Control loop_foundation_overview

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This presentation provides an overview of the book Control Loop Foundation. The book authors gave this presentation as a short course at Emerson Exchange 2010.

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  • Industry-Driven Consortium of process companies, control system vendors, and academic partners to research generic issues in human factors and operator performance
    Areas of research include: user-interface design, automation, decision aiding, control system design, personnel selection/training, etc.
    Leverages on WSU’s Leadership in Human Factors Engineering Research Spanning Decades of Related Work in Aviation, Manufacturing, Logistics, and Military Domains
  • Control loop_foundation_overview

    1. 1. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control Loop Foundation Batch and Continuous Processes Terry Blevins Principal Technologist
    2. 2. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Presenters  Terry Blevins, Principal Technologist  Mark Nixon, Manager, Future Architecture
    3. 3. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control Loop Foundation Short Course Introduction Background – Historic Perspective Measurement – Basic Transmitter Types, Limitations Analyzers – Examples of On-line Analyzers Final Elements – Valves and Variable Speed Drives Field Wiring and Communications – Traditional, HART, FF , WirelessHART Control Strategy Documentation – Plot Plan, Flow Sheet, P&ID, Loop Diagram Operator Graphics and Metrics – Considerations in Display Design Process Characterization – Identifying process dynamics and gain Control Objectives Single Loop Control – PID basics, selecting PID structure, action Tuning and Loop Performance – Manual and automated tuning techniques Multi-loop Control – Feedforward, Cascade, Override, Split-range Model Predictive Control – Addressing Difficult Dynamics, Interactions Process Modeling – Process simulation for Checkout/Training Applications – Continuous, Batch, Combustion, Distillation Accessing the book web Site Open Discussions book drawing & Wrap-up
    4. 4. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control Loop Foundation Short Course  Short Course will provide a summary of key points and examples from Control Loop Foundation  All workshops and application examples in the book are based on DeltaV control capability. This book is available at www.isa.org and this week at the ISA booth.  The application section is designed to show how control techniques may be combined to address more complex process requirements  The book web site may be accessed to perform the workshops and to obtain hands-on experience using application example. Copies of the modules and trends may be downloaded from the web site and imported into a DeltaV system.  A new class, Control Loop Foundation - Course 9025, Is available through the education department.
    5. 5. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Introduction  Control Loop Foundation address the concepts and terminology that are needed to work in the field of process control.  The material is presented in a manner that is independent of the control system manufacturer.  Much of the material on the practical aspects of control design and process applications is typically not included in process control classes taught at the university level.  The book is written to act as a guide for engineers who are just starting to work in this field.  Experienced control engineers will benefit from the application examples on process control design and implementation of multi-loop control strategies.
    6. 6. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Background - Different Construction Techniques
    7. 7. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Wiring Practices
    8. 8. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Plant Organization  Common terms used to describe plant organization are introduced.  Plant Area – classification by name and area number  Units within a process Area
    9. 9. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Lab, Control Room, Lab and Rack Room
    10. 10. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Existing System – Electronic and Pneumatic
    11. 11. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of DCS Systems
    12. 12. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Integration of External System/Interface
    13. 13. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Modern DCS Controller
    14. 14. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Digital Communications  Ethernet  Fieldbus – Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus  Wireless - WirelessHART
    15. 15. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Wireless Impact • Wireless Field Devices • Relatively simple - Obeys Network Manager • Gateway and Access Points • Allows control system access to WirelessHART Network Gateways • Manages communication bandwidth and routing
    16. 16. Copyright © 2010 by ISA WirelessHART Objectives  Satisfy the end users concerns  Keep it simple  Use Existing tools Reliable & Secure Fit for Industrial Environments As simple as 4-20mA HART Instruments should be Intelligent and easy to use Update DD for Handheld and Asset Management applications Same tools – same procedures
    17. 17. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Satisfy the end users concerns  Reliable – Use Mesh for redundant paths (A – B) – Redundant Gateway to the Host – Multiple Network Access Points – Coexistence with neighbouring networks • Channel hopping • TDMA • Low Power  Secure – Device Authentication – AES128 Encryption – Anti-Jamming • Channel Hopping – Verification at MAC Layer – Key Management
    18. 18. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Device Types  Wireless Field Devices – Relatively simple - Obeys Network Manager – All devices are full-function (e.g., must route)  Adapters – Provide access to existing HART-enabled Field Devices – Fully Documented, well defined requirements  Gateway and Access Points – Allows access to WirelessHART Network from the Process Automation Network – Gateways can offer multiple Access Points for increased Bandwidth and Reliability – Caches measurement and control values – Directly Supports WirelessHART Adapters – Seamless access fro existing HART Applications  Network Manager – Manages communication bandwidth and routing – Redundant Network Managers supported – Often embedded in Gateway – Critical to performance of the network  Handheld – Supports direct communication to field device – For security, one hop only communication  All devices compatible with existing DD-enabled Applications
    19. 19. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Standard on Control  ISA88 – Batch terminology  IEC 61131 – Function blocks, Ladder Logic, Structured Text, Sequential Function Charts.  IEC 61804 – Function blocks for the process industry,
    20. 20. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Measurement  Introduction to devices used for basic measurement – Magnetic flow meter – Vortex flow meter – Differential pressure for flow measurement – Corilois flow meter – Absolute and gauge pressure – Temperature – RTD, thermocouple – Level based on pressure/differential pressure – Level - Radar
    21. 21. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Device Calibration  Concept of devices calibration and configuration is introduce.  Role of hand held devices and EDDL is addressed
    22. 22. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Analyzers  Difference between sampling and situ analyzers is addressed  Impact of sampling system on maintenance and measurement delay is highlighted
    23. 23. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Analyzer Example  A couple of common situ analyzers are addressed to show features and options – Flue Gas O2 – pH/ORP  Calibration of analyzer and role of sample/hold when used in control is addressed.
    24. 24. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Final Control Element  Basic final control elements are addressed: – Sliding stem valve – Rotarty valve – Damper drive – Variable speed drive – Block valve  Advantages and limitations are discussed
    25. 25. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Final Control Element Terminology  Common terms associated with final control elements are defined – Positioner – Actuator – Valve Body
    26. 26. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Installed Characteristics  Types of valve characteristics and their impact on installed characteristics is addressed
    27. 27. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Field Wiring and Communications  Installation of 2-wire vs 4-wire devices is addressed  Common problems are address e.g. need for electric isolation when utilizing a 4-wire device
    28. 28. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Fieldbus Installation  Special requirements for a fieldbus installation are addressed  Common terminology is defined: – Multi-drop – Power conditioner – Terminator
    29. 29. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control System Documentation  Documentation that is typically generated for a control system installation are addressed.  The purpose of each document is explained.  Reference provided to ISA-5.4 standard for Instrument Loop Diagrams
    30. 30. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Tag Convention – ISA S5.1
    31. 31. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Representation of Signals and Instruments
    32. 32. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Symbols for Field devices and Elements
    33. 33. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Process Symbols
    34. 34. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Symbol Example – P&ID Drawing
    35. 35. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Symbol Example(Cont.)
    36. 36. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Symbol Example(Cont.)
    37. 37. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Symbol Example(Cont.)
    38. 38. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Display Observing Color Usage Operator Graphics and Metrics  An operator interface design is addressed by Alarm Standard EEMUA 191  Advocates that alarms should be in alarm color. Pipes, pumps, valves, etc. should not be in alarm colors, or any other bright color.
    39. 39. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Display Tools  Basic tools for construction a display are discussed – Dynamos, dynamic elements, faceplates, links for creating a display hierarchy
    40. 40. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Performance Metrics  Example used to illustrate how operation metrics may be added to an operator display  Benefits of integrating this type of information into the operator interface
    41. 41. Copyright © 2010 by ISA ISA 101 - Human Machine Interfaces for Process Automation Systems
    42. 42. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Center for Operator Performance http://www.operatorperformance.org/http://www.operatorperformance.org/
    43. 43. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Current Members
    44. 44. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Research Programs  Completed – Nature of Expertise – Decision Making Exercises – Simulator Usage – Color Usage/Display Design – Alarm Rate & Presentation Impact  Current – Quantify alarm actuation rates that operators can handle – Develop & evaluate effectiveness of decision-based operating graphics – Develop systematic approach to documenting “expertise? of senior operators before they walk out the door – Evaluate methods of early detection of off-normal operations – Data Mining of Near Miss Process Incidents – Human Performance Metrics
    45. 45. Copyright © 2010 by ISA •A plant may be thought of as being made up of a series of processes. •A good understanding of these processes is required to design a control system for the plant. Process Characterization
    46. 46. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Process Definition Process – Specific equipment configuration (in a manufacturing plant) which acts upon inputs to produce outputs.
    47. 47. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Process Terminology  Controlled output (controlled parameter) – Process output that is to be maintained at a desired value by adjustment of process input(s).  Setpoint – Value at which the controlled parameter is to be maintained by the control system.  Manipulated input (manipulated parameter) – Process input that is adjusted to maintain the controlled parameter at the setpoint.  Disturbance input – Process input, other than the manipulated input, which affects the controlled parameter.  Constraint output (constraint parameter) – Process output that must be maintained within an operating range.  Constraint limit – Value that a constraint parameter must not exceed for proper operation of the process.  Other input – Process input that has no impact on controlled or constraint outputs.  Other output – Process output other than controlled or constraint outputs.
    48. 48. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Application of Terminology
    49. 49. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Disturbance Input
    50. 50. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Lime Mud Filter Process
    51. 51. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Lime Mud Filter ( Cont.)
    52. 52. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Pure Gain Process  When the process output tracks the process input except for a change in signal amplitude, the process is known as a pure gain.  The change in signal amplitude is determined by the process gain.  For a step change in process input, the process gain is defined as the change in the process output divided by the change in process input
    53. 53. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Pure Gain Process  An example of a pure gain process is the jack shaft used in some boiler combustion control systems.  Gain is determine by the length of the lever arms attached to the jack shaft.
    54. 54. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Pure Delay Process  When the process output tracks the process input except for a delay in the output signal, the process is know as a pure delay process.  For a step change in the process input, process deadtime is defined as the time from the input changing until the first affect of the change is seen in the process output.
    55. 55. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Examples – Pure Delay Process  Example of pure delay processes are a conveyor belt and a pipeline.  Delay is the result of transport time and will vary with the speed of the belt or the flow rate through the pipe.
    56. 56. Copyright © 2010 by ISA First Order Process  When process output immediately begin to respond to a step change in a process input and the rate of change is proportional to its current value and the final value the output will achieve, the process is know as a first order process.  The dynamic response is fully captured by identifying the process gain and the process time constant.
    57. 57. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – First Order Process  An example of a pure lag process is a tank with outlet flow determined by tank level and the outlet flow restriction caused by the orifice.  The level will settle at a value which results in an outlet flow that matches the inlet flow.
    58. 58. Copyright © 2010 by ISA First Order Plus Deadtime Process  Most process in industry may be approximated as first order plus deadtime processes.  A first order plus deadtime process exhibits the combined characteristics of the lag and delay process.
    59. 59. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Steam Heater •An example of a first order plus deadtime process is a steam heater. •The process lag is caused by the heating process •The process deadtime is caused by transport delay
    60. 60. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Higher Ordered Systems •The dynamic response of a process is the results of many components working together e.g. I/P, Valve actuator, heat or fluid/gas transport, etc. •The net process response of these higher order systems can be approximated as first order plus deadtime.
    61. 61. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Combined Impact of Process Dynamics
    62. 62. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Integrating Process • When a process output changes without bound when the process input is changed by a step, the process is know as a non-self- regulating or integrating process. • The rate of change (slope) of the process output is proportional to the change in the process input and is known as the integrating gain.
    63. 63. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Integrating Process  An example of a non-self-regulating process is tank level where outlet flow is established by a gear pump.  If the inlet flow does not match the outlet flow, then level will continue to change until the tank overflows or runs dry.
    64. 64. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Inverse Response Process  For a few processes, the initial change in the process output to a step change in a process input will be in the opposite direction of the final output change.  Processes exhibiting this characteristic are said to have an inverse response.
    65. 65. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Inverse Response Process  The level of a vertical thermosiphon reboiler in a distillation column may exhibit an inverse response to a rapid increase in heat input.  The size or direction of the change in heat input may determine if an inverse response is obtained.
    66. 66. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Process Linearity
    67. 67. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Non-linear Process  Most processes may be approximated as linear over a small operating range. However, over a wide range of operation, processes may exhibit some non-linearity.  A common cause of non- linearity is a change in process gain – reflecting the installed characteristics of the final control element i.e. valve acting with the other equipment making up the process, as illustrated in this example.
    68. 68. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Use of Process Simulation
    69. 69. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop - Process Characterization  Three example processes are include in workshop – First order plus deadtime – Integrating – Inverse response  Web site is accessed to perform step test. Only a web browser is needed – no software to install.
    70. 70. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control Objective  For the case, production is greatest when the band of variation is reduced to zero and the process parameter is maintained at the value corresponding to maximum production
    71. 71. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Operating Target  To benefit from improvement in control, the loop must operate at the target that provides maximum production.  The plant design conditions may be used as a guide in establishing setpoints for best operation
    72. 72. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Operating at a Limit  For this case, maximum production is obtained by maintaining the process parameter at a limit determined by some plant limitation.  How close to the limit you can operate is determined by the quality of the control
    73. 73. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Reduced Variability  Production improvement is obtained by operating closer to product specification or operating limit.
    74. 74. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example - Ammonia Plant
    75. 75. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example - Ammonia Plant (Cont.)
    76. 76. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example - Ammonia Plant (Cont.)
    77. 77. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Other Control Objectives
    78. 78. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Balancing Control Complexity and Benefits  Various techniques may be used to improve the control of a process  As the complexity of the control system increases, so does cost for operator training and maintenance  The complexity (cost) of the control system should be balanced with the benefits provided  The benefits of control improvement may be influenced by market conditions i.e. value of product, cost of feedstock, energy cost
    79. 79. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Single Loop Control  In some cases manual control may be appropriate  Manual Loader Block may be used to implement manual control
    80. 80. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Manual Control Implementation
    81. 81. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Processing of Analog Input Signal
    82. 82. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Aliasing
    83. 83. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Setup of Anti-aliasing Filter
    84. 84. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Processing by Analog Input Block
    85. 85. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Filtering Provided by Analog Input Block
    86. 86. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Manual Loader Block
    87. 87. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Analog Output Block
    88. 88. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Analog Output Block - Rate Limiting
    89. 89. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Analog Output Block – Increase to Close Option
    90. 90. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Feedback Control
    91. 91. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Proportional Only Control
    92. 92. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Proportional Plus Integral (PI) Control
    93. 93. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) Control
    94. 94. Copyright © 2010 by ISA PID Structure Selection
    95. 95. Copyright © 2010 by ISA PID Direct/Reverse Selection
    96. 96. Copyright © 2010 by ISA PID Function Block
    97. 97. Copyright © 2010 by ISA PID Form – Standard and Series
    98. 98. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Setting PID Form and Structure
    99. 99. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Block Mode – Selection of Source of SP and OUT
    100. 100. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Target Modes of Block
    101. 101. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Other Actual Modes of Block
    102. 102. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Duty Cycle Control
    103. 103. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Duty Cycle Control (Cont.)
    104. 104. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Increase-Decrease Control – Motor Driven Actuator
    105. 105. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Feedback Control
    106. 106. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Tuning and Loop Performance – Default Setting
    107. 107. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Manual Tuning Technique
    108. 108. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Tools to Automate Tuning  Example base on DeltaV Insight On- demand Tuning
    109. 109. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Impact of Sticky Valve
    110. 110. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Use of Signal Characterizer to Compensate for Non-linearity
    111. 111. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Characterizer Setup
    112. 112. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Multi-loop Control - Feedforward Control
    113. 113. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Feedforward Control Implementation
    114. 114. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Commissioning Dynamic Compensation
    115. 115. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Feedforward Control
    116. 116. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Cascade Control
    117. 117. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Boiler Steam Temperature
    118. 118. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Cascade Control Implementation  Selecting FRSI_OPT for dynamic reset in primary loop and CONTROL_OPTS for Use PV for BKCAL_OUT in secondary loop can often improve dynamic response.
    119. 119. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Cascade Control
    120. 120. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Override Control
    121. 121. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Override Control
    122. 122. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Override Control Implementation
    123. 123. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Override Control
    124. 124. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control Using Two Manipulated Parameters Three methods Addressed:  Split Range Control  Valve Position Control Ratio Control
    125. 125. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Split Range Control Implementation
    126. 126. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Split Range Setup
    127. 127. Copyright © 2010 by ISA BA Example – Split Range Control
    128. 128. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Split Range Control
    129. 129. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Valve Position Control
    130. 130. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Valve Position Control Implementation
    131. 131. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Valve Position Control
    132. 132. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Valve Position Control
    133. 133. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Ratio Control
    134. 134. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Ratio Control Implementation
    135. 135. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Ratio Control  In this example the ratio setpoint is adjusted using feedback control based on a downstream analysis of the blended material
    136. 136. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Ratio Control
    137. 137. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Process Simulation for Ratio Workshop
    138. 138. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Model Predictive Control (MPC) Operating Within Process Constraint
    139. 139. Copyright © 2010 by ISA MPC May be Layered on Existing Control
    140. 140. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Model Predict Control
    141. 141. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Process Modeling
    142. 142. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Simulation Diagram
    143. 143. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Simulation Module
    144. 144. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Example – Process Simulation Composite
    145. 145. Copyright © 2010 by ISA
    146. 146. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workshop – Process Modeling
    147. 147. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Application – Boiler Drum Level
    148. 148. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Batch Reactor
    149. 149. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Batch Reactor- Processing
    150. 150. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Batch Reactor - Control
    151. 151. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Continuous Reactor
    152. 152. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Continuous Reactor - Control
    153. 153. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Single Fuel Power Boiler
    154. 154. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Power Boiler Combustion Control
    155. 155. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Distillation Column
    156. 156. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Distillation Column Control
    157. 157. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Ammonia Plant H/N Ratio Control
    158. 158. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Ammonia Plant H/N Ratio Control (Cont.)
    159. 159. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Control Loop Foundation Web Site
    160. 160. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Exercise and Process Information
    161. 161. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Workspace –Dynamic Simulation/Control
    162. 162. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Chart and Solution Selections
    163. 163. Copyright © 2010 by ISA Summary  Feedback on the book can be provide through the Control Loop Foundation website  Questions?  Drawing for books
    164. 164. Copyright © 2010 by ISA How to Get More Information  Emerson Education Class – Control Loop Foundation, Course 9025 CEUs: 3.2 – This course is for engineers, managers, technicians, and others that are new to process control or need a refresher course. This course includes the practical aspects of control design and process applications that course developers personally learned through years of hands on experience while designing and commissioning process control applications. Overview – This 4-1/2 day course covers the concepts and terminology that are needed to understand and work with control systems. Upon completion of this course the student will be able to effectively work with and commission single and multi-loop control strategies. Interactive workshops allow the student to apply what they learn in the class. Prerequisites – Windows experience.  Control Loop Foundation - ISA Book – May be purchase through the ISA web site - http://www.isa.org/  Book Web Site – Explore book workshops - http://www.controlloopfoundation.com/

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