrés PratsLecturer at the Department of Journalism and AudiovisualCommunication af the Pompeu Fabra UniversityThe document was sent to 54 experts in the Iberian-American area renowned for their contributions to thisacademic field. A second document was prepared with theobservations and suggestions from the 46 experts whoanswered this request, which was sent to 14 experts inSpain for analysis and evaluation. Finally, these expertsdebated the proposals and observations in a seminar heldin Barcelona and they came to an agreement on the finaldocument1.The main value of the document Competences inAudiovisual Communication therefore lies in the fact thatit has been agreed by the most renowned experts in Spain.Of course, it is a document that must always be provisio-nal, a document that must be revised continuously, as expe-riences in education in audiovisual communication continueto grow. But it is a document that can serve as a basis bothfor the criteria on which this education should be based aswell as the dimensions that must be taken into account.Competences in Audiovisual CommunicationIntroductionJustification of the proposalThe situation of neglect in which education in audiovisualcommunication finds itself is made evident, among otherthings, by the lack of a precise and agreed definition of whatit means to be competent in this area and, consequently, bythe absence of evaluations of people’s level of competence.To a large extent, the effectiveness of teaching-learningprocesses depends on the effectiveness of the assessment1 An appendix at the end of the article contains the names ofthe experts who took part in the two phases of the initiative.
  11. 11. Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25systems used. On the other hand, there cannot be effectiveassessment systems without a precise definition of theknowledge, skills and attitudes that must be achieved inorder to be considered competent in an academic area.The document was prepared within the context of theworking programme of the European Union entitled“Education and Training 2010”, within the working group on“Key competences for lifelong learning. A Europeanreference framework”. In March 2000, the European Councilin Lisbon set a new strategic objective for the EuropeanUnion: education and training systems must be adapted tothe demands of the knowledge society; for this reason,member states must establish a European framework thatdefines the new basic skills that Europeans must masterwithin the framework of lifelong learning. This frameworkmust include information and communication technologies,technological culture, foreign languages, entrepreneurialspirit and social skills. With this aim, working groups werecreated for key competences.Two years later, in February 2002, at the BarcelonaCouncil, a need for action was emphasised in order toimprove the mastery of basic skills. In particular, specialattention was requested for digital literacy and foreignlanguages. The aim was to define the necessarycompetences for everyone in the knowledge society.Working group B, called “Key competences for lifelonglearning” defined a framework made up of eight keycompetence domains for everyone in the knowledgesociety, among which is digital competence, ranking fourth.So, deriving from this mandate, educational systems mustdefine and promote the key competences that must beacquired by pupils during schooling, within the framework oftheir competences.Key competence can be defined as a multi-functional andtransferable number of skills, attitudes and knowledge thatall people need to acquire in the process of compulsoryeducation for their personal realisation and development,inclusion in society and access to employment. They mustbe transferable and therefore applicable in certain contextsand situations.In the aforementioned working document on keycompetences, it is established that digital competence,which covers both information and communicationtechnologies, “involves the confident and critical use ofInformation Society Technology (IST) for work, leisure andcommunication”. These competences are related to logicaland critical thought, with the skills for handling information ata high level and with the efficient development ofcommunicative skills.Efficient development of these communicative skillssupposes in the individual vital competence in audiovisualcommunication, which we understand as an individual’scapacity to interpret and analyse, based on criticalreflection, audiovisual images and messages and toexpress oneself with minimum correction in thecommunicative sphere. This competence is related toknowledge of the media and to the basic use of multimediatechnologies necessary to produce it.When we talk of audiovisual communication we arereferring to all those productions that are expressed bymeans of image and/or sound in any kind of medium andmeans, from traditional (photography, cinema, radio,television, video) and the most recent (video-games,multimedia, internet, etc.).The Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC) has made apioneering contribution, as it has helped provide mecha-nisms both for consultation and for interaction betweenexperts in order to define, with disciplinary thoroughness,the referential frameworks that delimit the concept of aperson competent in audiovisual communication (AC).Design of the proposalWith this aim in mind, two activities have been carried out inorder to achieve an agreed definition of the aforementionedconcept:1. Production of a base document defining the concept of aperson competent in audiovisual communication (AC).Based on the experience of the document’s authors,compared with an analysis of documents produced incountries in which education in audiovisual communi-cation (EAC) is being worked on, a base document wasproduced defining the dimensions that go to make up thenotion of non-professional competence in the area of ACand the indicators were presented that were consideredadequate in order to assess this. This document wasevaluated, via email, by the key specialists in the subjectin the Iberian-American area. They were invited to makeall kinds of amendments, suggestions and criticisms in10
  12. 12. writing that they felt would contribute to drawing up thefinal document.2. Day of discussion. In the second phase, on the 11th ofNovember a seminar was held attended by the keyexperts in the country to debate the document with thecontributions in order to reach an agreement on adefinition of what is understood by a person competentin audiovisual communication and to delineate theindicators that must be taken into account to enableassessment.The proposal involves three kinds of implications:- To reach this document it was necessary to take intoaccount what people believe should be known, whichinvolves a normative dimension.- This document, in order to effective, had to be ableto serve as an instrument for measurement, i.e. beuseful in a descriptive dimension.- The final descriptive product had to serve,subsequently, to help draw up the objectives,processes and content in audiovisual communicationthat had to be developed and acquired by pupils ingeneral at the end of compulsory secondaryeducation and to serve as a basis for subsequentlifelong learning in this field; as well as the content ofthe university curriculum for the training of futureteachers and future professionals of communicationand information in general.Areas of influenceBelow is a description of two criteria which should governthe levels of competence described later. The first affectsthe personal aspect and the second the operative.The personal aspect: interaction between emotiveness andrationalityThe idea is that people should be capable of becomingaware of the emotions that lie at the base of the fascinationexercised by images, and of turning them into a trigger forcritical reflection. They should be capable of going from thesimple pleasure of watching the image and interacting withit to thinking about it and, from here, to think by creatingimages, converting the capacity of analysis, critical sense,aesthetic fruition and creative expression into new sourcesof satisfaction.In other words, in order for a person to be consideredcompetent in audiovisual communication, he or she shouldnot be asked, as a spectator, to replace emotion withreflection, but rather they must be capable of convertingemotion into reflection and reflection into emotion.The operative aspect: interaction between criticalinterpretation and creative expressionA person who is competent in audiovisual communicationmust be capable both of interpreting audiovisual messagesappropriately and at the same time expressing themselveswith minimum correction in this communicative sphere.In other words, they must be capable of carrying out acritical analysis of the audiovisual products they consumeand, at the same time, of producing simple audiovisualmessages that are understandable and communicativelyeffective.DimensionsCompetence in audiovisual communication involves themastering of concepts, procedures and attitudes related towhat could be considered the six fundamental dimensionsof audiovisual communication2:1. Language- Knowledge of the codes that make audiovisual languagepossible and the capacity to use them in order tocommunicate simply but effectively.- Capacity to analyse audiovisual messages from theperspective of sense and meaning, of narrativestructures and of categories and genres.2. Technology- Theoretical knowledge of how the tools work that makeaudiovisual communication possible, to be able tounderstand how messages are produced.- Capacity to use the simplest tools to communicateeffectively in the audiovisual area.11Monographic: Competence in Audiovisual Communication: Proposal Organised Around Dimensions and Indicators2 These dimensions cannot be conceived as sealed compartments at all. Each can only be understood in relation to the others.
  13. 13. Quaderns del CAC: Issue 253. The processes of production and programming- Knowledge of the functions and tasks assigned to themain agents of products and the phases into which theprocesses of production and programming are brokendown for the different kinds of audiovisual products.- Capacity to produce audiovisual messages andknowledge of their importance and implications in thenew communication environments.4. Ideology and values- Capacity for comprehensive critical interpretation ofaudiovisual messages in terms of how they representreality and, consequently, as bearers of ideology andvalues.- Capacity for the critical analysis of audiovisualmessages, understood both as the expression of andsupport for the interests, contradictions and values ofsociety.5. Reception and audience- Capacity to recognise oneself as an active audience,particularly based on the use of digital technologies thatallow participation and interactivity.- Capacity to critically value the emotional, rational andcontextual elements that are involved in receiving andevaluating audiovisual messages.6. The aesthetic dimension- Capacity to analyse and value audiovisual messagesfrom the point of view of formal and thematic innovationand education in the aesthetic sense.- Capacity to relate audiovisual messages with otherforms of media and artistic expression.Indicators1. Audiovisual language1.1. Scope of the analysis1.1.1. Codes- Capacity to analyse and evaluate the use of image-related formal resources from an expressive andaesthetic point of view.- Capacity to analyse and evaluate the use of casting(physical presence and acting by actors andpresenters), scenery, make-up and costume.- Capacity to analyse and evaluate the kinds of lightingused and the expressive and/or aesthetic functionsinvolved.- Capacity to analyse and evaluate the use of sound andthe expressive and aesthetic function involved, ininteraction with other expressive elements.- Capacity to analyse and evaluate the use of editing as aresource to add sense, rhythm and meaning to imagesand sounds depending on how they interact.- Basic knowledge of the evolution of audiovisuallanguage throughout history and of the changes andinnovations introduced in the different media.1.1.2. Media, types and genres- Capacity to identify the specific expressivecharacteristics of each medium.- Capacity to distinguish between fiction and non-fiction,and to evaluate an audiovisual message according tothe category and genre it belongs to.- Capacity to identify the characteristics of narrative,news, advertising, game shows and magazines, realityshows, talk shows and debates. Audiovisual narrative- Capacity to analyse and evaluate the narrative structureof an audiovisual story and the mechanisms of narration.- Capacity to analyse and value the characters in anaudiovisual story and the narrative roles assumed.- Capacity to analyse and value a story according to thetarget audience it is aimed at.- Capacity to identify and evaluate what interactivity addsto the story. News- Capacity to evaluate audiovisual information as an exer-cise in selecting and rejecting, in which different criteriaare involved, the most important of which is image.- Capacity to evaluate information according to the orderin which news items appear, the time dedicated to them,the narrative of what is explicitly said and the absence ofwhat is omitted.12
  14. 14. - Capacity to understand the underlying business of themedia and to evaluate the consequences this may havein how news is treated.- Capacity to understand that the exercise of giving newsinvolves taking decisions with regard to content andpresentation and that there is not such thing as anobjective rule for this enterprise.- Capacity to understand that this exercise ofinterpretation allows plurality and freedom of expression,that it can give rise to the accurate treatment ordeceptive manipulation of news.- Capacity to detect and evaluate the differences intreating the presentation of the same news item offeredby the different media and to understand that differentviews of the world affect the social view of reality. Advertising3All the indicators listed in the section on audiovisualnarrative apply also to advertising, especially with regard tostereotypes and values.- Capacity to critically analyse advertisements from thepoint of view of the addressee’s needs and desires: doesit satisfy needs or create desires?- Capacity to analyse and evaluate advertisementsaccording to the product benefit presented, a functionaladvantage or added value, of a psychological orsociological nature.- In an advertising message, capacity to discern whetherrational mechanisms are used, related to argumentation,or primarily emotive mechanisms are used, related toseduction.- Capacity to critically understand and evaluate forms ofindirect advertising, such as product placement. Game shows- Capacity to analyse the aims of game shows.- Capacity to analyse the strategies used by thecontestants.13- Capacity to know the relation between explicit andimplicit advertising in this kind of programme.- Capacity to analyse the explicit and implicit values. Magazines, reality shows, talk shows and debates- Capacity to identify the aim how talk is managed.- Capacity to analyse the kind of relationship built up withthe audience.- Capacity to identify the values and models constructedthrough the celebrities, the presenters and the narrative.1.2. Scope of expression- Capacity to produce static and moving images with acorrect use of image-related formal resources.- Capacity to relate images creatively, giving them a newsense based on how they interact.- Capacity to associate images to verbal texts in anoriginal way to achieve expressive syntheses with newcommunicative values.- Capacity to integrate images and sound creatively toform new audiovisual products.2. Technology2.1. Scope of analysis- Knowledge of the main physiological and physicalprinciples that enable perception in audiovisualcommunication.- Knowledge of the most important technologicalinnovations that have been developed throughout thehistory of audiovisual communication.- Capacity to detect how the most elementary effects havebeen produced.2.2. Scope of expression- Capacity to handle visual recording equipment (photo-graphic and video cameras) and sound equipment(microphones and recorders) with the minimum level ofMonographic: Competence in Audiovisual Communication: Proposal Organised Around Dimensions and Indicators3 All the indicators listed in the section on audiovisual narrative apply also to advertising, especially with regard to stereotypes andvalues.
  15. 15. Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25technical correction required.- Elementary handling of electronic and digital editingsystems for image and sound.- Elementary handling of digital recording and modifi-cation systems for images.3. Processes agents of production and programming3.1. Scope of analysis- Basic knowledge of the factors that turn audiovisualmessages into products subject to the socio-economicconditioning factors of the whole industry.- Knowledge of the differences between publicly andprivately owned media.- Knowledge of the fundamental differences between liveand recorded broadcasting on different media.- Basic knowledge of the phases that go to make up theproduction and distribution process of an audiovisualproduct and the professionals involved.- Capacity to critically evaluate the opportunity that issometimes offered by the media to invert the broad-caster-receiver roles.3.2 Scope of expression- Capacity to detect the different areas, themes andsituations that are not covered, hardly covered or notcovered enough by the media and others that are morehighlighted.4. Reception and audiences4.1. Scope of analysis- Capacity to explain why some images are liked or whythey are successful: which needs and desires (cognitive,aesthetic, emotional, sensory, etc.) they satisfy.- Capacity to discern and assimilate the disassociationssometimes produced in the spectator between emo-tiveness and rationality, between the more or less primeinterest generated by images and the rationalevaluations made of them.- Capacity to detect the mechanisms to identify, projectand immerse that are activated by means of characters,actions and situations in a narrative, videogame,internet, etc.- Capacity to evaluate the cognitive effects of emotions:ideas and values related to characters, actions andsituations that provoke positive or negative emotions.- Knowledge of the importance of the personal and socialcontext in receiving and evaluating images.- Capacity to reflect on one’s own media consumptionhabits.- Capacity to select the messages consumed inaccordance with conscious and reasonable criteria.- Acquisition of habits for information search concerningthe products available on the media.- Basic knowledge of audience surveys: why they areused and their limitations.- Basic knowledge of the technical principles of programming.- Knowledge of the different groups and associations ofviewers and users of audiovisual media.- Knowledge of the legal framework that applies to andprotects consumers when receiving audiovisualproducts.- Capacity to produce learning, awareness of what islearned in front of a screen, capacity to transfer what hasbeen learned to other life scenarios, etc.4.1 Scope of expression- Knowledge of the power involved in being informed bychannels and the legal possibilities for complaint in thecase of any breach of the applicable rules in the area ofaudiovisuals.5. Values and ideology5.1. Scope of analysis- Capacity to detect and take sides in the case of ideologyand values resulting from how characters, actions andsituations are treated.- Capacity to analyse and evaluate audiovisual messagesas reinforcing the dominant values of society or asvehicles for alternative values.- Capacity to detect the most generalised stereotypes,especially with regard to gender, race, social or sexualminorities, disabled, etc. and to analyse the causes andconsequences of this.- Capacity to distinguish between reality and itsrepresentation offered by the media.14
  16. 16. - Capacity to recognise that one cannot be informed aboutreality if one only resorts to a single medium.- Capacity to critically analyse the culturally standardisingeffect sometimes exercised by the media.5.2 Scope of expression- Capacity to produce simple messages to transmit valuesor to criticise those presenting some media products.6. Aesthetics6.1. Scope of analysis- Capacity to get pleasure from formal aspects, i.e. notonly what is said but also how it is said.- Capacity to relate audiovisual products with othermanifestations of the media or art (mutual influences,etc.).- Capacity to recognise an audiovisual product that doesnot come up to the minimum standard with regard toartistic quality.- Capacity to identify basic aesthetic categories, such asformal and thematic innovation, originality, style, schoolsor trends.6.2. Scope of expression- Capacity to produce elementary audiovisual messagesthat are understandable and that provide a certainamount of creativity, originality and sensitivity.15Monographic: Competence in Audiovisual Communication: Proposal Organised Around Dimensions and Indicators
  17. 17. Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25Gutiérrez Martín, Alfonso. E. U. of Teachers Segovia,Univ. Valladolid, SpainHermosilla, Elena. CONACE, ChileHernández, Gustavo. University of Caracas, VenezuelaKaplún, Gabriel. University of the Republic of Montevideo,UruguayLópez, Emma. Latin American Institute of EducationalCommunication (ILCE), MexicoMaquinay, Aurora. Department of Education, Generalitatde Catalunya, SpainMerlo Flores, Tatiana. Catholic University, Buenos Aires,ArgentinaMiralles, Rafael. University of Valencia, SpainMorduchowicz, Roxana. Ministry of Education, ArgentinaObach, Xavier. Televisión Española, SpainOjeda, Gerardo. Iberian-American Association ofEducational Television (ATEI), SpainOrozco, Guillermo. University of Guadalajara, MexicoOttobre, Salvador. Southern University, ArgentinaPereira, Sara. University of Minho, PortugalPinto, Armanda. University of Coimbra, PortugalPujadas, Eva. Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, SpainReia-Baptista, Vito. University of Algarve, PortugalQuintâo, Vânia. University of Brasilia, BrazilQuiroz, Teresa. University of Lima, PeruRincón, Omar. Javeriana University, ColombiaSan Martín, Patricia. CONICET, ArgentinaVázquez, Miguel. Eduardo Pondal Institute, Santiago deCompostela, Spain164 This list only contains the Iberian-American experts consulted who made contributions to the base document (46 out of a totalof 54).AppendixBelow is a list of the names of the experts who took part inboth phases of the initiative.Iberian-American experts consulted4Aguaded, Ignacio. Huelva University, SpainAmador, Rocío. UNAM, MexicoAparici, Roberto. National Open University (UNED), SpainAranguren, Fernando. Francisco José de Caldas DistrictUniversity, ColombiaArévalo, Javier. Public Education Secretary, MexicoÁvila, Patricia. Latin American Institute of EducationalCommunication (ILCE), MexicoBartolomé, Antonio. University of Barcelona, SpainBernal, Héctor. Latin American Institute of EducationalCommunication (ILCE), MexicoBlois, Marlene. CREAD, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBustamante, Borys. Francisco José de Caldas DistrictUniversity, ColombiaCabero, Julio. University of Seville, SpainCandioti, Carmen. Ministry of Education, SpainCrovi, Delia M. UNAM, MexicoDel Río, Pablo. University of Salamanca, SpainDorrego, Elena. Central University of VenezuelaEsperón Porto, Tania. University of Pelotas, BrazilFabbro, Gabriela. National University of La Plata, BuenosAires, ArgentinaFainholc, Beatriz. CEDIPROE, ArgentinaFontcuberta, Mar de. Pontifical Catholic University of Chile.Fuenzalida, Valerio. Catholic University of ChileFunes, Virginia. UMSA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Gabelas, José Antonio. Spectus Group, Zaragoza, SpainGarcía Fernández, Nicanor. Government of the Principalityof Asturias, SpainGarcía Matilla, Agustín. Carlos III University, Madrid, Spain
  18. 18. Experts at a state level5Aguaded, Ignacio. University of Huelva.Aparici, Roberto. National Open University (UNED).Candioti, Carmen. Ministry of Education, Madrid.Del Río, Pablo. University of Salamanca.Ferrés Prats, Joan. Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona.Gabelas, José Antonio. Spectus Group, Zaragoza, Spain.García Fernández, Nicanor. Department of Education ofthe Principality of Asturias.García Matilla, Agustín. Carlos III University, Madrid.Gutiérrez Martín, Alfonso. E. U. of Teachers Segovia,University of ValladolidMaquinay, Aurora. Department of Education of theGeneralitat de Catalunya.Obach, Xavier. Televisión Española, Madrid.Ojeda, Gerardo. Iberian-American Association ofEducational Television (ATEI).Pujadas, Eva. Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona.Vázquez, Miguel. Eduardo Pondal Institute, Santiago deCompostela.17Monographic: Competence in Audiovisual Communication: Proposal Organised Around Dimensions and Indicators5 This list contains the experts at a state level who were present at the seminar held on the 11th of November 2005, in which thedocument Competences in Audiovisual Communication was approved by consensus (14 out of 18).
  19. 19. 19Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication: Perspectives and Proposals for Action in CataloniaEducation in audiovisual communicationIntroductionThe concept of education in communicationAccording to the Unesco agreements in the seminar held inSeville in February 2002, education in communication (EC)should be approached from the following points of view:- Education in communication means teaching andlearning about communication media (as an object ofstudy).- Education in communication consists of critical analysisand creative production.- Education in communication can and must take placewithin the area of formal education and non-formaleducation. Consequently, it must involve both childrenand adults.- Education in communication must promote a spirit ofcommunity and social responsibility, as well as personalautonomy.We talk of learning about communication media but withthe knowledge that it is not merely a question of knowing thetechnologies but particularly the languages with which theseare expressed, the communicative strategies and thecontent of its messages. It’s a question of knowingaudiovisuals as a differentiated means of expression andthe implications of their social use.Contemporary history cannot be understood without thecommunication media as a vehicle of social exchange andartistic expression, as a form of entertainment and as atransmitter of ideology and values. It is therefore essentialEducation in Audiovisual Communication:Perspectives and Proposals for Action in CataloniaFòrum d’entitats de persones usuàries de l’audiovisualThis article is a systemised approach to the problemsregarding education in audiovisual communication (EAC). Itstarts with a definition of this concept, based on what wasproposed by Unesco five years ago, and proposes thechallenges for the concept that are involved in the boom ofinformation and communication technologies (ICT).A justification is then made of the need for education inaudiovisual communication based on the demand foreducational institutions to prepare citizens for the kinds ofworld they have to live in.A brief description is given of the legislative framework ofeducation in audiovisual communication focused funda-mentally on its incidence in Catalonia.Finally, some proposals for action are presented,structured around a series of areas of intervention: teachertraining (initial and continued), inclusion in the curriculum ofcompulsory education, the figure of coordinator and schoolorganisation, the production and dissemination of materials,the involvement of audiovisual communication media inEAC and, lastly, the continued education of citizens.We should highlight one of the fundamental values of thisdocument, namely the fact that it has been drawn up withinthe framework of the CAC (Catalonia Broadcasting Council)by the Forum of entities of audiovisual users, which meansit has been approved by representatives of more than fortyentities of Catalan civil society, entities interested in someway in audiovisual communication. Specifically, thedocument was approved by the full assembly of the Forumon the 10th of December 20041..1 In an appendix at the end of the article there is a list of the entities that form part of the Forum and that signed
  20. 20. for the education of citizens to include this area, both interms of formal education and non-formal education.This integration of education in communication must helpto make all citizens media literate and help them to acquireskills and abilities that allow them to decode and producetexts in any kind of code and medium (a wide range knownas ICT or information and communication technologies),particularly audiovisual technologies because these havemost incidence on the population and, at the same time, arethe least present in the educational system.That’s why the document approaches education inaudiovisual communication from a dual perspective:audiovisuals as a subject of study (education in audiovisualcommunication) and as a resource for education (educationwith audiovisual communication). This document focusesbasically on education in audiovisual communication,approached with the aim of providing people withinstruments to understand the messages they consumeboth thoroughly and critically, and to provide them with thenecessary resources to produce texts or discoursesappropriate to different communication situations.The structure of the documentThe document is organised into three parts:a) Justification of the need for education in audiovisualcommunication.b) An outline of the legislative framework of education inaudiovisual communication (EAC), focused mainly on itsincidence in Catalonia.c) Proposals for action, structured around the followingareas of intervention:- Teacher training (initial and continued).- Inclusion in the curriculum of compulsory education.- Figure of coordinator and school organisation.- Production and dissemination of materials.- Involvement of audiovisual communication media inEAC.- Continued education of citizens.Justification of the need for EACIt is paradoxical the contradiction between the importance interms of socialising attributed by families and institutions totelevision and the rest of the audiovisual mass media, andthe presence these have on the school curriculum, i.e. verylittle, and in schools, almost zero, as well as with the agentsand institutions of lifelong citizen education. It is equallyparadoxical that, audiovisuals being a specific form ofcommunication that is different from verbal, it has notwarranted its own place in education.Competence in critically interpreting audiovisual media isessential in order to understand the environment and todevelop autonomy, personal creativity and socialresponsibility. Without training in this area, we cannot talk ofcitizens playing a full role in the societies of the 21st century.This knowledge is essential for the following reasons:- To explain how contemporary societies work, we alsoneed to explain the expressive resources, economic andpolitical mechanisms and communication strategies thatbelong to audiovisual media. This is basic knowledgethat must be transmitted to avoid unconsidered consent,often favoured by the mass media, as well as to encour-age the development of a capacity for individualinterpretation and the training of a critical spirit,fundamental skills in order to be able to operate in theinformation society and to play a full part in the benefitsof cultural heritage.- The transmission of memory, another of the objectivesof any educational project, is also impossible if citizensare not helped to:• be aware of the primordial role played by audiovisualmedia in the social transformations of the last fewdecades;• have access to the knowledge of work created by theaudiovisual culture as from the end of the 19thcentury;• know how technology and audiovisual commu-nication have developed in historical terms;• take into account that the discourses generated byaudiovisual media have a significant documentalvalue when analysing past and present societies.- On the other hand, transmitting memory also meansdeciding which aesthetic experiences, related to theaudiovisual culture, we want to pass on to newgenerations and to undertake the actions we must carryout in order to achieve this.20Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  21. 21. The legislative framework of EACEducation in communication in CataloniaThe dizzying evolution in the world of communication overthe last few decades and the economic, political and socialchanges deriving from this have not been, to date, suitablyreflected in the educational system. Educational institutionshave not responded to these changes. Curricula continue tobe based, fundamentally, on the transmission of knowledgethrough the written language, completely forgetting that welive in a society where information, over-abundant andchanging, is transmitted through multiple symbols andlanguages.In Catalonia, the first educational experiences in cinematook place in the years of the Republic. Interest inaudiovisual education as we know it dates back to thesixties outside schools and at universities, and it has asignificant tradition. We have gone from the old demand tointroduce cinematic language into schools in the sixties,seventies and eighties to the current debate on the inclusionof ICT.However, the introduction of media and new technologiesin formal and non-formal education has been slow andcomplicated. Successive educational laws and the latesteducational reforms have not considered education inaudiovisual communication as a priority issue in any case.The General Education Act of 1970, which appeared at atime of clear expansion in the media, practically made nomention of audiovisual education or media education.With the passing, in 1990, of the LOGSE (Act for thegeneral organisation of the educational system), the prioritygoals established for the educational system were not onlythe acquisition of traditional content and knowledge but alsoeducation in democratic values, the acquisition ofintellectual habits and the capacity to live an active lifeprofessionally, socially and culturally. With the inclusion ofthe eixos transversals or lines of action going across thecurriculum (this including audiovisual education inCatalonia), the aim is to complement and update thetraditional academic subjects and to connect schools withtheir environment. However, the LOGSE has been clearlyinsufficient in terms of specifying these measures andputting them into practice.The passing of the Education Quality Act (LOCE) in 2002made this situation worse. The decrees to apply the Act notonly did not include audiovisual communication as anobjective of basic education but its only references were asan accessory and, in the best of cases, audiovisual mediawere relegated to a secondary role as a didactic resource.Furthermore, it removed the little autonomy held byeducational centres and reduced even further the room formanoeuvre for educators interested in these areas.The new central government is currently planning apossible reform of the LOCE or even the formulation of anew educational act. With this aim, it has drawn up adocument, submitted to public debate, outlining the mainchallenges facing education. Unfortunately, in this firstdocument there is not a single reference to education inaudiovisual communication, while it insists on the use ofnew technologies from a computer-based and purelyinstrumental point of view.At the same time, the new Catalan administration isstarting to propose the need to encourage education inaudiovisual communication and, to this end, a specificprogramme has been created in the Department ofEducation.Within this context, still quite deficient, the differentinitiatives that had appeared over the years related to theimplementation of education in audiovisual communication,both from private organisations and public institutions andfrom particularly aware professionals in education andcommunication, have little room for manoeuvre. Given thatthey cannot be developed within the framework of formaleducation and with the necessary personal resources andmaterials, their proposals do not reach most of the schoolpopulation.Bu the fact that education in communication has not achie-ved the degree of implementation required in educationalcentres is not due only to the lack of a real space on thecurricula, but also to deficiencies in teacher training. Onlythose teachers graduating from teacher training schools andfaculties in the last decade have taken a specific course,New technologies applied to education, but often this sub-ject is clearly biased towards computing. The same term,information and communication technologies (ICT) has hel-ped to increase confusion between the technological dimen-sion and the expressive or communicative dimension,almost always to the detriment of the latter two.21Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication: Perspectives and Proposals for Action in Catalonia
  22. 22. Proposals regarding teacher trainingIntroductionTeacher training is one of the key elements of this docu-ment. Two aspects are important: on the one hand, know-ledge of audiovisual language and of how mass media work(education in audiovisual communication), as well as thedidactic capacity to educate students in this field. On the o-ther hand, knowledge is also required in terms of technique,expression and didactic application of audiovisuals as ameans or resource for teaching (education with audiovisualcommunication).Short-term proposals1. Ask universities to include a compulsory subject onaudiovisual communication and education in the teachertraining curriculum. This subject must emphasise thefirst of the two lines mentioned in the introduction but itmust particularly work on the attitudes and awareness ofteachers.2. Add audiovisual communication and education as asubject of study in compulsory accreditation forsecondary teachers, along the same lines as theprevious recommendation.3. Encourage education faculties to increase educationwith the media among the staff involved in teachertraining courses, helping to increase sensitivity towardsand awareness of this area.4. Encourage universities, the Catalonia BroadcastingCouncil (CAC) and the Department of Education tocontinue creating audiovisual materials for primary andsecondary teachers by means of establishedmechanisms, and to disseminate these materials aswidely as possible.5. Propose to universities, the Department of Education ofthe Generalitat de Catalunya, to movements demandingpedagogical renewal, the College of Doctors andGraduates and all those instances involved in thecontinued training of teachers to create proposals fortraining and to offer courses and seminars onaudiovisual education.6. Propose that the Department of Education promoteprojects of educational innovation to encourage thedesign and application of education in audiovisualcommunication in primary and secondary centres.7. Establish agreements between the Department ofEducation, the Catalonia Broadcasting Council (CAC)and the different public television operators to ensurethat teachers have access to the documentary archive ofimages for educational use and at no additional cost.In the long-termThe subject of audiovisual communication and educationshould not depend on the goodwill of universities but mustform part of the core of the curriculum for the initial trainingof primary and secondary teachers.Proposals with regard to the curriculum forcompulsory educationIntroductionThe inclusion of education in audiovisual communicationmust take very much into account the comprehension andanalysis of the content of messages arriving via newtechnologies, as well as the expressive possibilities of thesetools, and cannot be limited to encouraging a mastery oftechnology. Education in audiovisual communication musthelp to develop children and young people into becomingintelligent, critical and autonomous receivers. Its presenceon the curriculum involves a global change in the approachto education and is of enormous help in educationalinnovation.Proposals for action1. The educational administration must incorporate EAC incompulsory curricula, in both its aspects: as a resourceand as an object of study. It must do so by gatheringtogether contributions from various collectives,organisations and people working in this area.2. As a resource, audiovisual communication must takeadvantage of the expressive potential of images. It musthave significant presence in learning activities as a formof differentiated communication and not as a simpleillustration of words. It must lead to traditional methodo-logies being redesigned and must reinforce cooperativework, research, communication and critical spirit.3. As an object of study, the content that must be worked22Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  23. 23. on in EAC, proposed in the international area(documents from Unesco, authors and collectivesrelated to Media Literacy, etc.) and also contained in thebasic ICT-EA competence document, drawn up by theDepartment of Education, is specified in the followingdimensions:- Historical and social impact: to see the impactproduced by the media in current society, both inindividual and collective terms, how they act on ouremotions, how they condition and modify our habitsand patterns of conduct and which values theytransmit.- Agent of production: to discover who produces thesemessages, what their interests and ideologies are, etc.- Literacy in the audiovisual language: to discover theexpressive resources used by audiovisual languageand learn how to decode it.- Category of the media: to observe the variety ofaudiovisual documents that exist and discover theircharacteristics.- Representation of the media: to see how the mediacreate a specific representation of reality.- Technological literacy: to know the technology thatmakes audiovisual communication possible.The appropriate aspects of this content must be includedin the common part of the following areas: languages,visual and plastic aspects, social environment,technology and teaching.4. EAC must not take an encyclopaedic approach, aimedat students accumulating information. It must be basedon emotional impact involved in the experience of beinga spectator, with the aim of gradually enriching thisexperience. It is necessary to know the cognitivedimension of emotions and to take advantage of the fundimension of audiovisual media to help integratepleasure and effort.5. EAC must favour an interdisciplinary approach. In thisrespect, we believe that project work and workshopswould be a good methodology for infant and primaryeducation. For secondary education we propose thatcentres include a compulsory but variable credit for thisarea.6. To strengthen and provide resources for centre projectsaiming to work on EAC.7. To promote, by zones, EAC integration projects, linkedto the needs of the environment and to the proposals ofthe teachers working there.8. To take advantage of initiatives arising from otherentities (television channels, local radio stations,associations, specialised organisations) to establishcollaborations, enrich and broaden projects.9. The Department of Education and education scienceinstitutes must encourage the creation of specificworking groups to reflect and make proposals on howEAC can be well integrated into the compulsorycurriculum.10. The Department of Education and universities mustprovide the public with the opportunity to experienceEAC, with a selection of infant, primary and secondarycentres ready to carry this out. Pedagogical resourcecentres could play an important part as promoters ofthese projects.Proposals with regard to the figure of coordinatorand school organisationProposals with regard to the figure of audiovisualcoordinatorIn order for the integration of education in audiovisualcommunication in compulsory education to be satisfactory,it is vital to create an audiovisual coordinator in alleducational centres.This figure must be understood as different from the ITcoordinator, because they must be specialised inaudiovisual communication and its teaching.They must act in an advisory capacity in all departments.They must be responsible for promoting, planning,encouraging, experimenting, researching and evaluating theuse made of audiovisuals by the educational centre, both interms of education in audiovisual communication as well asin education with audiovisual communication.The tasks that must be carried out by the audiovisualcoordinator in the educational centre could be categorisedas follows:- Stimulate and advise teachers on the various areas orcycles to ensure that education in audiovisualcommunication is introduced into the educational centre23Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication: Perspectives and Proposals for Action in Catalonia
  24. 24. (teaching how to watch cinema, television, advertising,etc.): providing guidance on content, methodology,available materials, etc.- Stimulate and advise teachers to ensure they useaudiovisual communication resources in the schoolroomin order to optimise teaching-learning processes in allareas and cycles.- Ensure the centre appropriately organises theequipment and materials so that they can be used easilyand practically.- Collaborate with those in charge of the centre’s libraryand/or media library with regard to the acquisition ofaudiovisual documents, books and magazines on thearea, and in the digital storing of audiovisual documentsprovided by teachers and students or found by thecoordinator him or herself.- Strengthen the use of audiovisual communication inboth quantitative and qualitative terms. This can be donethrough a series of resources:• Programming courses to raise awareness or deepenknowledge.• Recommending courses or conferences on the area.• Advising on the usefulness of certain teachingmaterials.• Providing information on anything new on themarket.• Recommending certain reading material (books,magazines, etc.).• Suggesting ways to use audiovisuals more creati-vely, etc.- Evaluate the centre’s use of audiovisuals, in differentareas:• Investigate the effectiveness of these materialsaccording to the various ways they can be used.• Compare performance in certain contexts.• Systemise certain types of use.• Analyse why audiovisual materials are used little incertain areas or levels.It is evident that the audiovisual coordinator will requirespecific training, time and the consequent freeing up of hisor her schedule and resources of all kinds in order to ensurehe or she can carry out the work efficiently.Proposals with regard to school organisationCertain aspects of school organisation need to be reviewedto ensure that EAC contribute to innovation. If we want toencourage the creation of communicative environments weneed educational spaces and timings that are different fromthe current set-ups.We need school spaces that facilitate, on the one hand,the use of audiovisual communication tools for in-houseproduction and, on the other hand, access to externalproductions, coming both from the professional field andfrom other centres. To this end rooms for audiovisual workare required, with video cameras and with the indispensableediting material and a well-equipped library and medialibrary. Media must also be present in the schoolrooms in acontinued and smooth manner.Moreover, the organisation of the timetable must beflexible enough to be able to carry out learning activitiesacross the curriculum, with the concurrence of teachersfrom different areas and with different groupings of pupilsfrom those of the class group. Interdisciplinary projects mustbe able to be carried out in small groups different to theclass group, and the timetables attributed to each area mustnot be so rigid as to become an obstacle to these projectshaving enough time to be carried out.The people in charge of coordinating education inaudiovisual communication, coordinating IT and the medialibrary must form a team that ensures the educational goalsare achieved, goals that should form a part of the centre’seducational proposal.Proposals with regard to the production anddissemination of materialsIntroductionThere need to be materials available both for teachers andstudents at different levels to ensure education inaudiovisual communication can be carried out, taking intoaccount both formal and non-formal education contexts. It’simportant to be able to guarantee that these materials aresuitable for contributing towards educational innovation. Tothis end, it is vital for the production of materials to beaccompanied by experimentation and systematicevaluation.24Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  25. 25. The materials must provide for both aspects of EAC:- Materials to work on the content of education inaudiovisual communication, taking into account criticalanalysis and interpretation, as well as creation-production, on different media (written texts, multimediamaterial, etc.) and suitable for the areas and cycleswhere they are applied.The production of materials to work on audiovisual mediaas an object of study should take the following dimensionsinto account:- The social and historical impact of audiovisual media(consumption, reception, effects, etc.).- The agents of production.- The production process and technologies.- Language.- Categories: genres and formats of audiovisual media.- How audiovisual media represent the social reality: howthey select, mediate and show society (stereotypes,presences/absences, etc.).Materials to make good use of audiovisuals resources, thatprovide methodological guidelines to be able to go beyondthe typical function of image as a simple illustration of theword, guiding in terms of the possibilities of educationalvideo, etc.The materials produced must avoid encyclopaedicapproaches and should therefore take the following aspectsinto account:- They should be adapted to the age and needs of thepupils.- They should encourage the observation and analysis ofaudiovisual messages and avoid theoretical discourses.- They should encourage interdisciplinary aspects.- They should strengthen pupils’ creativity.- They should be based on the interests of the pupils.- They should motivate debate and encourage teamwork.Proposals for action with regard to research andinnovation- Create specific lines of research at a university levelaimed at experimentation related to the didactic aspectsof audiovisual media.- Encourage methodologies along the line of research-action or research in practice to refine the instrumentsused in the education and didactic treatment of EAC.- Through financial aid, to motivate creative proposalsrelated to the production of materials.- Promote studies or analyses of already existingmaterials to establish models with a view to producingnew materials.Proposals for action with regard to assessment- Create control mechanisms to apply the relevantassessment techniques in the field of creating materials.- Monitor the presence of EAC in centres and detect theobstacles hindering the achievement of the desiredgoals.Proposals for action with regard to dissemination andnetwork of resources- Establish agreements with the media so that they canoffer their resources as a way of complementing learningregarding the knowledge of culture and audiovisualproduction.- Establish agreements with the media to provide adocumentary archive of real media texts that are of usein education.- Draw up and disseminate a list of basic works ofaudiovisual culture that should be available to allteaching centres, public libraries and media libraries.- Prepare a database of materials produced by differentinstitutions and groups to be placed at the disposal ofmedia libraries in educational centres and pedagogicalresource centres.- Draw up guidelines and recommendations so thatpublishers or production houses can take on projects inthis field.Proposals regarding the involvement ofaudiovisual communication media in EACIntroductionThe collaboration of the audiovisual media could be ofsignificant help in putting into practice many of the initiativesproposed in this document. In order for this collaboration tobe effective, we put forward the following proposals:25Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication: Perspectives and Proposals for Action in Catalonia
  26. 26. General proposals aimed at all audiovisual operators- Encourage the necessary mechanisms so that theirprogramming introduces education in audiovisualcommunication transversally (in all kinds ofprogrammes) and helps TV viewers or radio listeners toreceive the content critically.- Create specific sections or programmes analysing themedia from within and in which experts in audiovisualcommunication can take part, preferably related to thearea of university education.- Create an ombudsman for radio listeners and/or TVviewers at each media operator to channel thecomplaints and concerns of the audience. A personshould be appointed who can take decisionsindependently, so as not to be subject to the operator’scorporate line. This figure can be used to createprogrammes in which audience participation isencouraged and the ombudsman for radio listenersand/or TV viewers can answer and clarify any doubtsregarding that medium’s programming.- Encourage visits by pupils and other social groups(parents of pupils, the elderly, citizen organisations, etc.)to the audiovisual operators’ facilities with the aim ofdemystifying production and broadcasting processes.These visits should be complemented with didacticmaterial.- Reinforce and promote programmes aimed atconnecting the academic world (school, university, etc.)with television.Specific proposals aimed at local television and radio- Through the different organisations made up of localradio and TV operators, promote collaborationagreements between these media and the educationalcentres in their area (municipality, county, etc.) in orderto carry out activities of the following types:• Guided tours around facilities.• Radio and TV workshops aimed at pupils fromdifferent educational cycles. These workshops canalso be aimed at people from other groups, such asthe pupils’ parents, homes for the elderly,householder associations, etc.• Regular radio and TV programmes made by pupilsand broadcast by the same operator.• Providing schools with audiovisual and soundmaterial related to the immediate environment sothat it can be used as a tool in the classroom.• Establish mechanisms for using the TV and radiooperators’ audiovisual and sound archives on thepart of the teachers and pupils at educationalcentres.Proposals for the continued education of citizensIntroductionThe progressive but fast evolution of the forms ofcommunication has not been experienced in the same wayby the whole population. For the new generations, who haveexperienced this process since they were born, it is easy forthem to adapt. But there is a whole sector of the populationthat has experienced this since adulthood and they oftenfeel out of place and are not aware of the lack of training inthis area, nor do they show any interest in it.The need for continued training is also justified by the factthat technologies and forms of expression are continuouslychanging. And also because people’s social roles arechanging: as parents, as educators or as responsible adults,it is vital to know the power of the media as a source ofeducation or de-education.Proposals for action1. Promote the need to incorporate EAC in the trainingactivities of parent associations.2. Encourage adult education organisations and thosededicated to children’s leisure pursuits to include EACcontent in the training they offer. To involve the differentdepartments of the Generalitat in this training work.3. Raise the awareness of a whole range of organisationsand associations so that they include EAC content intheir plans to train and inform their members and users.4. Encourage the publication of articles to inform, raiseawareness and train, in the periodical publications of thevarious organisations and associations that go to makeup the Forum of entities.5. Include, on the Forum of entities’ website, an area aimedat EAC training for audiovisual users, highlighting rela-tions with professionals, the knowledge of resources,26Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  27. 27. news, etc. This should become a place for exchanginginformation, suggestions, protests and recommen-dations to encourage knowledge and dialogue in thearea.6. Design objectives and methodologies for differenttraining activities, from chats-colloquia to seminars orcourses on a single subject, taking into account thedifferent variables of age, cultural level, etc.AppendixList of entities, associations and organisations of theFòrum d’entitats de persones usuàries de l’audiovisualCatalan Consumer Affairs Agency (ACC)Association of Consumers of the Province of Barcelona(ACPB)Rosa Sensat Association of TeachersPromoting Association for Guidance on Consumption for theElderly (PROGRAN)Association of Communication Users (AUC)Media Classroom. Education in CommunicationAIS Care and Research of Social AddictionsCollege of Pedagogues of CataloniaOfficial College of Psychologists of CataloniaConfederation of the National Workers Committee ofCatalonia (CCOO)Coordinator of Health Users (CUS)Department of Education. Educational InnovationProgrammes ServiceDepartment of Audiovisual Communication and Advertising(UAB)Department of Journalism and Audiovisual Communicationof the UPFMagical DragonHigher School of Cinema and Audiovisuals of Catalonia(ESCAC)Blanquerna Faculty of Communication Science of the URLFaculty of Educational Science of the University of LleidaFaculty of Business and Communication of the University ofVicBlanquerna Faculty of Psychology, Education Science andSport of the URLFederation of Associations for the Elderly of Catalonia(FATEC)Federation of Associations of Parents of Pupils of Catalonia(FAPAC)Federation of Cooperatives of Consumers and Users ofCatalonia (FCCUC)Federation of Movements for Pedagogical Renewal ofCataloniaGroup of Catalan Entities (GEC)Catalan Institute for Women (ICD)Institute of Science and Education of the University ofBarcelona (ICE)MITJANS. Network of Educators and CommunicatorsObservatory of Women in the MediaEuropean Observatory of Children’s TelevisionObservatory of the coverage of Conflicts in the mediaOrganisation of Consumers and Users of Catalonia (OCUC)Journalist Trade Union of Catalonia (SPC)Teleeduca, educació i comunicació, S.C.PAssociated Television Viewers of Catalonia (TAC)Local Television Channels of CataloniaUnion of Consumers of Catalonia-UCCWorkers Trade Union of Catalonia (USOC)General Union of Workers of Catalonia (UGT)USTEC-STEC27Monographic: Education in Audiovisual Communication: Perspectives and Proposals for Action in Catalonia
  28. 28. Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25
  29. 29. 29Although for decades the need has been realised tointroduce education in audiovisual communication(EAC) in formal education, there is no agreement asto the model to be followed. This article reviews themain debates being held on EAC: how it is definedand what name it should be given; on whichapproaches it should be constructed; what content itshould include; and how to incorporate it intocurricula. The text also examines how these debatestake shape in the educational systems of differentcountries, paying particular attention to Catalonia, inorder to highlight the limitations and opportunities ofcurrent proposals.Overview of Education in Audiovisual CommunicationMercè Oliva RotaMercè Oliva RotaAssistant Lecturer in the Department of Journalism andAudiovisual Communication at the Pompeu FabraUniversity (UPF) and member of the UNICA researchgroup of the UPF. 1. IntroductionMost articles, studies, declarations, etc. about mediaeducation usually start by citing a whole series of statisticaldata aimed at demonstrating the significant presence (andinfluence) of the media in the life of young people andchildren and on society in general, as well as the centralrole they play in many social processes. The defence ofeducation in audiovisual communication is based on thisidea, i.e. teaching how to understand and use the media.Unesco’s founding declaration of Grunwald in 1982already pointed out that “political and educational systemsneed to recognise their obligations to promote in theircitizens a critical understanding of the phenomena ofcommunication”, given the scarce presence of mediaeducation in educational systems (a great distance beingestablished between education and the real world). Butalthough the importance of this area has been pointed outinsistently for decades, the presence of audiovisualeducation in educational institutions around the world isirregular and, in many cases, little and relatively recent.The aim of this article is to review how media education iscurrently understood, focusing on its presence in formaleducation, particularly secondary. Evidently, mediaeducation cannot be limited to this area but must alsoinclude many other contexts, such as continued education,non-formal and adult education. But it is in formal primaryand secondary education where the greatest effort must bemade in this area, given that it plays the largest part inconstructing and developing new generations.In this article we will review some of the debatesconcerning media education around the world and we willstudy different approaches, content and options tointroduce media education into formal education curricula.Finally, we will see what form these debates take inKeywordsEducation in audiovisual communication, medialiteracy, secondary education, Catalan EducationAct.Monographic: Overview of Education in Audiovisual Communication
  30. 30. 30Quaderns del CAC: Issue 25Catalonia in order to point out a few of the limitations andopportunities of the present model.2. Education in audiovisual communication (EAC):terms and definitionsWhen we talk about media education we can find manysimilar concepts that refer more or less to the same idea:teaching how to understand, analyse and use the media. Itis therefore not a question of educating through the media(“education with media”), using them as support material(e.g. seeing October, by Sergei Eisenstein, to illustrate alesson on the Russian revolution), but rather of transformingaudiovisual communication into an object of study per se.As we have mentioned, various terms are used to refer tothis field: media education, media literacy, education inaudiovisual communication, audiovisual education, etc. Oneor other of these terms are preferred in different contexts.So, for example, “media literacy” is the concept normallyused in the Anglo-Saxon sphere, while “educación para losmedios” or “education for the media” is used in LatinAmerica, and “education in audiovisual communication”(educació audiovisual) in Catalonia.Obviously each term has nuances that differentiate it fromthe others. However, the exact definition of each term variessignificantly depending on the author or institutionconsulted. In fact, it is significant that, in numerous studiesand articles on this area, the first chapter often concernsdifferent expert opinions on their definition of different termsrelated to this area.1In this article, given the space limitations, we will leavethese debates to one side and use the concepts of mediaeducation (ME) and education in audiovisualcommunication (EAC) without differentiating between thetwo.And similar to the lack of agreement as to the mostsuitable term to refer to education in the media, neither isthere agreement as to what it is and what content it shouldhave. Below we will review some of these debates.3. From protectionism to empowermentHistorically, EAC dates back to a defensive focus: the aimwas to protect children from the perils supposedlyrepresented by the media, particularly television. These“perils” could be cultural, political or moral (Buckingham;Domaille: 2001a). In the first case, the media are seen as akind of “low culture”, sub-products without quality, thewatching of which undermines children’s sensitivity andinterest in literature, art, etc. (in other words, in authenticculture, a source of personal enrichment). According to thispoint of view, the aim of EAC should be for children to learnhow to appreciate high culture, rejecting the products of themedia. In other words, they should read more and watchless television. This posture is also implicit in manyapproaches that are concerned about the shift from writtenculture towards an audiovisual culture, reminding usgloomily of the virtues of the former, which is gradually beinglost (and only seeing the negative side of the latter).In the second case, the media are seen as dangerousbecause they promote a series of negative beliefs andpolitical ideologies, normally related to capitalism, theconsumer society and cultural domination. So EAC wouldaim to expose these false values conveyed by the media sothat young people reject them. This posture can be foundparticularly in countries in Latin America, with the aim ofcounteracting the strong presence of North Americanproducts.Lastly, the moral dangers of the media would be related toinappropriate or dangerous values and behaviourconcerning sex, violence and drugs. The aim of EAC in thiscase would be for children to adopt moral and healthy formsof behaviour, rejecting those conveyed via mediamessages. Examples of this posture can be found, as wewill see, in some states of the United States.Two issues attract our attention in these postures. Firstly,how the media are described (particularly television) assomething essentially negative (sometimes even harmful)that stupefy, manipulate and dirty the minds of those whowatch them. The potential benefits and pleasures that might1 See, for example, Fedorov (2003) or Ofcom (2004).
  31. 31. 31be provided by media messages are denied in favour of anexaggerated emphasis on the harm they can cause.Secondly, it is also interesting to point out how peoplebelieve EAC should be carried out and what the ultimateobjective should be. So, from this perspective, there is only“one” correct way to watch television, in the same way thatthere are only certain valid beliefs and values, and the job ofeducators is to teach this to their pupils. So there is no roomfor critical reflection or debate. EAC is seen as a kind ofinoculation, a preventative measure against the media’ssupposed contamination or even a way of keeping childrenaway. A paradigmatic example is the slogan “kill yourtelevision”, which guides some of these approaches.An example: the USAThe USA is one of the countries where media education isstill related to a protectionist posture, related to morals. Soall the initiatives by the federal government since thenineties (a time when people once again became interestedin this issue, after the back-to-basics educational policy ofthe eighties)2have been along these lines, with the aim of"inoculate adolescents against unhealthy media messagesabout sexuality, violence, nutrition, body image and alcohol,tobacco and drug use" 3.This can also be seen in the secondary education of eachstate. Even though each state has a different situation4, inmany cases we find the content of media education withinsubjects related to health (Health, nutrition andconsumerism). Here the aim is to protect young people fromthe bad influence of the media in the same terms as wereferred to earlier. An example of this posture is thedocument Media Literacy: an exciting tool to promote publichealth and safety for Washingtons communities andschools, published by the Washington State Department ofHealth, the Washington State Department of Social andHealth Services and the Washington Superintendent ofPublic Instruction, which states that the media are a risk foryoung people that must be neutralised through education.It is interesting to see how, from this point of view, mediaeducation is claimed as an alternative to censorship. Wecan find an example of this in the document Media Literacy:An alternative to censorship (Heins; Cho, 2003), from TheFree Expression Policy Project, which states that "Popularculture can glamorize violence, irresponsible sex, junk food,drugs, and alcohol; it can reinforce stereotypes about race,gender, sexual orientation, and class; it can prescribe thelifestyle to which one should aspire, and the products onemust buy to attain it". All this leads to "calls to censor themass media in the interest of protecting youth", in otherwords, its content must be controlled.Given that this kind of measure is seen as an attack on thepart of administration against free speech, the self-protection of children and young people is presented as analternative, i.e. they themselves can reject the content thatharms them. How can this be achieved? Through mediaeducation, which must work on the viewers analytical skillsand critical thought. We see here, therefore, how criticalthought and the liberal demands for minimum stateintervention in media content are combined.Compared to this defensive focus, we find other proposalsmore closely linked to the idea of empowerment(Buckingham; Domaille: 2001a), in which EAC is not seenas a form of protection but of preparation. So the aim is notfor children to watch television in a certain way (or not watchit at all) but rather to make them able to take consideredMonographic: Overview of Education in Audiovisual Communication2 For more information on the history of media education in the USA, see Heins; Cho (2003: 7-32).3 For example, in 2000 the Department of Education subsidised 10 educational projects on media education, five focusing onviolence in the media and the remaining five on other "dangers" (drugs, sex, etc.). Another example we find in the reportpublished in 2002 by the United States government that supported media education from the perspective of educating youngpeople about the dangers of drugs and alcohol. (Heins; Cho: 2003).4 Nonetheless, there are cases in which EAC is incorporated within subjects such as language or social science and in which theapproach is closer to critical thought and to attitudes we find in Canada or the United Kingdom.