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Research: Foundations of
 

Research: Foundations of

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Research is important. Collegiate research is very important. Here is a start.

Research is important. Collegiate research is very important. Here is a start.

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    Research: Foundations of Research: Foundations of Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Selecting and Identifying a Topic to Research by Emil Pulido
      • 1. Choose a subject related to your area of expertise and that you are interested in.
      • 2. Use your personal experiences, existing theories, previous studies that can be replicated and library searches.
      • 3. Narrow your topic noting that Quantitative researchers narrow their topic very early, while Quantitative researches narrow their topics until they have more information .
    • Characteristics of a Good Topic
      • 1. The topic is interesting to you.
      • 2. The topic is “researchable” (no should).
      • 3. The topic is significant.
      • 4. The topic is manageable .
      • 5. The topic is ethical
      • Stating the Research Topic
      • You need to draft a written statement of the topic. This varies according to the type of research and your preference. Drafting your research topic varies for quantitative and qualitative research.
      • Stating Quantitative Research Topics
      • describe the variables of interest in your research, the specific relationship between these variables, and important characteristics of the participants
      • Stating Qualitative Research Topics
      • you may state your topic in general language as your statement will become narrower as you learn more about the research context and its inhabitants. The more precise statement or statements of your research topic will appear on your report.
      • Placement and Nature of the Topic Statement in a Study
      • It is the first component of the introductory sections in the research plan and the completed research report.
      • Include background information, justification for study and a list of limitations of the study along with your topic statement
      • Review Related Literature!
      • 1. Systematically identify, locate and analyse documents containing information related to the research problem.
      • 2.This review of related literature prevents duplication of research, gives you scope and insight into your research problem, provides rationale for your research hypothesis, and may indicate what needs to be done to justify your study.
      • 3. Literature review also may help you discover research strategies and specific data collection approaches that have or have not been productive in investigations of topics similar to yours.
      • 4. avoid reviewing everything you find in your literature review
        • review only the works directly related to your research problem
    • Research Tools and Sources
      • 1. Use a list of keywords to guide your literature research
      • 2. consult educational encyclopedias , handbooks and annual reviews, e.g. Handbook of Research on Teaching, Review of Educational Research. Be aware of abstract, primary source and secondary source .
      • 3. make use of “education” librarian, books in library, library catalogs , stack
    • 4. use computer databases to locate journals, articles, reports and other publications
      • 1.Education Resources Information Center (ERIC)
      • 2. PsycINFO
      • 3. Dissertation Abstracts
      • 4. Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature
      • 5. Annual Review of Psychology
      • 6. Internet and WWW (be aware that there is little quality control over information on the internet and of the volume of information)
      • 7. Uncover Periodical Index
      • 8. NewJour
      • 9. Education Week
      • 10. Journal of Statistics Education
      • 11. CSTEEP: The Center for the Study of Testing, Evaluation, and Educational Policy
      • 13. National Center for Education Statistics
      • 14. Developing Educational Standards
      • 15. Internet Resources for Special Education
      • 16. U.S. Department of Education
    • Evaluate Your Sources
      • 1. Does the research apply to your research topic?
      • 2. Evaluate quality of the information by determining whether it comes from a scholarly journal, popular magazine or someone’s opinion
      • 3. Get the date of publication
      • 4. Was the source refereed or nonrefereed ?
      • 5. Exercise special care when evaluating sources from the internet for bias, subjectivity, intent and bias
    • Abstracting:
      • 1. read abstract of source if there is one to determine relevancy to research problem
      • 2. skim the article or source
      • 3. write a complete bibliographic reference. Put your bibliographic reference in APA style!
      • 4. Use some form of code to keep track of your sources/articles/books/
      • 5. Abstract the reference by typing the essential points. Determine whether your abstract is from and opinion article or a study
      • 6. Indicate your own questions, opinions or disagreements somewhere in the abstract you are making
      • 7. Indicate any statements in your abstract that are direct quotations. Record the exact page number of the quotation in case you use it in your own research paper. Plagiarism is poison! Keep any use of quotations in your research paper to a minimum. Record bibliographic information in APA style.
    • Stating the Hypothesis
      • The Quantitative Hypothesis
      • 1. the hypothesis may be derived from theories or from knowledge gained while reviewing the related literature
      • 2. the hypothesis should be based on sound reasoning
      • 3. it provides a reasonable explanation or predicted outcome
      • 4. it clearly states the expected relationship between defined variables
      • 5. it is testable within a reasonable time frame
      • 6. your hypothesis may be classified as: inductive, deductive, directional, nondirectional or null hypothesis
    • Testing the Hypothesis
      • You the researcher must select the sample, measuring instruments , design , and procedures that will be used to collect the data to test the hypothesis. Remember, your analysis of the data will support or not support the hypothesis, and not prove or disprove it.
    • The Qualitative Hypothesis
      • The qualitative researcher may use a guiding hypothesis. Remember that rather than testing the hypothesis as in a Quantitative research, the Qualitative researcher may end up generating new hypotheses, which is actually one of the strengths of Quantitative research.