“Over the counter” questions on small animal reproduction:
How to better address some of these everyday questions!
#NBVMA2...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
Introduction
 DYK? Canine & feline reproduction is very often
one...
« In 2013 should I still spay and
neuter my pet? »
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About spaying/n...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
1/ About spaying/neutering…
“2x more hip dysplasia in
castrated ma...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
1/ About spaying/neutering…
Should we still spay
and neuter?
How t...
What is THE main benefit of
spaying/neutering dogs and cats?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Owner’s convenience
2. Behavioral improv...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
1/ About spaying/neutering…
Medical benefits ++++
Prevention of ma...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
1/ About spaying/neutering…
Medical benefits ++++
Prevention of pr...
What do you think concerning
spaying/neutering for behavioral
reasons?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. It will always lead to
behavio...
Behaviour ?
Limiting behaviours related to reproduction
 one of the first motivation for contraception
- Roaming
- Sexual...
What is THE downside of spaying
and neutering?
1 2 3 4 5
0% 0% 0%0%0%
1. There’s no downside
2. Higher incidence of joints...
Spaying/neutering: the downside…
Decrease of the energetic requirements
Food intake +++
Consequences of overweight
might...
Nutritional recommendations:
- Decrease daily energetic intake by 20-
30%
- Use an adapted diet for
spayed/neutered cats
P...
What about urinary incontinence?
YES, it can occur…
Some weeks… to 10 years after
spaying/neutering
Predisposed breeds/r...
What is your opinion on the
medical treatment of urinary
incontinence?
1 2 3 4 5
0% 0% 0%0%0%
1. There’s no available trea...
Efficacy of the medical treatment (Reichler et al, 2005):
• Estrogens: ≈ 65%
• GnRH agonists: ≈ 70%
• α-agonists: ≈ 95%
Ov...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
1/ About spaying/neutering…
So in 2013?
- Specialists still advise...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
2/ Still About spaying/neutering…
• Vico, 2 year old mixed-
breed ...
What will you tell the owner?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. No worries, let’s book an
appointement for the next day!
2. Heats: coun...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
2/ Still About spaying/neutering…
Heats are NOT a strict conter-in...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
2/ Still About spaying/neutering…
And what about
scheduling the su...
3 weeks from now, well…
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Heats will be over: easier surgical
procedure so let’s do this!
2. Not recomm...
[X]
Time
Estradiol
Hormonal profile
PROGESTERONE
Mir et al, 2011
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
2...
• Rottweiler bitch
puppy, 2.5months
• Presented for surgical
sterilization
Over the counter questions on small animal repr...
In this case…
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. These persons totally lost their
mind, we can’t spay puppies!
2. Spaying can be done bu...
 Ils sont complètement fous, on ne stérilise
pas un chiot à cet âge là!
 La stérilisation peut être réalisée, la
procédu...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
3/ More about spaying/neutering…
- A breeder come to visit you at ...
In this case…
1 2 3
0% 0%0%
1. What is he talking about, there is
no such treatment!
2. There are some medical
alternative...
What is available today?
These drugs contain progestins
= progesterone analogues
Over the counter questions on small anima...
What is available today?
GnRH agonist implant
GnRH = pacemaker of the reproductive function
Prolonged delivery = arrest...
Gene silencing
GnRH vaccines
Cytotoxins
The future…
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
3/ More about ...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
3/ More about spaying/neutering…
« What do I need to know before
breeding my pet? »
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine & ...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
4/ About canine breeding…
A new chihuahua breeder visit you at th...
The breeder wants to know if this is normal…
1 2 3
0% 0%0%
1. Absolutely not, bitches usually
cycle every 5-6 months there...
The bitch, a mono-oestrian species
But there is a breed influence
every 4 months every 8-10 months every 12 months
Only re...
The breeder wants to know when he should
breed the bitch during her cycle…
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. The male will know, and mo...
Behaviour?
“A bitch only accepts mating
during its optimal period”
Forget about it!
Unreliable!!!
Over the counter questio...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
4/ About canine breeding…
Estrogenic impregnation  keratinization of the
cells of the vaginal epithelium
Over the counter questions on small animal...
« Bavona», Chienne Bouvier Bernois de 4 ans
Frottis vaginaux?
Anestrus Proestrus
DiestrusEstrus
However, an estrous vagina...
Progesterone Two types of test
Semi-quantitative assays
Colorimetric
= Estimation
Acurate enough when
using fresh semen
Ov...
Quantitative assays
Accurate +++
ng/mL vs nmol/L
Progesterone Two types of test
Over the counter questions on small animal...
Ok so when we know the day of ovulation, when
should we breed the bitch?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. ASAP after ovulation
2. Appr...
 MOST MAMMALS
OVULATION
MII Oocyte
Oocyte maturation
in the pre-ovulatory follicles
 IN THE BITCH:
Mature oocytePI immat...
Heats ≈ 3 weeks
Fertility window
= 2-4 days
Ovulation
Only one breeding attempt:
- 2 days post-ovulation
Two breeding atte...
1/5
3/5
2/5
4/5 5/5
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
4/ About canine breeding…
Fat: an endocrine tissue!
Estrogens
Androgens
Leptin
The more fat, the more these hormons
are secreted!!!
Over the counter...
3/5 4/5 5/5
P < 0.001
3.0 +/- 0.4 ng/ml
n = 45
8.6 +/- 0.7 ng/ml
n = 46
12.8 +/- 0.8 ng/ml
n = 75
Dog
Over the counter que...
Hypothalamus
Ovaries
Pituitary
GnRH
FSH LH
Estrogens Progesterone
Leptin
Endocrine disruptor?
Over the counter questions o...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
5/ About feline breeding…
Your chihuahua breeder also wants to br...
What do you tell him?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Just let the queen with the male and
you’ll end up with lots of kittens
2. We n...
INDUCED OVULATORS
Mating-induced ovulation…
 … but spontaneous
ovulation may occur
Progesterone secretion only
after ov...
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
1 2 3 4 5 6
Folliculardiameter(1/10mm)
Days
Over the counter questions on small animal reproductio...
What will be your recommended breeding
protocol?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. As many matings as possible
during three days
2. As ...
24 – 30 hours
Time between LH peak and ovulation
– LH  ovulation 24h later
Allow several matings during several days
– 1st day: meeting...
BREEDERS MUST BE ABLE TO
CONFIRM THAT ENOUGH
MATINGS TOOK PLACE!
1st cause of infertility in the feline species: no/not
en...
« My bitch/queen is pregnant:
how to manage this? »
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine &...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine & feline pregnancy…
A breeder client visit you at th...
Pregnancy length in the bitch is…
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. The breeder knows the day the bitch was
mated: parturition will tak...
Canine pregnancy length  63 ± 1 days
When ovulation is
considered as the origin!
Small dogs: 62 ± 1 days
Giant dogs: 64 ±...
And if there was no timing of ovulation…
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Nothing we can do, we just have to wait
2. We can use ultras...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine & feline pregnancy…
Measure of the bi-parietal
diamet...
Progesterone and parturition
[X]
Time
Estradiol
PROGESTERONE
24h before parturition, progesterone
concentration will drop ...
And if the question was for a queen…
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Take the 1st day of breeding and count 65
days
2. Take the 2nd d...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine & feline pregnancy…
 The breeder has some questions ...
What to answer to this?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. That’s indeed what he needs to do
2. The bitch should only receive a
maintena...
Energy needs of the bitch increase
from the 6th week of gestation
% MER
W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W5 W7 W8
100
110
120
130
140
150...
+
Zhang J. et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG
2007;114:343–348
Human
Over the counter questions on sma...
Importance of body condition
Obesity and uterine contractions
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
%bitches
Maternal weigth
Relationship ...
And if we were speaking about a queen?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. We should start feeding her a higher
energetic diet just after...
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Days after mating
Bodyweight
(% weight
at mating)
Over the counter ques...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine & feline pregnancy…
 You receive an English Bulldog ...
Which solutions do you have?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Don’t breed the bitch and quit
breeding.
2. Schedule a C-section
3. Educ...
Protocol used in Europe (Levy et al, 2007)
How?
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
About canine & fel...
• 50 C-sections, 15 different breeds
• 229 puppies…
• 0% neonatal mortality after surgery
• 2.6% neonatal mortality 15 day...
« What do I need to know to administer
proper care to my kittens/puppies? »
Over the counter questions on small animal rep...
 An Abyssinian breeder comes to the clinic…
 Today, one of his queens just gave birth to a litter of
kittens but she has...
What is the first thing to do before starting bottle-
feeding a kitten?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Check the body temperature.
2...
Unable to regulate
its internal temperature First week of life: 35-36°C
< 34°C No more digestion…
< 32°C Loss of suckling ...
Practical consequences
In case of:
- Weak kitten…
- Rejected by its mother…
- Losing weight…
- Unable to feed itself…
- Un...
Practical consequences
Feed frequently:
- 1st week: at least 8 meals/day
- 2nd week: at lest 6 meals/day
- 3rd week: at le...
Since they did not receive the colostrum, what about the
immune status of these kittens?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. No real back...
©Internet
Immunity through
colostrum consumption
Enriched in specific antibodies…
Secreted approx. 24h…
Absorbed approx. 2...
Practical consequences
Be sure neonates suckle colostrum:
- If not, turn to “alternatives”:
- commercial substitutes?
- fr...
Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction
Conclusion
 Canine/Feline reproduction: not only about surgical
s...
Thanks for your attention!!!
Feel free to ask your questions:
emmanuel.fontaine@royalcanin.com
www.linkedin.com/in/emmanue...
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2013 NBVMA Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction

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Slides of the talk we did at the NBVMA/EVTA conference on canine and feline reproduction and how to address classic questions you might have in routine veterinary practice

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  • Coitus lead to LH secretion.The more LH, the more chances to ovulate. There is indeed a threshold to reach in order to obtain ovulation. One single mating lead to ovulation in only 50% of the cases, and it is now considered that at least 3 matings should be observed to obtain ovulation.
  • 2nd-3rd week of life: 37 to 38 degrees C
  • When the puppies are suckling, they usually take more than 12 meals a day
  • Specific antibodies because it comes from the mother so they were secreted because of vaccination and pathogens the mother encountered inside its own kennel: the best immunity that can be provided
  • When the puppies are suckling, they usually take more than 12 meals a day
  • 2013 NBVMA Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction

    1. 1. “Over the counter” questions on small animal reproduction: How to better address some of these everyday questions! #NBVMA2013
    2. 2. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction Introduction  DYK? Canine & feline reproduction is very often one of the most common cause of veterinary consultation  DYK? Canine & feline reproductive physiology: unique features among mammalian species  DYK? Because of myths and ‘Dr Google’, more and more challenging questions… 8 over the counter situations where well documented answers will make the difference
    3. 3. « In 2013 should I still spay and neuter my pet? » Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About spaying/neutering…
    4. 4. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering… “2x more hip dysplasia in castrated males” “3x more lymphosarcoma in neutered males” “4x more hemangiosarcoma in neutered females”
    5. 5. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering… Should we still spay and neuter? How to justify it?
    6. 6. What is THE main benefit of spaying/neutering dogs and cats? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Owner’s convenience 2. Behavioral improvement 3. Fight pet overpopulation 4. Disease control Countdown 20
    7. 7. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering… Medical benefits ++++ Prevention of mammary gland diseases: - Mammary tumors (CN: Schneider et al, 1969/CT: Overley et al, 2005) - Pseudopregnancy - Fibroadenomatosis (CT) Prevention of uterine diseases: - Pyometras - Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia - Uterine tumors… … + benefits anytime there is a sex hormon compound involved
    8. 8. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering… Medical benefits ++++ Prevention of prostatic diseases: - Benign prostatic hyperplasia - Prostatitis - Prostatic tumors? Prevention of testicular diseases: - Testicular tumors - Testicular torsion - Orchitis
    9. 9. What do you think concerning spaying/neutering for behavioral reasons? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. It will always lead to behavioral improvement 2. It will only be efficient in male dogs and cats 3. It will only be efficient in female dogs and cats 4. Hard to tell what the effect will be… Countdown 20
    10. 10. Behaviour ? Limiting behaviours related to reproduction  one of the first motivation for contraception - Roaming - Sexual behaviour - Urine spraying (tomcats +++) - Agressivity? - Estrus behaviour +++ - Roaming - Agressivity? But not always that effective!!!! Even sometimes counter-indicated!!! Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering…
    11. 11. What is THE downside of spaying and neutering? 1 2 3 4 5 0% 0% 0%0%0% 1. There’s no downside 2. Higher incidence of joints diseases and cancers 3. Weaker immune system 4. Obesity 5. Urinary incontinence Countdown 20
    12. 12. Spaying/neutering: the downside… Decrease of the energetic requirements Food intake +++ Consequences of overweight might severely impact animal health!!! Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering…
    13. 13. Nutritional recommendations: - Decrease daily energetic intake by 20- 30% - Use an adapted diet for spayed/neutered cats Prevention? Educate the new owner on the importance of feeding management!!! Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering…
    14. 14. What about urinary incontinence? YES, it can occur… Some weeks… to 10 years after spaying/neutering Predisposed breeds/racial types -Boxers +++ (Reichler et al, 2005) Males? Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering…
    15. 15. What is your opinion on the medical treatment of urinary incontinence? 1 2 3 4 5 0% 0% 0%0%0% 1. There’s no available treatment 2. Very low efficacy: less than 10% bitches will respond 3. Average efficacy: around 50% bitches will respond 4. Very good efficacy: up to 95% bitches will respon 5. Surgery is the only option Countdown 20
    16. 16. Efficacy of the medical treatment (Reichler et al, 2005): • Estrogens: ≈ 65% • GnRH agonists: ≈ 70% • α-agonists: ≈ 95% Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering… What about urinary incontinence?
    17. 17. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 1/ About spaying/neutering… So in 2013? - Specialists still advise to spay/neuter individuals that are not intended to be bred - Case-by-case decision - Important to discuss with the owners the pros and cons
    18. 18. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 2/ Still About spaying/neutering… • Vico, 2 year old mixed- breed bitch, 10kg • The owners want to spay her • The bitch just started her season • The owners want to spay her asap… You have no surgery scheduled for the rest of the week…
    19. 19. What will you tell the owner? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. No worries, let’s book an appointement for the next day! 2. Heats: counter-indication to surgery/come back when it’s over 3. Heats: counter-indication to surgery/come back in 3 weeks 4. Heats: counter-indication to surgery/come back in >2months Countdown 20
    20. 20. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 2/ Still About spaying/neutering… Heats are NOT a strict conter-indication to surgical sterilization! BUT: - Highly vascularized ovarian pedicles… - Higher hemorraghic risk… - Depends on the surgeon’s skills
    21. 21. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 2/ Still About spaying/neutering… And what about scheduling the surgery in 3 weeks?
    22. 22. 3 weeks from now, well… 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Heats will be over: easier surgical procedure so let’s do this! 2. Not recommended because of the hemorragic risk is even higher 3. Not recommended because this increases the risk of developing urinary incontinence 4. Not recommended because this increases the risk of pseudopregnancy Countdown 20
    23. 23. [X] Time Estradiol Hormonal profile PROGESTERONE Mir et al, 2011 Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 2/ Still About spaying/neutering… Spaying in diestrus: - High progesterone impregnation… - Brutal removal: increase in PRL - Lactation of pseudopregnancy +++ - Sometimes refractory to usual medical treatments
    24. 24. • Rottweiler bitch puppy, 2.5months • Presented for surgical sterilization Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 2/ Still About spaying/neutering… What do you think?
    25. 25. In this case… 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. These persons totally lost their mind, we can’t spay puppies! 2. Spaying can be done but is contra-indicated because of consequences on growth and health 3. Spaying can be performed but specific precautions are required during surgery 4. Spaying can be performed without specific precautions Countdown 20
    26. 26.  Ils sont complètement fous, on ne stérilise pas un chiot à cet âge là!  La stérilisation peut être réalisée, la procédure est exactement la même que chez l’adulte La stérilisation peut être réalisée mais des précautions sont nécessaires Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 2/ Still About spaying/neutering… Specific precautions are required before/during surgery: - Fasting no more than 5h before surgery - Control body temperature during surgery+++
    27. 27. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 3/ More about spaying/neutering… - A breeder come to visit you at the clinic… - He is supposed to go to a dog show but his golden retriever bitch is in heats… - He wants you to give a shot to suppress estrus in this individual… - He was told about this treatment that is efficient and safe…
    28. 28. In this case… 1 2 3 0% 0%0% 1. What is he talking about, there is no such treatment! 2. There are some medical alternatives for spaying but they are contra-indicated in breeding bitches 3. There are some medical alternatives for spaying, all of them are safe for the bitch Countdown 20
    29. 29. What is available today? These drugs contain progestins = progesterone analogues Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 3/ More about spaying/neutering…
    30. 30. What is available today? GnRH agonist implant GnRH = pacemaker of the reproductive function Prolonged delivery = arrest of GnRH secretion = no more gonad functioning “ Suspend the libido without bruising the fruits” Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 3/ More about spaying/neutering… Available in Europe/Asia/Australia… but not yet in North America
    31. 31. Gene silencing GnRH vaccines Cytotoxins The future… Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 3/ More about spaying/neutering…
    32. 32. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 3/ More about spaying/neutering…
    33. 33. « What do I need to know before breeding my pet? » Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline breeding…
    34. 34. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding… A new chihuahua breeder visit you at the clnic… Just bought his first breeding bitch and want to discuss with you the best way to do the breedings His bitch is 2 years old and cycles approx. every 10 months
    35. 35. The breeder wants to know if this is normal… 1 2 3 0% 0%0% 1. Absolutely not, bitches usually cycle every 5-6 months there must be an underlying uterine disease! 2. Absolutely not, bitches usually cycle every 5-6 months, there must be an underlying ovarian disease! 3. The interestrus interval seems regular: no need to worry! Countdown 20
    36. 36. The bitch, a mono-oestrian species But there is a breed influence every 4 months every 8-10 months every 12 months Only regularity matters!!! A 2 month variation is usually considered as normal… If increase/decrease of more than 2 months in the interestrus interval consultation is advised. If cycles less than every 4 months risk of infertility/lack of uterine involution Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    37. 37. The breeder wants to know when he should breed the bitch during her cycle… 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. The male will know, and moreover she will accept mating when she is ready 2. Textbooks say you should always breed the bitch between 12th and 15th day of heats 3. Vaginal smears will be required to determine the breeding date! 4. Hormonal assays will be required to determine the breeding date! Countdown 20
    38. 38. Behaviour? “A bitch only accepts mating during its optimal period” Forget about it! Unreliable!!! Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    39. 39. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    40. 40. Estrogenic impregnation  keratinization of the cells of the vaginal epithelium Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    41. 41. « Bavona», Chienne Bouvier Bernois de 4 ans Frottis vaginaux? Anestrus Proestrus DiestrusEstrus However, an estrous vaginal smear may be observed: - 5 to 10 days BEFORE ovulation… - … until 5-10 days AFTER…
    42. 42. Progesterone Two types of test Semi-quantitative assays Colorimetric = Estimation Acurate enough when using fresh semen Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    43. 43. Quantitative assays Accurate +++ ng/mL vs nmol/L Progesterone Two types of test Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    44. 44. Ok so when we know the day of ovulation, when should we breed the bitch? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. ASAP after ovulation 2. Approx. 12 hours after ovulation 3. Approx. 24 hours after ovulation 4. Approx. 48 hours after ovulation Countdown 20
    45. 45.  MOST MAMMALS OVULATION MII Oocyte Oocyte maturation in the pre-ovulatory follicles  IN THE BITCH: Mature oocytePI immature oocyte Intratubal maturation OVULATION 55-72 hours Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    46. 46. Heats ≈ 3 weeks Fertility window = 2-4 days Ovulation Only one breeding attempt: - 2 days post-ovulation Two breeding attempts (recommended): - 1 and 3 days post-ovulation Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    47. 47. 1/5 3/5 2/5 4/5 5/5 Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    48. 48. Fat: an endocrine tissue! Estrogens Androgens Leptin The more fat, the more these hormons are secreted!!! Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    49. 49. 3/5 4/5 5/5 P < 0.001 3.0 +/- 0.4 ng/ml n = 45 8.6 +/- 0.7 ng/ml n = 46 12.8 +/- 0.8 ng/ml n = 75 Dog Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    50. 50. Hypothalamus Ovaries Pituitary GnRH FSH LH Estrogens Progesterone Leptin Endocrine disruptor? Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 4/ About canine breeding…
    51. 51. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 5/ About feline breeding… Your chihuahua breeder also wants to breed cats. He just bought a British Short Hair queen. Same thing: wants to discuss with you the best way to do the breedings. Wonders if he should follow the same protocol than in dogs…
    52. 52. What do you tell him? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Just let the queen with the male and you’ll end up with lots of kittens 2. We need to start breeding 3 days after beginning of the heats 3. We need to do a timing of ovulation using vaginal smears 4. We need to do a timing of ovulation using progesterone assays Countdown 20
    53. 53. INDUCED OVULATORS Mating-induced ovulation…  … but spontaneous ovulation may occur Progesterone secretion only after ovulation Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 5/ About feline breeding…
    54. 54. 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1 2 3 4 5 6 Folliculardiameter(1/10mm) Days Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 5/ About feline breeding… Evolution of the follicular size during the queen’s estrous cycle (Malandain et al, 2006)
    55. 55. What will be your recommended breeding protocol? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. As many matings as possible during three days 2. As many matings as possible during two days 3. As many matings as possible during a single day 4. A single mating will be enough Countdown 20
    56. 56. 24 – 30 hours
    57. 57. Time between LH peak and ovulation – LH  ovulation 24h later Allow several matings during several days – 1st day: meeting – 2nd day: mating and LH peak – 3rd day: mating/ovulation/ fecundation Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 5/ About feline breeding… Only 50% of the queens will ovulate after a single mating
    58. 58. BREEDERS MUST BE ABLE TO CONFIRM THAT ENOUGH MATINGS TOOK PLACE! 1st cause of infertility in the feline species: no/not enough matings!!!! Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction 5/ About feline breeding…
    59. 59. « My bitch/queen is pregnant: how to manage this? » Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    60. 60. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy… A breeder client visit you at the clnic… His Brittany spaniel bitch is pregnant after the timing of ovulation you did He wants to know when the bitch will be due…
    61. 61. Pregnancy length in the bitch is… 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. The breeder knows the day the bitch was mated: parturition will take place 58 days after 2. The breeder knows the day the bitch was mated: parturition will take place 63 days after 3. We know the day of ovulation: parturition will take place 58 days after. 4. We know the day of ovulation: parturition will take place 63 days after Countdown 20
    62. 62. Canine pregnancy length  63 ± 1 days When ovulation is considered as the origin! Small dogs: 62 ± 1 days Giant dogs: 64 ± 1 days Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    63. 63. And if there was no timing of ovulation… 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Nothing we can do, we just have to wait 2. We can use ultrasounds to estimate the date of parturition. 3. Assaying progesterone anytime during pregnancy will help us determine the day of parturition 4. We can educate the breeder so he can recognize the signs of parturition Countdown 20
    64. 64. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy… Measure of the bi-parietal diameter
    65. 65. Progesterone and parturition [X] Time Estradiol PROGESTERONE 24h before parturition, progesterone concentration will drop < 2ng/mL Puppies’ maturation signal??? Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    66. 66. And if the question was for a queen… 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Take the 1st day of breeding and count 65 days 2. Take the 2nd day of breeding and count 65 days 3. Take the 1st day of breeding and count 63 days. 4. Take the 2nd day of breeding and count 63 days Countdown 20
    67. 67. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…  The breeder has some questions concerning feeding management during pregnancy  He was told to switch to a high energetic diet just after breeding…
    68. 68. What to answer to this? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. That’s indeed what he needs to do 2. The bitch should only receive a maintenance diet throughout pregnancy 3. The bitch should be fed a more energetic diet during the last half of pregnancy 4. The bitch should be fed a more energetic diet during the last third of pregnancy Countdown 20
    69. 69. Energy needs of the bitch increase from the 6th week of gestation % MER W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W5 W7 W8 100 110 120 130 140 150 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
    70. 70. + Zhang J. et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG 2007;114:343–348 Human Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    71. 71. Importance of body condition Obesity and uterine contractions 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 %bitches Maternal weigth Relationship between parturition unfolding and maternal body weigth Dystocia with C-section Dystocia without C-section Eutocia Fontaine et al, 2007 Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    72. 72. And if we were speaking about a queen? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. We should start feeding her a higher energetic diet just after breeding 2. The queen should only receive a maintenance diet throughout pregnancy 3. The queen should be fed a more energetic diet during the last half of pregnancy 4. The queen should be fed a more energetic diet during the last third of pregnancy Countdown 20
    73. 73. 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Days after mating Bodyweight (% weight at mating) Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    74. 74. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…  You receive an English Bulldog breeder…  He is stressed out about parturition in his breed and want to know what is the best option you can provide him with to better deal with it…
    75. 75. Which solutions do you have? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Don’t breed the bitch and quit breeding. 2. Schedule a C-section 3. Educate the client so he can recognize the signs of parturition 4. Transfer the embryos in a Labrador bitch Countdown 20
    76. 76. Protocol used in Europe (Levy et al, 2007) How? Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy… Please contact me for more details See Final Slide for contact information
    77. 77. • 50 C-sections, 15 different breeds • 229 puppies… • 0% neonatal mortality after surgery • 2.6% neonatal mortality 15 days after birth Levy et al, 2007 Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine & feline pregnancy…
    78. 78. « What do I need to know to administer proper care to my kittens/puppies? » Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    79. 79.  An Abyssinian breeder comes to the clinic…  Today, one of his queens just gave birth to a litter of kittens but she has no milk and he has to bottle-feed them.  Would like some advices on how to do it… Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    80. 80. What is the first thing to do before starting bottle- feeding a kitten? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Check the body temperature. 2. Check if the kitten still has a suckling reflex 3. Check the hydration status 4. Check how vigorous the kitten is Countdown 20
    81. 81. Unable to regulate its internal temperature First week of life: 35-36°C < 34°C No more digestion… < 32°C Loss of suckling reflex… Hypothermia Less active © Internet Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    82. 82. Practical consequences In case of: - Weak kitten… - Rejected by its mother… - Losing weight… - Unable to feed itself… - Unable to being fed… 1st Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    83. 83. Practical consequences Feed frequently: - 1st week: at least 8 meals/day - 2nd week: at lest 6 meals/day - 3rd week: at least 4 meals/day Use a milk replacer if necessary: - Too many kittens - Not enough natural milk Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    84. 84. Since they did not receive the colostrum, what about the immune status of these kittens? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. No real back-up solution… 2. We can administer adult serum orally 3. We can administer adult serum SC 4. We can feed them with a colostral substitute Countdown 20
    85. 85. ©Internet Immunity through colostrum consumption Enriched in specific antibodies… Secreted approx. 24h… Absorbed approx. 24h… Colostrum 1st milk secretion Immature immune system Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    86. 86. Practical consequences Be sure neonates suckle colostrum: - If not, turn to “alternatives”: - commercial substitutes? - frozen colostrum - foster mother? Ensure optinal hygiene in the nursery - Cleaning/Disinfecting - Optimal design © UMES - Casseleux ©UMES-Malandain One feline specificity: Neonatal Erythrolysis Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction About canine/feline neonatology…
    87. 87. Over the counter questions on small animal reproduction Conclusion  Canine/Feline reproduction: not only about surgical sterilization  Many “over the counter” questions that requires clear technical answers  What about the future?
    88. 88. Thanks for your attention!!! Feel free to ask your questions: emmanuel.fontaine@royalcanin.com www.linkedin.com/in/emmanuelfontaine twitter.com/DrEFontaine www.facebook.com/#!/emmanuel.fontaine.758 Follow our latest posts here: http://feeds.feedburner.com/DrEFontaineBlogs

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