~ The traditions, customs, and stories that
are passed down within a culture.
~ Includes various types of literature:
- folk tales
~ A folk tale is a story that has been passed
from generation to generation by word of
mouth. Folk tales may be set in the distant
past and involve supernatural events, and
the characters in them may be animals,
people, or superhuman beings.
~ A story handed down from the past about
a speciﬁc person--usually someone of heroic
accomplishments. Legends usually have
some basis in historical fact.
~ A humorously exaggerated story about
impossible events, often relating to the
supernatural abilities of the main character.
~ A brief story that teaches a lesson about
human nature. In many fables, animals act
and speak, like human beings. Usually a
fable concludes with a moral.
~ A traditional story, usually of unknown
authorship, that deals with basic questions
about the universe. Gods and heroes often
ﬁgure prominently in myths, which may
attempt to explain such things as the origin
of the world, mysteries of nature, or social
~ The time and place of the action in a
story, poem, or play.
~ May include:
- geographic location
- historical period (past, present, or future)
- season of the year
- time of day
~ A person, an animal, or an imaginary
creature that takes part in the action of a
~ A character that changes very little.
~ A character that changes signiﬁcantly.
~ The central character in a story, play, or
~ A force working against the protagonist.
~ An antagonist can be:
- another character
- a force within the main character
Point of View
~ Perspective from which a story is told.
~ The narrator is a character in the story and
uses ﬁrst-person pronouns such as I, me,
we, and us.
~ The narrator is not a character. He or she
uses third-person pronouns, such as he,
she, it, they, and them.
~ This view allows the narrator to relate the
thoughts and feelings of several, if not all,
the story’s characters.
~ The narrator tells us what one character
thinks, feels, and observes.