HRP makes extensive use of the ISS to conduct experimental research and to develop and test procedures and hardware necessary for preserving astronaut health. The Human Research Facility has been on ISS since the very beginning, and has supported research in understanding all aspects of human health during adaptation to space flight, as shown in the upper right panel which gives some samples of the important areas of human research that have been studied. On the Technology Development side, lower left quadrant, NASA has takenimportant steps in adapting Earth technologies to support human space flight, and has developed new technologies for future use such as IV fluid generation in collaboration with physical sciences colleagues. Like all the Life Sciences research components of SLAPSRAP, HRP depends heavily on a robust collaboration with its international partners in studying all aspects of human adaptation to space flight, and developing countermeasures that counteract the negative effects, such as bone loss.
The NASA Life and Physical Science Research Division
Space Life & Physical Sciences Research & Applications Division National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration & Operations Mission Directorate Division Director: D. Marshall Porterfield Research for Human Exploration
Space Life and Physical Sciences National Aeronautics and Space Administration • NASAs Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPS) has been formulated to execute high quality, high value research and application activities in the areas of: – Fundamental Space Biology – Physical Sciences – Human Research • These programs conduct fundamental and applied research to advance basic knowledge and to support human exploration in the environment of space. • Division serves as the agency liaison with the ISS National Laboratory management organization (CASIS)
SLPSRA Organizational ChartNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Chief Scientist RMO Lead SLPS Director Office (Porterfield) HRP Program Office (JSC) Spaceflight Mission Operations SLPS Chief Scientist CASIS Liason Budget Integration Human Research Physical Sciences Space Biology Draft. Internal NASA Use Only 3
SLPS Research and Application Focus Areas National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Life Sciences Human Research Physical Sciences• Uses the space environment • Develops scientific and • Conducts fundamental and to enhance understanding of technological foundations applied research in space the response of living for a safe, productive to explore the processes organisms and biological human presence in space that form materials and processes to spaceflight for extended periods. determine the conditions. performance of • Focuses on investigating fluid, thermal, and• Works toward an and mitigating the highest combustion systems. understanding of the risks to human health and requirements of terrestrial performance in order to • Builds engineering life in non-Earth enable safe, reliable, and knowledge to enable the environments productive human space design of exploration. fluid, thermal, and chemical process devices for space environments• Applies this knowledge and technology to improve our nations competitiveness, education and the quality of life on Earth.
Life Sciences Research in Space National Aeronautics and Space Administration Human Exploration Emphasis Human Health Emphasis Exploration Subsystems Humans SystemsEmphasis Small Organisms (Mice, Rats) Tissue, Organs Mammalian Cells Model Organisms, BioMolecules Microbes 5 4
Gravity-Dependent Physical SciencesNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Combustion Science Fluid Physics •Spacecraft fire safety •Two-phase flow •Solids, liquids, droplets, gasses •Phase separation •Supercritical reacting fluids •Boiling, condensation •Soot •Capillary and interfacial phenomena Complex Fluids Materials Science •Solidification •Colloids •Crystal growth •Liquid crystals •Metals, alloys Fundamental Physics •Foams •Electronic materials •Dusty plasmas •Atomic Clock •Granular flows •Glasses, ceramics •Low temperature physics •Polymers •Quantum measurement techniques •Ultra-cold atom physics •Test mass techniques 6
ISS Research – Human Research ProgramCritical to mitigating 18 of 28 health risks relevant to human exploration National Aeronautics and Space Administration On-Orbit Research Facilities Biomedical Research Nutritional Requirements Physiological Changes and Exercise Countermeasures Crew Sleep and Exercise Facilities Performance Research Immunological Changes Human Research Rack-2 Human Research Rack-1Biomedical Capabilities International ResearchDevelopment Collaborations Portable Medical Imaging JAXA Bone Loss Integrated heath care Russian Fluid Shift ESA Muscle Countermeasure system Countermeasure Physiology Facility CSA Cardiovascular Experiment ExperimentLightweight Trauma IV Fluid Function Experiment Module Generation
Overview: Components of HRP National Aeronautics and Space Administration• Science Management Office – Peer Review, Task/Risk Management, Life Sciences Data Archive• Program Integration Office – Program planning, integration & control• Elements – Behavioral Health and Performance • Individual and interpersonal – Human Health and Countermeasures • Physiology, Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure – ISS Medical Project • Infrastructure for flight experiments – Exploration Medical Capability • Medical care for missions beyond low Earth orbit – Space Human Factors and Habitability • Interfaces between humans and vehicles/habitats – Space Radiation • Radiation exposure and biological effect• NSBRI funded by HRP through a cooperative agreement to pursue research that complements the HRP portfolio 8
Response to the decadal survey: Perspectives and approaches for National Aeronautics and Space Administrationgoing forward. • Results from evaluation of decadal recommendations will be adapted into NRA announcements. • NRAs in Fundamental Space Biology will adopt a “wide net” approach in order to attract the highest quality investigations. • Close coordination with HRP is assuring competent overlap in animal models will be supported. • Reorganizing participation in ISLSWG and JWG in order to assure international partner collaborations are aligned with the Decadal • NAC subcommittee on Life and Physical Sciences Research is being developed
Status of the ISS Nation Lab management organizationNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCASIS ad hoc science team reviewed life sciences flight experiments for near-termcommercial potential. Identified rodent model of bone demineralization and growthof bio-molecular crystals for x-ray structural analysis as two top candidatesAgreement with Merck to pursue flight experiments in protein crystal growthWorking with Merck, Sanofi, and GSK to determine feasibility of using a mousemodel of bone demineralization to test the effectiveness of osteoporosis drugsConcluded first research solicitation with the selection of three projects in proteincrystal growth for ISS experimentsSolicitations for projects in materials science and Earth observations from the ISS arein progress
Status of the ISS Nation Lab management organizationNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationCASIS Board of Directors process nearing conclusion – new board installation expected next month.Six board candidates have been conferring with CASIS leadership and are planning a rollout event onDecember 15.France Cordova – former NASA Chief Scientist, former President of Purdue UniversityBess Dawson-Hughes – Director, Bone Metabolism Laboratory, Tufts UniversityLewis Duncan – President of Rollins CollegeArnold Levine – Emeritus Professor, Institute for Advanced Study, former President, Rockefeller UniversityAndrei Ruckenstein, Vice President and Associate Provost for Research, Boston UniversityGordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Director, Laboratory for Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering, Columbia UniversityNew Executive Director to be selected by the new board from 5-6 final candidates identified by asearch firm. NASA is working with the current board and retains approval authority on the selectionper the cooperative agreementFirst annual report from CASIS was received last week is under evaluation.
Status of the HEOAC Research SubcommitteeNational Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory Council formally recommended the formation of a subcommittee ofthe HEO Advisory Committee to address research and educational aspects of thelong-range human exploration of space at their March 8, 2012 meeting.After the appointment of the permanent Director for SLPS in Summer 2012, a groupof candidates were identified and contacted. We are currently working with theOffice of the Administrator to form a subcommittee with appropriate expertise andbalance.
SLPSRA Research Selection Process National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Space Biology/ Physical Sciences)• NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is developed based on research topics selected based on Decadal Survey input and specific Discipline Science Plans.• NRA is released to the research Community for proposal submittal.• Proposals are reviewed by a non-NASA external panel of Subject Matter Experts (SME).• Proposal are ranked and SLPSRA selects a number of Principal Investigators (PI) proposals for grant selection based on available budget for grant execution.• Selected PI’s are assigned to specific NASA centers for grant management and for spaceflight hardware development.
SLPSRA Research Selection Process National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Human Research Program) Architecture: Evidence Risks Gaps Tasks Deliverables Evidence Base – Reviewed by IOM Reviewed by Standing Flight and Ground Review Panels • Science • Clinical Risks Gaps Prioritization & • Operational Implementation Approach experience HSRB Reviews/Refines Risk Posture Constrained by • Customer need dates • Budgets Exploration • Research platform availability Missions & Architectures Utilize HSRB to review NASA Spaceflight Human System and refine risk posture Standards Integrated Research Plan/ Human Research RoadmapResults and Deliverables• Mitigate Risks• Update Standards• Countermeasures Solicitations• Medical Technologies & Directed• Results New Gaps ResearchCustomer Review Peer Review 14
National Aeronautics and Space Administration Questions?