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2013 IWDBA How to set up a canine breeding center?

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Slides from the lecture I did at the International Working Dog Breeding Conference in San Antonio, TX on Oct 16th 2013

Slides from the lecture I did at the International Working Dog Breeding Conference in San Antonio, TX on Oct 16th 2013

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  • [twitter]Want to know what is needed to set up a #canine repro center? My lecture starts now, follow our notes on Twitter! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • The working dog’s recipe= lots of training, appropriate nutrition… and of course good genetics! #IWDBA2013
  • [twitter] Canine genetics, a potential to integrate in your selection program. Direct application? The breeding management #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Canines have usually a good fertility… but that does not mean that breeding #dogs is always easy! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Do you think bitches will always accept mating when they are ready to be fertilised? #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Do you think males will always detect the optimal breeding period in females? #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Do you think bitches are always ready to be fertilized between 12 and 15 days after beginning of heats? #IWBDA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Answer to the 3 previous questions: unfortunately it does not always work this way! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] How to optimize #canine breeding management program then? Fortunately, there are efficient ways! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] The canine species: unique features in terms of reproductive physiology #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Fertility is an equation to solve: gametes must met at the appropriate time. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] What do you need to know then? The day the bitch ovulates! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Some bitches can ovulate 6 days after beginning of heats, while others will do so on day 30! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Progesterone secretion starts in most mammals AFTER ovulation. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] In bitches, it starts BEFORE= a unique “canine” feature we can use to detect ovulation. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Whatever their size, the blood progesterone concentration in bitches will always be approx the same at ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] 2 types of progesterone assays exist: semi-quantitative vs quantitative #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Quantitative progesterone assays: always look at the unit! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] 5-6 ng/mL = ovulation, but this represents 15-20 nmol/L! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] In mots mammals, mature oocytes are ovulated and can be immediately fertilized #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] In bitches, immature oocytes are ovulated: maturation will take 55-72h! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] At the optimal of fertility, blood progesterone concentration varies widly in the bitch #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] If only 1 breeding should be attempted, perform it 48h post ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] 2 breedings are usually recommended 1-3 days post-ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] If natural mating is not possible, use a fantastic tool: artificial insemination #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] 3 essentials parameters to assess dog’s semen quality: motility/numeration/morphology #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Good motility: >80% motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate#IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Number of sperm in the ejaculate depends on the size of the dog. #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] German Shepherd for instance= 600-800 millions sperm cells in the ejaculate #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Normal sperm <30% abnormal sperm in the ejaculate #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] The 1st artificial insemination ever performed was done in 1785 in dogs by Spallanzani#IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Intra-uterine insemination: a valuable option when dealing with low quality semen #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Pregnancy length in the bitch: 63 days… post ovulation! Another good reason to detect the day of ovulation #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasounds: 21 days post ovulation/allows to detect eventual pictures of embryonic resorptions#IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Cleft palates: the most common congenital defect found in puppies #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Cleft palates can be corrected surgically… but lots of care will be needed! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] Prevention of cleft palates: oral supplementation with folic acid #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] 3 studies proved that folic acid supplementation in pregnant bitches lead to decrease of the incidence of cleft palates #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]
  • [twitter] This is the end of our lecture. Thanks for following and let me know what you think! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter][twitter] Will share the slides during the week, stay tuned! #IWDBA2013 [/twitter]

Transcript

  • 1. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Things to know to get started! #IWDBA2013
  • 2. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Introduction Excellent working dogs: what is the exact “recipe”? Genetics Training Nutrition …
  • 3. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Introduction Genetics A genetic potential to integrate in your genetic selection program Genealogy Performances Genetic index … Direct application: Breeding management
  • 4. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 An example… The Example of the Abu Dhabi Police Why would we need a breeding center? Assumption: Repro = basic maths Adult… Adult… In heats…
  • 5. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 An example… But in real life, does not always work this way… Good news: we can efficiently face these situations nowadays in veterinary medicine Problematic when dealing with a monoestrian species…
  • 6. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 An example… The Example of the Abu Dhabi Police What do we need to set up a breeding center? - Genital examination - Semen evaluation - Semen processing - Genital examination Timing of ovulation Artificial Insemination Pregnancy management Parturition management
  • 7. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 The training program… 1/ Physiology of reproduction in the canine species … and how to use it! 2/ Workshops - Semen evaluation Artificial Insemination Genital US 3/ Management of pregnancy
  • 8. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… In terms of reproductive physiology, GnRH canines are UNIQUE! FSH/LH Ovaries E2/P4 Boring? Goal: pinpoint canine specificities… … and understand how to use them in practice!
  • 9. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Fertility: an equation we are trying to solve Lots of them… Lots of them… Date of ovulation Lots of them…
  • 10. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… ??? How do we determine the day of ovulation in the bitch? Ovulation/Beginning of heats
  • 11. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… In all mammals… Secretion of progesterone ONLY after ovulation In the bitch… Secretion of progesterone BEFORE ovulation
  • 12. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Progesterone ng/mL 21 Ovulation 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Days 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 13. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Progesterone and LH blood levels (ng/ml) 18 16 14 12 10 8 Ovulation How to assay progesterone LH peak in the bitch? 5 à 10 ng/ml (15 à 30 nmol/L) 6 4 2 0 9h00 21h00 9h00 15h30 13h4520h0015h0020h00 9h00 14h30 20h30 9h30 15h00 19h0017h0020h0010h30 30/10 31/10 02/11 03/11 04/11 05/11 06/11 Dates and time of blood samples 07/11 08/11 09/11 Pg LH
  • 14. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Progesterone Two types of test Semi-quantitative assays Colorimetric = Estimation Accurate enough when using fresh semen
  • 15. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Progesterone Two types of test Quantitative assays Accurate +++ ng/mL vs nmol/L
  • 16. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… “Normal” timing of ovulation ≈ 3 P4 assays Keep in mind some specific cases can sometimes be found…
  • 17. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… We know how to determine the day of ovulation… But then? When do we schedule the breeding?
  • 18. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology…  MOST MAMMALS Oocyte maturation in the pre-ovulatory follicles OVULATION MII Oocyte  IN THE BITCH: Intratubal maturation 55-72 hours OVULATION PI immature oocyte Mature oocyte
  • 19. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… … AND high variations at the optimal fertilisation period Progesterone ng/mL 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 Ovulation
  • 20. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… Heats ≈ 3 weeks Ovulation Only one breeding attempt: - 2 days post-ovulation Two breeding attempts (recommended): - 1 and 3 days post-ovulation Fertility window = 2-4 days But when natural breeding does not work?
  • 21. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Reproductive physiology… 2/ Workshops! Never force the partners !!! If it doesn’t work there is only one solution: go for an artificial insemination !!!
  • 22. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 The workshops we did… Semen collection & evaluation … mandatory prerequisite before performing AI
  • 23. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… MANY factors can affect the sperm quality!!!!! Breeding frequency Genetics High temperatures Age
  • 24. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… Microscopic examination is required for quality assessment! Motility Numeration Morphology
  • 25. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… Motility assessment THE essential step! >80% <60% ?????
  • 26. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… Numeration Depending on the size of the dog 200-300 millions SPZ/ejaculate 400-600 millions SPZ/ejaculate 600-800 millions SPZ/ejaculate 800 millions to more than 1 billion SPZ/ejaculate
  • 27. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… Numeration Why is it important? - Minimum number of SPZ to fertilize a female - When freezing semen 150 millions Number of inseminating doses
  • 28. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… Numeration How to estimate it? Counter chamber Spectrophotometer
  • 29. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… Morphology BUT… More than 5,000 SPZ produced/second!!!! Abnormal ones will ALWAYS be present! The “perfect” spermatozoa
  • 30. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… It is then just a matter of proportion! < 30% abnormal forms: Normal situation > 30% abnormal forms: avoid semen freezing > 50% abnormal forms: high risk of infertility
  • 31. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Semen evaluation… What to do when dealing with semen of bad quality?  Intra-uterine insemination
  • 32. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… Fresh semen Chilled semen “ The first artificial insemination ever was performed in the canine species” Spallanzani, 1785 Frozen semen
  • 33. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… - The « scandinavian » technique
  • 34. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… - Inseminations under endoscopy (aka TCI)
  • 35. ( Wilson 2003 )
  • 36. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination…
  • 37. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… Intra-vaginal vs Intra-uterine? Fresh semen Easy to perform Good results should be obtained if semen of excellent quality Intra-vaginal insemination
  • 38. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… Intra-vaginal vs Intra-uterine? Fresh semen High-skilled procedure Highly recommended when low/average semen Not necessary when good quality… semen quality… Should be mandatory when dealing with chilled/frozen semen!!! Intra-uterine insemination
  • 39. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Artificial insemination… Great, we know how to optimize fertility! But then… What about management of pregnancy?
  • 40. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Management of pregnancy… ovulation? Canine You did a timing of  63 1 days pregnancy length You know when parturition will take place… When ovulation is considered as the origin! Small dogs: 62 1 days Giant dogs: 64 1 days
  • 41. Genital Ultrasounds 3 weeks post-ov: Echographie: aspect des ampoules Best way to perform a pregnancy diagnosis
  • 42. Why?
  • 43. Embryonic resorptions
  • 44. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Management of pregnancy… Something else to focus on? Food intake during gestation
  • 45. Foetal growth occurs at the end of pregnancy • From one cell to an embryo, then a foetus • In two months time 35 days 63 days
  • 46. Energy needs of the bitch increase from the 6th week of gestation % MER 150 140 130 120 110 100 W1 0 W2 7 W3 14 W4 21 W5 28 W6 35 W5 42 W7 49 W8 56 63
  • 47. It is time to increase energy intake by 10% a week (bitches with more than 1 foetus) % MER 150 140 130 120 110 100 W1 0 W2 7 W3 14 W4 21 W5 28 W6 35 W7 42 W8 49 W9 56 63
  • 48. In the same time, food intake capacity is decreasing • Uterus compresses the stomach • Behavioural changes
  • 49. Necessity to use a palatable food with a high energy level Foetal growth  Ingestion capacity High energy food Avoid unlimited food distribution during gestation! Behavioural changes Palatable
  • 50. It is important to controle the body condition during the gestation
  • 51. In overweight bitches, accumulation of fat in the uterus • Uterus has a muscle : myometra
  • 52. In overweight bitches/women, A diminution of myometra is observed Human + Zhang J. et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG 2007;114:343–348
  • 53. In overweight and obese women, an increase risk of dystocia is observed Human Zhang J. et al. Poor uterine contractility in obese women. BJOG 2007;114:343–348
  • 54. Food intake during gestation Importance of body condition Obesity and uterine contractions Relationship between parturition unfolding and maternal body weigth 120 % bitches 100 80 60 40 Dystocia with C-section 20 Dystocia without C-section Eutocia 0 Maternal weigth Fontaine et al, 2007
  • 55. Nutrition and Cleft palate The most common congenital defect found in newborn puppies
  • 56. Cleft lip and palate Arrested development of the upper lip and future nasal and maxillary buds that should normally ends on the 33rd day of gestation in dogs Genetic and/or environmental causes
  • 57. Cleft palate : management and treatment
  • 58. Can affect several puppies in the same litter
  • 59. Cleft palate affect also human
  • 60. Supplementation during embryogenesis reduces the incidence of cleft palate in dogs Folic acid supplementation (5mg/day/dog) Boston terrier Proœstrus 20 œstrus 17.6% GESTATION -76% 15 242 puppies 10 4.2% 5 0 (Elwood & Colquhoun, 1997) Control Control + folic acid
  • 61. Supplementation during embryogenesis reduces the incidence of cleft palate in dogs Folic acid supplementation (5mg/day/dog) Proœstrus French bulldogs œstrus GESTATION 42nd day of gestation 9.3% -48.3% 10 275 puppies 8 4.8% 6 4 2 0 Royal Canin Research Centre, 2004 Control Control + Folic acid
  • 62. Folic acid and cleft palate don’t forget the other causes Collaboration with vets  Genetic Selection
  • 63. Canine reproduction: breeding center 101 Management of pregnancy… The Example of the Abu Dhabi Police - 6 visits since 2008 - Vets on staff were trained both in Abu Dhabi and in France - Now ready to set up their own breeding center  What about a Phase II?  Semen processing (esp freezing)  Training on pathological situations that can be encountered  Scheduling reproductive events? The future is bright: new advances might change our veterinary approaches in the future!
  • 64. Thank you for your attention!!! Questions? Feel free to ask: emmanuel.fontaine@royalcanin.com www.linkedin.com/in/emmanuelfontaine twitter.com/DrEFontaine www.facebook.com/emmanuel.fontaine.758