Cataloguing in the “Real World” By Emily Porta iSchool Peer-Led Workshop Series 2013 26 February 2013
Talk OutlineWhat is cataloguing, and why do I need to know it?How does cataloguing in real life differ from cataloguing inschool?What do I need to know to say “yes, I can catalogue” at aninterview?How do I catalogue something? The general process.Additional resources, going forwardQuestions, comments, etc.
What is cataloguing?For the people in this room, cataloguing will manifest as away of controlling the information in your libraryYou can catalogue anything, books, audio-visualmaterials, kits, toys, you name itYou use a bunch of standards to organize this information.Most find it tedious, they are incorrect
Some basic termsLCC – Library of Congress ClassificationDewey or DDC – Dewey Decimal ClassificationLCSH – Library of Congress Subject HeadingsMARC – Machine Readable CataloguingLoC – Library of CongressAACR – Anglo-American Cataloguing RulesMore: scribd.com/doc/127310834/Key-Terms-in-Cataloguing
What is the point of cataloguing?We catalogue in order to facilitate ACCESS: discovery andsharing. It‟s how your patrons find anything.If done even slightly incorrectly, an item may not ever befound – a poorly catalogued item is a lost item.You will find a wide range of adherence to the rulesdepending on the library in question.FISO – Find, Identify, Select, Obtain
But why do I need to know it?As a librarian/KM professional/information specialist, if youdon‟t know the basics of bibliographic control you:Will find it harder to provide quality reference service (eg.Not know how to find an authorized name for BillShakespeare or Zeus)Find it harder to know where to look for books in thestacksUnderstand subject headingsAlso, at some point, it is likely you will have to originallycatalogue something – the buck stops with you
“Real Life” CataloguingPublic libraries: usually Dewey classification, dependingon size could use LCSH, Sears, etc. in response to use bygeneral public, classification is used more liberally,especially for fictionAcademic: generally strict adherence to the rules,facilitates sharing among academic institutions. MostlyLCSH and LCC, some Dewey (eg. OISE and Inforum atUofT)Special: it depends. Often no ILS, so no importing, nointerest in sharing so no MARC, rules adapted for veryspecific users
Ok, so what do I need to know?You should have a general knowledge of key terms andconcepts, see the sheetKnow the general history of digital cataloguing, why we dothings the way we do them nowSpecial libraries: you might need to know how to create orradically alter the catalogue, collection, or bothFor this you need good understanding of pros and cons ofdifferent classification systems, figure out what parts of arecord your patrons need, how to create a cataloguingmanual (IMPORTANT)
What you need to know (cont.)For public library, probably not much, unless you‟re thecataloguer or have cataloguing as a part of your job. Basicfamiliarity is still necessaryFor academic library, important to know basics (eg. Forreference services), know how to originally cataloguesomething, ideally including other languages (know whento hold „em, know when to fold „em), depends on size oflibrary (eg. Robarts vs. UTM – big difference)
How to Catalogue a Resource You will need:1. AACR2 (AACR 2nd revised edition) [eventually RDA, but not yet]2. Whatever thesaurus you‟re using for subject headings (eg. LCSH)3. Whatever classification system you‟re using (eg. LCC), including your Cutter table4. A bunch of online tools (we love them)5. The cataloguing manual for special circumstances
Cataloguing a BookGet out AACR2 (you need Chapter One (general rules)and Chapter Two (monographs). You will flip betweenthese chapters the entire time. RDA Toolkit has an e-version of AACR2, up to your preference.Get the book. Ignore the cover, look at the title page,copyright, etc.Follow the rules. Seriously, read Chapter One severaltimes, carefully. Read Chapter Two at least once,carefully. Then start applying the rules, in order. FOLLOW.THE. RULES.
Cataloguing a Book (cont.)Once you have the information for the resource, in perfectAACR2 format, you need subject headings and aclassification numberIf no one‟s ever catalogued this book before, you have tocreate them. Subject headings: determine aboutnesscarefully, use LCSH (or whatever SH vocabulary) to pickthe headings (usually about three) – follow rule ofCOEXTENSIVITYCreate the classification number using the system you‟vechosen (LCC, DDC, etc.), and comparing the number withyour existing collection. If it doesn‟t make sense, you canput it somewhere else!! The power!
Term break! (Not the fun kind)COEXTENSIVITY - aka "specific entry": you enter a work under itssubject heading, not under the heading of a class whichCONTAINS that subject eg. enter a book about "cats" under "cat",not under "zoology" or "mammals" or "domestic animals”DIRECT ENTRY - owls, NOT birds > birds of prey > owlsPRE-COORDINATED - systems where the rules, the grammar, etc.are already spelled out for you, as long as you know the systemyoull be able to retrieve objects efficiently. Examples are Sears,LCSH, Dewey, and LCCPOST-COORDINATED - user searches words and order, eg. ERICThesaurus, these are imprecise if words are not there, theres nosynonym control. Eg. if you search for "lemons" you can get badcars and the fruit, theres no control. We generally dont use these.
Classification number constructionBasic LCC outline: One or two letters, 1-4 numbers, adecimal, a cutter number or two (never more than twoCutters if following LoC rules), the year.Example:
Classification (cont.)The first letters are LoC main classes and subclasses (eg A isthe “main class” for “general works”, and AE is the “subclass”for Encyclopedias) There are 21 basic classesThe numbers immediately following these letters are the LoCassigned subject numbers, these can get VERY specific. Moredetail info can be found on the LoC website.Cutter numbers are added after the LoC letters and numbers.There are many Cutter tables, the LoC uses this one.Examples: AB1234.5 .G67 2003 = LoC info .CutterNumber Year
Reflect on your workNow you have something like this:
Cataloguing (cont.)But surprise! This is actually a card catalogue format.Doesn‟t matter, they‟re the same thing, only difference isthat today we encode this information not on a card, but into MARC so we can upload, download them (share them).Next step is to encode this in to MARC format (in real lifeyou‟ll usually be doing this all at once, or not at all)MARC is not scary, it is easy. You will love it, and be sad ifyou library doesn‟t use it.
MARC (cont.)Generally you will be given boxes to fill out – you need toknow which boxes to fill and why (format is dictated byAACR2, not MARC)Loc.gov/marc is your best friend. Click on “bibliographic”on the left hand column for bibliographic description work.MARC is based on “character” positionsNR = non-repeating R = you can repeat this fieldLeader fields: you need them to facilitate sharing
MARC (cont.)Control fields: for books, you will usually have 001, 003,005, 008 fields. For not monographs (be careful) you‟llusually have a 007 instead of 008These are all “fixed length”, “positionally defined” – theirposition in the line of characters tells the computer whatthe numbers mean, there are no indicatorsNumbers and Code fields: important ones for books areusually 010, 020, 040, 050, often use 09X field for yourlibrary, there are MANY others!
MARC (cont.) All the other fields. For books this usually includes:1. 1XX – Main Entry (usually 100, personal name)2. 2XX – Title (usually 245, title and statement of responsibility, 250, edition, and 260, imprint)3. 3XX – Physical description, etc. (usually 300, physical desc.)4. 5XX – notes! Several can be used with books (usually 500, general note, 504, bibliography etc. note, 510, citation and references note, 520, summary, etc.)
MARC (cont.)5. 6XX – Subject Access fields (for books, usually 651 geographic name, 600 personal name or 610 corporate name, 650 topical term)Will also use 7XX (added and linking entry fields) and 8XX(series added entry, holdings etc.). These are the same asthe others, just follow the outline carefully, look at otherMARC records in universities for guidance.
AuthoritiesYou now know the basics of constructing a bibliographic record,but there are also “authority records” for subjects, titles, andpersonal namesIn the same way as bibliographic records, you can create,modify, upload, and download these files. Example: UofT hasauthority files that it stores, and Sirsi checks these files whenyou enter something in. If you haven‟t “validated” what‟s in thefield, it will show up as UNAUTHORIZED.These are very relevant for public or academic libraries, librariesconnected with other libraries, although in a perfect worldsmaller libraries would have authority files too.Loc.gov/authorities – you can also use this in reference to checka name, etc.
Additional ResourcesKey terms doc Emily put together, including brief historyRead Chan cover to cover very practicalHow to use Sirsi doc from Elisa: firstname.lastname@example.orgPassword doc from Elisa (includes RDA Toolkit, Cataloguer‟sDesktop (both have AACR2), ClassificationWeb (LCC, Dewey,LCSH), WebDewey (full Dewey with LCSH mapping)OCLC Classify – SO AWESOME and free, and WorldCatLibrary of Congress Authorities, Library of Congress Catalogue
Next StepsIf you have an interview where you know part of the job isgoing to be cataloguing, OR it‟s a librarian job at anacademic university PREPARE.Go over everything here, read Chan (have you read Chanyet??? WHY NOT.)Visit each and everyone of these resources, take a couplebooks off your shelf and try to originally catalogue them,then compare your version with UofT‟s, or the Library ofCongresses‟. If you have questions, email me. I lovetalking about this.