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Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
Chemistry Slides
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Chemistry Slides

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  • 1. Macromolecules Synthetic Polymers
  • 2. Macromolecules s Macromolecules are large molecules built up from many small repeating units (monomers) joined together by covalent bonding s Different macromolecules are made up of different units and/or different linkages s Generally, 2 types of macromolecules – synthetic and natural
  • 3. Definitions s A monomer is a small molecule that may be covalently bonded to other monomers to form a polymer s A polymer is the macromolecule formed when monomers are covalently bonded to form a long chain of molecule s Polymerisation is the process whereby a large number of small molecules (monomers) join together to form a macromolecule
  • 4. Synthetic polymers s Polyethene s Polyvinyl chloride s Teflon s Polystyrene s Perspex s Nylon s Terylene
  • 5. Addition Polymerisation s Addition polymerisation occurs when monomer units join together by breaking double or triple bonds without losing any molecules or atoms s Eg. Alkenes undergo addition polymerisation whereby the double bonds in alkenes are changed to single bonds
  • 6. Formation of polyethene from ethene n can be between 10 000 and 30 000
  • 7. More addition polymers Name & formula of Name & formula of monomer polymer Propene Polypropene Chloroethene Polychloroethene (vinyl chloride) Polyvinyl chloride Tetrafluoroethene Polytetrafluoroethene Teflon Phenylethene Polyphenylethene Styrene Polystyrene
  • 8. Condensation Polymerisation s Condensation polymerisation occurs when monomer units join together by eliminating a small molecule, like water, to produce a polymer s 2 main types of condensation polymers – polyamides and polyesters
  • 9. Formation of Nylon s Made from dicarboxylic acid and diamine H-O O-H H H AMIDE LINKAGE –CONH –
  • 10. Formation of Terylene s Made from dicarboxylic acid and diol s Benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and ethane-1,2-diol H-O O-H H H ESTER LINKAGE –COO –
  • 11. Uses of synthetic polymers Name Uses Polyethene To make plastic bags, cling film Nylon To make clothing, fishing line, parachutes Terylene To make clothing PVC To make insulator for cables, plastic raincoats Polystyrene To make polystyrene disposable boxes, light-weight packaging Teflon For coating cooking utensils
  • 12. Pollution caused by non- biodegradable plastics s Plastics are relatively cheap, easily shaped s Light, tough, waterproof and durable s However, cannot be decomposed by bacteria in the soil s Disposal usually by burning, and possibly produce poisonous gases s Biodegradable plastics are required to solve the problems
  • 13. Macromolecules Natural Macromolecules
  • 14. Examples of natural macromolecules s Proteins s Fats s Carbohydrates s They are the main constituents of food but with different units
  • 15. Proteins s Built up from units of amino acids s Proteins have the same amide linkages as nylon but with different units
  • 16. Fats and Oils s Built up from glycerol and long-chain carboxylic acids (fatty acids) s Fats are esters possessing the same ester linkages as Terylene but with different units

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