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2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?
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2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?

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Slides from the lecture I did at the International Working Dog Breeding Conference in San Antonio, TX on Oct 16th 2013

Slides from the lecture I did at the International Working Dog Breeding Conference in San Antonio, TX on Oct 16th 2013

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  • [twitter]Want to know what is needed to set up a #canine repro center? My lecture starts now, follow our notes on Twitter! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • The working dog’s recipe= lots of training, appropriate nutrition… and of course good genetics! #IWDBA2013
  • [twitter] Canine genetics, a potential to integrate in your selection program. Direct application? The breeding management #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Canines have usually a good fertility… but that does not mean that breeding #dogs is always easy! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Do you think bitches will always accept mating when they are ready to be fertilised? #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Do you think males will always detect the optimal breeding period in females? #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Do you think bitches are always ready to be fertilized between 12 and 15 days after beginning of heats? #IWBDA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Answer to the 3 previous questions: unfortunately it does not always work this way! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] How to optimize #canine breeding management program then? Fortunately, there are efficient ways! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] The canine species: unique features in terms of reproductive physiology #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Fertility is an equation to solve: gametes must met at the appropriate time. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] What do you need to know then? The day the bitch ovulates! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Some bitches can ovulate 6 days after beginning of heats, while others will do so on day 30! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Progesterone secretion starts in most mammals AFTER ovulation. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] In bitches, it starts BEFORE= a unique “canine” feature we can use to detect ovulation. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Whatever their size, the blood progesterone concentration in bitches will always be approx the same at ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] 2 types of progesterone assays exist: semi-quantitative vs quantitative #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Quantitative progesterone assays: always look at the unit! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] 5-6 ng/mL = ovulation, but this represents 15-20 nmol/L! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] In mots mammals, mature oocytes are ovulated and can be immediately fertilized #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] In bitches, immature oocytes are ovulated: maturation will take 55-72h! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] At the optimal of fertility, blood progesterone concentration varies widly in the bitch #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] If only 1 breeding should be attempted, perform it 48h post ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] 2 breedings are usually recommended 1-3 days post-ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] If natural mating is not possible, use a fantastic tool: artificial insemination #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] 3 essentials parameters to assess dog’s semen quality: motility/numeration/morphology #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Good motility: >80% motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate#IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Number of sperm in the ejaculate depends on the size of the dog. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] German Shepherd for instance= 600-800 millions sperm cells in the ejaculate #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Normal sperm <30% abnormal sperm in the ejaculate #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] The 1st artificial insemination ever performed was done in 1785 in dogs by Spallanzani#IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Intra-uterine insemination: a valuable option when dealing with low quality semen #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Pregnancy length in the bitch: 63 days… post ovulation! Another good reason to detect the day of ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasounds: 21 days post ovulation/allows to detect eventual pictures of embryonic resorptions#IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Cleft palates: the most common congenital defect found in puppies #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Cleft palates can be corrected surgically… but lots of care will be needed! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Prevention of cleft palates: oral supplementation with folic acid #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] 3 studies proved that folic acid supplementation in pregnant bitches lead to decrease of the incidence of cleft palates #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] This is the end of our lecture. Thanks for following and let me know what you think! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Will share the slides during the week, stay tuned! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • Transcript

    • 1. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Things to know to get started! #IWDBA2013
    • 2. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Introduction Excellent working dogs: what is the exact “recipe”? Training Genetics Nutrition …
    • 3. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Introduction Genetics Genealogy Performances Genetic index … A genetic potential to integrate in your genetic selection program Direct application: Breeding management
    • 4. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 An example… The Example of the Abu Dhabi Police Why would we need a breeding center? Adult… Adult… In heats… Assumption: Repro = basic maths
    • 5. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 An example… But in real life, does not always work this way… Good news: we can efficiently face these situations nowadays in veterinary medicine Problematic when dealing with a monoestrian species…
    • 6. The Example of the Abu Dhabi Police What do we need to set up a breeding center? Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 An example… - Genital examination - Semen evaluation - Semen processing - Genital examination - Timing of ovulation - Artificial Insemination - Pregnancy management - Parturition management
    • 7. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 The training program… 1/ Physiology of reproduction in the canine species 2/ Workshops - Semen evaluation - Artificial Insemination - Genital US 3/ Management of pregnancy … and how to use it!
    • 8. Ovaries FSH/LH E2/P4 GnRH Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Boring? Goal: pinpoint canine specificities… … and understand how to use them in practice! In terms of reproductive physiology, canines are UNIQUE!
    • 9. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Fertility: an equation we are trying to solve Lots of them… Lots of them… Lots of them… Date of ovulation
    • 10. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Ovulation/Beginning of heats ??? How do we determine the day of ovulation in the bitch?
    • 11. In all mammals… Secretion of progesterone ONLY after ovulation In the bitch… Secretion of progesterone BEFORE ovulation Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…
    • 12. 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Days Progesteroneng/mL Ovulation Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…
    • 13. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 9h00 21h00 9h00 15h3013h4520h0015h0020h00 9h00 14h3020h30 9h30 15h0019h0017h0020h0010h30 30/10 31/10 02/11 03/11 04/11 05/11 06/11 07/11 08/11 09/11 ProgesteroneandLHbloodlevels(ng/ml) Dates and time of blood samples Pg LH Ovulation 5 à 10 ng/ml (15 à 30 nmol/L) LH peak Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… How to assay progesterone in the bitch?
    • 14. Progesterone Two types of test Semi-quantitative assays Colorimetric = Estimation Accurate enough when using fresh semen Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…
    • 15. Quantitative assays Accurate +++ ng/mL vs nmol/L Progesterone Two types of test Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…
    • 16. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… “Normal” timing of ovulation ≈ 3 P4 assays Keep in mind some specific cases can sometimes be found…
    • 17. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… We know how to determine the day of ovulation… But then? When do we schedule the breeding?
    • 18.  MOST MAMMALS OVULATION MII Oocyte Oocyte maturation in the pre-ovulatory follicles  IN THE BITCH: Mature oocytePI immature oocyte Intratubal maturation OVULATION 55-72 hours Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…
    • 19. … AND high variations at the optimal fertilisation period 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 Progesteroneng/mL Ovulation Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…
    • 20. Heats ≈ 3 weeks Fertility window = 2-4 days Ovulation Only one breeding attempt: - 2 days post-ovulation Two breeding attempts (recommended): - 1 and 3 days post-ovulation Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… But when natural breeding does not work?
    • 21. If it doesn’t work there is only one solution: go for an artificial insemination !!! Never force the partners !!! Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… 2/ Workshops!
    • 22. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 The workshops we did… Semen collection & evaluation … mandatory prerequisite before performing AI
    • 23. MANY factors can affect the sperm quality!!!!! Breeding frequency High temperatures Age Genetics Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 24. Microscopic examination is required for quality assessment! Motility Numeration Morphology Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 25. Motility assessment THE essential step! ????? >80% <60% Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 26. Numeration Depending on the size of the dog 200-300 millions SPZ/ejaculate 400-600 millions SPZ/ejaculate 600-800 millions SPZ/ejaculate 800 millions to more than 1 billion SPZ/ejaculate Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 27. Numeration Why is it important? - Minimum number of SPZ to fertilize a female - When freezing semen 150 millions Number of inseminating doses Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 28. Numeration How to estimate it? Counter chamber Spectrophotometer Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 29. Morphology The “perfect” spermatozoa BUT… More than 5,000 SPZ produced/second!!!! Abnormal ones will ALWAYS be present! Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 30. It is then just a matter of proportion! < 30% abnormal forms: Normal situation > 30% abnormal forms: avoid semen freezing > 50% abnormal forms: high risk of infertility Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 31. What to do when dealing with semen of bad quality?  Intra-uterine insemination Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation…
    • 32. “ The first artificial insemination ever was performed in the canine species” Spallanzani, 1785 Fresh semen Chilled semen Frozen semen Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
    • 33. - The « scandinavian » technique Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
    • 34. - Inseminations under endoscopy (aka TCI) Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
    • 35. ( Wilson 2003 )
    • 36. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
    • 37. Intra-vaginal vs Intra-uterine? Fresh semen Intra-vaginal insemination Easy to perform Good results should be obtained if semen of excellent quality Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
    • 38. Intra-vaginal vs Intra-uterine? Fresh semen Intra-uterine insemination High-skilled procedure Not necessary when good semen quality… Highly recommended when low/average semen quality… Should be mandatory when dealing with chilled/frozen semen!!! Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
    • 39. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… Great, we know how to optimize fertility! But then… What about management of pregnancy?
    • 40. Canine pregnancy length  63 ± 1 days When ovulation is considered as the origin! Small dogs: 62 ± 1 days Giant dogs: 64 ± 1 days Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Management of pregnancy… You did a timing of ovulation? You know when parturition will take place…
    • 41. Echographie: aspect des ampoules Genital Ultrasounds 3 weeks post-ov: Best way to perform a pregnancy diagnosis
    • 42. Why?
    • 43. Embryonic resorptions
    • 44. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Management of pregnancy… Something else to focus on? Food intake during gestation
    • 45. Foetal growth occurs at the end of pregnancy • From one cell to an embryo, then a foetus • In two months 35 days 63 days time
    • 46. Energy needs of the bitch increase from the 6th week of gestation % MER W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W5 W7 W8 100 110 120 130 140 150 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
    • 47. It is time to increase energy intake by 10% a week (bitches with more than 1 foetus) % MER W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 100 110 120 130 140 150 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63
    • 48. In the same time, food intake capacity is decreasing • Uterus compresses the stomach • Behavioural changes
    • 49. Necessity to use a palatable food with a high energy level High energy food Foetal growth  Ingestion capacity Palatable Behavioural changes Avoid unlimited food distribution during gestation!
    • 50. It is important to controle the body condition during the gestation
    • 51. • Uterus has a muscle : myometra In overweight bitches, accumulation of fat in the uterus
    • 52. + In overweight bitches/women, A diminution of myometra is observed Zhang J. et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG 2007;114:343–348 Human
    • 53. In overweight and obese women, an increase risk of dystocia is observed Zhang J. et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG 2007;114:343–348 Human
    • 54. Food intake during gestation Importance of body condition Obesity and uterine contractions 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 %bitches Maternal weigth Relationship between parturition unfolding and maternal body weigth Dystocia with C-section Dystocia without C-section Eutocia Fontaine et al, 2007
    • 55. Nutrition and Cleft palate The most common congenital defect found in newborn puppies
    • 56. Arrested development of the upper lip and future nasal and maxillary buds that should normally ends on the 33rd day of gestation in dogs Genetic and/or environmental causes Cleft lip and palate
    • 57. Cleft palate : management and treatment
    • 58. Can affect several puppies in the same litter
    • 59. Cleft palate affect also human
    • 60. GESTATION Folic acid supplementation (5mg/day/dog) Pro- œstrus œstrus 242 puppies 0 5 10 15 20 Control Control + folic acid 17.6% 4.2% -76% Boston terrier Supplementation during embryogenesis reduces the incidence of cleft palate in dogs (Elwood & Colquhoun, 1997)
    • 61. Royal Canin Research Centre, 2004 GESTATION Folic acid supplementation (5mg/day/dog) Pro- œstrus œstrus 42nd day of gestation 0 2 4 6 8 10 Control Control + Folic acid 9.3% 4.8%275 puppies -48.3% French bulldogs Supplementation during embryogenesis reduces the incidence of cleft palate in dogs
    • 62. Folic acid and cleft palate don’t forget the other causes  Genetic Selection Collaboration with vets
    • 63. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Management of pregnancy… The Example of the Abu Dhabi Police - 6 visits since 2008 - Vets on staff were trained both in Abu Dhabi and in France - Now ready to set up their own breeding center What about a Phase II? Semen processing (esp freezing) Training on pathological situations that can be encountered Scheduling reproductive events? The future is bright: new advances might change our veterinary approaches in the future!
    • 64. Thank you for your attention!!! Questions? Feel free to ask: emmanuel.fontaine@royalcanin.com www.linkedin.com/in/emmanuelfontaine twitter.com/DrEFontaine www.facebook.com/emmanuel.fontaine.758

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