The top of the line G5 PowerMac has 9 fans in it, in four separate cooling zones, with 21 temperature sensors. Biggest problem is actually getting heat OFF the die and into a sink to a fan. People use layers of goop or ‘grease’ in the interface. All kinds of exotic solutions are creeping up like MEMS, tiny pumps with fluid, evaporation, etc.
Mention the ubiquity of handheld devices and things that run on one battery
That is, any computer, no matter how primitive or advance, can be divided into five parts: 1. The input devices bring the data from the outside world into the computer. 2. These data are kept in the computer’s memory until ... 3. The datapath request and process them. 4. The operation of the datapath is controlled by the computer’s controller. All the work done by the computer will NOT do us any good unless we can get the data back to the outside world. 5. Getting the data back to the outside world is the job of the output devices. The most COMMON way to connect these 5 components together is to use a network of busses.
Microprocessor Systems: –A Brief Run Down
At the high end of the scaleProcessor: Intel Pentium 4Frequency: 3.2GHzPower consumption: 103 Wmax.*Process: 90nm*Intel document no. 300561-002
At the low end of the scaleProcessor can consume no morethan 250-300mWEmbedded Devices
Computer Technology DramaticChange° Processor• 2X in speed every 1.5 years;100X performance in last decade° Memory• DRAM capacity: 2X / 2 years; 64X size in lastdecade• Cost per bit: improves about 25% per year° Disk• capacity: > 2X in size every 1.0 years• Cost per bit: improves about 100% per year• 250X size in last decade
Computer Technology DramaticChange!° State-of-the-art PC when you graduate:(at least…)• Processor clock speed: 5000 MegaHertz(5.0 GigaHertz)• Memory capacity: 4000 MegaBytes(4.0 GigaBytes)• Disk capacity: 2000 GigaBytes(2.0 TeraBytes)• New units! Mega => Giga, Giga => Teralo, Mega, Giga, Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, Yotta = 10Kilo, Mega, etc. are incorrect Terminologies!
Challenges° Post PC Era will be drivenby 2 technologies:1) Mobile Consumer Devices• e.g., successor tocell phone, PDA,wearable computers2) Massive I/O interfacing v/s RAWcomputational power
5 Classic Components of a ComputerControlDatapathMemoryProcessorInputOutputControlDatapathMemoryProcessorInputOutputNetwork/Bus
An Expanded View of the Memory SystemsControlDatapathHard disk(VirtualMemory)ProcessorRegisterMainMemory2ndCacheCacheFastest SlowestSmallest BiggestHighest LowestSpeed:Size:Cost:•Cache is handled by hardware•Virtual memory is handled by and Operating System•Programmer sees only one memory and the registers
Fetch Decode Execute CycleInstructionFetchInstructionDecodeOperandFetchExecuteResultStoreNextInstructionObtain instruction from program storageDetermine required actionsLocate and obtain operand dataCompute result value or statusDeposit results in storage for later useDetermine successor instructionControlDatapathMemoryProcessorInputOutputALU Registers
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.13 Saeid NooshabadiA BRIEF INTRODUCTION TOEMBEDDED SYSTEM
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.14 Saeid NooshabadiTOPICS TO COVER° DEFINITION° KEY FEATURES° DESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES° TOOLS OF THE TRADE° FUTURE DIRECTION
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.15 Saeid NooshabadiWHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM° An embedded system is an applied computersystem, as distinguished from other types ofcomputer systems° Embedded systems are embedded withinanother sophisticated (electronic) system, whichcould be any system for any kind of application.The ES do not directly interact with theenvironment/users.° An embedded system is a very special computersystem designed to perform a dedicatedfunction.° An embedded system is a computer system withhigher quality and reliability requirements thangeneral- purpose computer systems.
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.16 Saeid NooshabadiDEFINITION (Continued)° A very special (often tailor made)computer system put inside anyEngineering product to make the finalproduct more:• Reliable• Accurate/Precise• Feature reach
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.17 Saeid NooshabadiKEY FEATURESOF AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM° Real Time in nature (RTOS)° Employs very specific types of components. Specific interms of• Quantity (Memory)• Available Feature (DVS, Watch Dog Timer)• Operating System (Application commands the OS)° Developed in an environment which is totally different fromthe actual.° Power Requirement, Size & Cost are considered with greatdetail along with the application.° Highly focused on Application, Business Plan and Cost.Selects Hardware, Software components and DesignProcess based on A,B & C.
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.18 Saeid NooshabadiEmbedded Systems and their MarketsMarket Embedded DeviceAutomotive Ignition System, Engine Control, BrakeSystemConsumer Electronics Digital Televisions, Set-Top Boxes, KitchenAppliances, Toys/Games, Telephones/CellPhones/Pagers, CamerasIndustrial Control Robotics, Process and ManufacturingControlsMedical Equipment ECG Machine, Dialysis Machines, CardiacMonitorsOffice Automation Fax Machine, Photocopier, Printers,Scanners, UPSNetworking ( Spl. Application) Routers, Hubs
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.19 Saeid NooshabadiA Very Special ApplicationA FOOTBALL
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.20 Saeid NooshabadiDESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES° CRYSTAL CLEAR PRODUCT SPECIFICATION TO BE DECIDED/GIVENAND BE ADHERED TO. THIS INCLUDES H/W AS WELL AS S/WCOMPONENTS (PROCESS TIME).° SELECTION OF THE PROCESSOR:• GENERAL PURPOSE ; MICRO PROCESSORS• APP. SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION SET (ASIP); DSP,N/W PROCESSORS,MICRO CONTROLLER• APP. SPECIFIC INTERATED CIRCUIT (ASIC)° CODE SIZE (COMPACT CODE) – IN RELATION WITH THE PROCESSORUSED.° LANGUAGE USED:• ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE ( USEFUL BUT TIME CONSUMING & ERRORPRONE)• HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE (REQUIRES COMPLICATED AND COSTLYTOOLS AND COMPILER)• BALANCED DECISSION TO BE TAKEN LOOKING INTODEVELOPMENT COST, AVAILABLE DEVELOPMENT TEAM AND TIMETO MARKET
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.21 Saeid NooshabadiDESIGN ISSUES/CHALLENGES (CONT..)° POWER REQUIREMENT – ONE MAJOR ISSUE IN THISWORLD OF MOBILE DEVICES.° SIZE SPECIFICATION – THIS MAY BE VERY IMPORTANTIN SOME CRITICAL APPLICATION.° RELIABILITY – AND COST TO BE INCURRED FOR THAT(REDUNDANT SYSTEM). VERY APPLICATION SPECIFICISSUE.° BUSINESS PLAN° DESIGN ENVIRONMENT• (HOST PROCESSOR / TARGET PROCESSOR)
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.22 Saeid NooshabadiTOOLS OF THE TRADEEmbedded System Life CycleRequirementAnalysisSpecificationArchitecturalDesignComponent DesignIntegrationTestingS/W ArchitectureH/W ArchitectureTop Down Model
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.23 Saeid NooshabadiTOOLS OF THE TRADESOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOL CHAIN FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMDEVELOPER EDITORSOURCEPROG.PRE PROCESSORORMACRO PROCESSOREXPANDEDSOURCE CODECOMPILEROR ASSEMBLEROBJECTFILELOADER EXE FILE LINKERCODEFORTARGETTARGETPROGRAMMER OUTPUTALL THE COMPONENTS MENTIONED INRECTANGULAR BOXES – ARE SYSTEMSOFTWARE
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.24 Saeid NooshabadiTOOLS OF THE TRADEDEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT ; HOST & TARGETC /C++ ASSEMBLYLANGCROSS COMPILER CROSS ASSEMBLEROBJ 1 OBJ nLOCATORCODETARGET PROGRAMMER OUT PUTTHEENLARGEDCOMPONENTSARE PARTS OFTHE HOSTSYSTEM
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.25 Saeid NooshabadiFUTURE DIRECTIONS° More and more embedded systems will be full systemson a single chip (SoC). This implies that the softwareand hardware designs will merge.° As systems on chip become more complex, softwaredistributed over multiple processors and running overdifferent memory spaces will become common
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.26 Saeid NooshabadiFUTURE DIRECTIONS….° Embedded systems will be developed in unusualapplications. Products will be powered and accessed byRF beams. This will lead to convergence in our real life..° Existing applications will become far more sophisticatedwith standardized user interfaces – such as webinterfaces with XML.
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.27 Saeid NooshabadiFUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR DEVELOPERS° More and more multi-disciplinary expertise will berequired. For example – biology-chemistry-electronicsand VLSI for bio-sensors.° Fields of micro-processors, VLSI, communications etc.would merge for developing embedded systems.
EELC2041 lec01-Intro.28 Saeid Nooshabadi° GOOD LUCKWITH THISCOURSE