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report summer training, UQU , umm al qura univ

report summer training, UQU , umm al qura univ

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  • 1. Chapter 1 The Introduction 1.1 What IS R.S.A.F. ? figure 1The Royal Saudi Air Force (R.S.A.F.) , is the air force branch ofSaudi Arabian armed forces. The RSAF has developed froma largely defensive military force into one with an advancedoffensive capability. The RSAF maintains the third largest fleet ofF-15s after the JASDF and the USAF.The backbone of the RSAF is currently the Panavia Tornado, withthe Boeing F-15 Eagle also forming a major component. TheTornado and many other aircraft were delivered under theAl Yamamah contracts with British Aerospace (now BAE Systems).The RSAF ordered various weapons in the 1990s, includingSea Eagle anti-ship missiles, laser-guided bombs and gravitybombs. Al-Salam, a successor to the Al Yamamah agreement willsee 72 Eurofighter Typhoons delivered by BAE.
  • 2. 1.2 HISTORYThe RSAF was formed in the mid-1920s with British assistance. Itwas re-organized in 1950 and began to receive American assistancefrom 1952 including the use of Dhahran by the United States AirForce.The Saudi forces are equipped with mainly western hardware. Mainsuppliers are companies in the United Kingdom and the UnitedStates of America. Both the UK and the US are involved in trainingprograms conducted in Saudi Arabia.For Middle Eastern standards the armed forces of Saudi Arabia arerelatively small. Its strength however is derived from advancedtechnology and not from numerical superiority. This is why thearmed forces are under a continuing modernization program. Thebackbone of the fighter force is formed by 134 Tornados from whicha batch of 48 Tornado IDS was ordered in 1993 under theal-Yamamah II program and 72 F-15S aircraft delivered from themid-90s that operate besides the 41 F-15C/D aircraft delivered inthe early 90s. Aircraft training is executed on the Pilatus PC-9,BAe Hawk, Boeing F-15D Eagle and the Northrop F-5F Tiger II. TheC-130 is the mainstay of the transport fleet and the Hercules is
  • 3. assisted by CASA CN-235s. Reconnaissance is performed by 17sqwith their RF-5E and the Boeing E-3A is the Airborne Early Warningplatform operated by 18sq.The VIP support fleet consists of a wide variety of civil registeredaircraft such as the Boeing B707, B737 and B747, Lockheed Tri-Stars, MD11s and G1159A as well as Lockheed L-100-30. The HZ-prefix used in the civilian registrations of these aircraft derived fromthe former name of the territory (Hejaz) 1.3 THE BASESThe RSAF units are divided into Wings that are dispersed across theseven air bases: • RSAF Wing at Hafar Al-Batin • RSAF Wing at Taif (My Training Site) • RSAF Wing at Dhahran • RSAF Wing at Riyadh • RSAF Wing at Khamis Mushayt • RSAF Wing at Al Kharj • RSAF Wing at Tabuk • RSAF Wing at Jeddah figure 2 • RSAF Wing at Dhahran
  • 4. 1.4 Training Planthe site of my training wing in the Computer and Communications inRSAF Wing at Taif , 5 days at week , was as follows : site DurationVisit sections and to identify its members . 2 daysDepartment of Computer Maintenance(Hardware,Software) . 3 days+1 weekComputer Networks. 2 weeksDepartment of fast communication networks (Optical Fiber). 4 weeks
  • 5. Chapter 2 Department of Computer Maintenance 2.1 in this Department what i did ?In the time period that week, you passed to the maintenance ofa number of computers from their systems, and also hardware, waslet us know how to request a computer is a new robot, or one of thedamaged cards, from contracting companies, and how also to endone of the devices already. 2.2 Computer ComponentsComputers are made of the following basic components:1.Case with hardware inside: ( figure 3 ) 1.1 Power SupplyThe power supply comes with the case, but this figure 3component is mentioned separately since there arevarious types of power supplies. The one you should get dependson the requirements of your system. This will be discussed in moredetail later
  • 6. 1.2 Motherboard ( figure 4 )This is where the core components of your computer reside whichare listed below. Also the support cards for video, sound, networkingand more are mounted into this board. figure 4 1.2.1 Microprocessor (figure 5)This is the brain of your computer. It performs commands andinstructions and controls the operation of the computer. figure 5
  • 7. 1.2.2 Memory (figure 6)The RAM in your system is mounted on themotherboard. This is memory that must be figure 6powered on to retain its contents. 1.2.3 Drive controllersThe drive controllers control the interface of your system to yourhard drives. The controllers let your hard drives work by controllingtheir operation. On most systems, they are included on themotherboard, however you may add additional controllers for fasteror other types of drives. 1.3 Hard disk drive(s)(figure 7)This is where your files are permanently stored on your computer.Also, normally, your operating system is installed here. Figure 7 (3.5 inch hdd)
  • 8. 1.4 CD-ROM drive(s)This is normally a read only drive where files are permanentlystored. There are now read/write CD-ROM drives that use specialsoftware to allow users to read from and write to these drives. 1.5 Floppy drive(s)A floppy is a small disk storage device that today typically has about1.4 Megabytes of memory capacity.1.6 Other possible file storage devices include DVD devices, Tapebackup devices, and some others.2. MonitorThis device which operates like a TV set lets the user see how thecomputer is responding to their commands.3. KeyboardThis is where the user enters text commands into the computer.4. MouseA point and click interface for entering commands which works wellin graphical environments.These various parts will be discussed in the following sections.
  • 9. 2.3 Format and installation Operating systemin the department we used microsoft Operating system , in this parti will talking about windows 7 .To format your hard disk during Windows 7 installation, youll need tostart, or boot, your computer using the Windows 7 installation disc orUSB flash drive. 1. Turn on your computer so that Windows starts normally, insert the Windows 7 installation disc or USB flash drive, and then shut down your computer. 2. Restart your computer. 3. Press any key when prompted, and then follow the instructions that appear. 4. On the Install Windows page, enter your language and other preferences, and then click Next. 5. On the Please read the license terms page, if you accept the license terms, click I accept the license terms, and then click Next.
  • 10. 6. On the Which type of installation do you want? page, click Custom.7. On the Where do you want to install Windows? page, click Drive options (advanced).8. Click the partition that you want to format and click Format. • If you have more than one partition on this hard drive and want to get rid them to make one big drive again, then select a partition and click on the Delete option for each partition. Once you have deleted all of the partitions, select the Unallocated Space partition and click Format.9. Pick the formatting option that you want.10.When youve finished formatting, click Next.11.Follow the instructions to finish installing Windows 7, which include naming your computer and setting up an initial user account. • If you do not want to reinstall Windows 7, you can cancel the installation at this point and keep your newly formatted drives.
  • 11. 2.4 what after format?after formatting a computer we connected it to the domain serverand installation some of application , an application it different formwing to another wing , for example about an application : . Microsoft office . winzip/winrar/7zip . Symantec AntiVirus (very importance) . PDF reader . Other (By section) 2.5 End life of a computerin the wing the information it is very importance , so how End life ofa computer ? > Fill out a form to destroy computer > The writings of figures kinds models > And finally the destruction hdd the destruction of its main components.
  • 12. Chapter 3 Computer Networks 3.1 in this Department what i did ?In this section we have delivered more than data Center building atthe wing of the network, and also learned how to do the work ofcables hooked up to switches.And also participated in the networking project for the new database.The backbone of the networks in the wing is Unshielded twisted pair(UTP) cable , And cells of the system come on Cisco system . 3.2 What Is UTP Cable?UTP, or Unshielded Twisted Pair, is a type ofcable used in telecommunications andcomputer networks. It consists of differentnumbers of copper wire that have been Figure 8twisted into matching pair. It differs fromscreened and shielded twisted pair, in that the individual pair are notprotected with additional protection from interference. Each copper
  • 13. wire is insulated, and the groups of twisted pair have a sheathingholding them together, but no additional insulation is provided. UTPcomes in many different types and sizes, and is primarily used asnode cabling, meaning it runs from a backbone unit to the individualcomponents on the network. 3.2.1 TYPES OF UTP CABELUTP comes in different types called Categories, often abbreviatedas "Cat". The most common are Cat 3, Cat 5e, and Cat 6. Thehigher the category number, the more twists per foot in the pair, andthe better protection from interference. Cat 3 is usually used forhome telephone systems. Cat 5e is the industry standard forcomputer networks and large telephone systems. Cat 6 is animprovement on Cat 5e and is starting to become the favorite fornew installs due to its increased speed and protection frominterference.
  • 14. 3.2.2 SIZES OF UTP CABELUTP can also come in many different sizes based upon the numberof pairs. Cat 3 used for telephones often come in two pair, as that isall that is needed for a basic telephone system. Standard Cat 5 or 6network cables are eight twisted pair. Backbone cables that run fromfloor to floor in large buildings are often 25 pair cables. The 25 paircan be bundled to make cables with as many as 1,400 pair. 3.2.3 FUNCTION OF UTP CABELEach pair consists of a tip wire (wrapped in a solid color like green)and a ring wire that is striped (like green/white). The tip colors areblue, orange, green, brown, and slate. The ring colors are white, red,black, yellow, and violet. Each pair does different things dependingon the number of pair and the application. Whatever the use, thecables carry electrical signals between devices, which allowscommunication.
  • 15. 3.2.4 ConsiderationsUTP is a cost-effective way to create communication betweendevices. For this reason, it is the most popular cable in the world. Itslack of shielding, however, can create problems in certain situations.If the cable is installed near large electrical equipment or denselywired areas, it is susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI)or crosstalk, a major reason for his selection as the backbone in theBASE networks. EMI and crosstalk can degrade the cables speed.For that reason, UTP is not the standard in densely populated areaslike Europe. 3.3 usually use of utp cable > Straight Cable > Crossover Cable 3.3.1 Straight CableYou usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices.This type of cable will be used most of the time and can be used to:1) Connect a computer to a switch/hubs normal port.
  • 16. 2) Connect a computer to a cable/DSL modems LAN port.3) Connect a routers WAN port to a cable/DSL modems LAN port.4) Connect a routers LAN port to a switch/hubs uplink port.(normally used for expanding network)5) Connect 2 switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using anuplink port and the other one using normal port.If you need to check how straight cable looks like, its easy. Bothside (side A and side B) of cable have wire arrangement with samecolor. Check out different types of straight cable that are available inthe market here.
  • 17. 3.3.2 Crossover CableSometimes you will use crossover cable, its usually used to connectsame type of devices. A crossover cable can be used to:1) Connect 2 computers directly.2) Connect a routers LAN port to a switch/hubs normal port.(normally used for expanding network)3) Connect 2 switches/hubs by using normal port in bothswitches/hubs.In you need to check how crossover cable looks like, both side (sideA and side B) of cable have wire arrangement with following differentcolor .
  • 18. 3.4 Layer 2 vs. Layer 3 switchesBoth switch types have the capability of linking network devicestogether from one port to another. Unlike hubs, switches distributedata more intelligently as it interprets them and sends it out to theright destination.Layer 2 and Layer 3 terms comes from the OSI seven Layer model(a theoretical way of dividing a network architecture up withfunctionality, service, dependence and application). Within themodel, Layer 2 represents the “Data Link Layer” while Layer 3represents the “Network Layer”.Layer 2 switches have the capability of moving packets arounda single network. As the reference to the OSI Layer holds true, thisswitch facilitates data only (and) within the physical layer (alsoknown as Layer 1 e.g. cables and connectors). It is intelligentenough to learn the MAC addresses of each device, source/destination of each packet and routes each packet within the singledomain (at wire speed). While it breaks up a collision domain, itdoes not have the ability to transport the data packet from one
  • 19. network to another nor can it prioritize packets to guaranteebandwidth. Putting devices on a Layer 2 switch makes one entirelarge local segment (or what some people might call a “broadcastdomain”).Layer 3 switches act like a traditional router – it enables differentnetwork segments to be linked together. With this, data can be inter-networked from one network subnet to another. Prioritization ofpackets can be setup and the Layer 3 switch is intelligent enough tolearn which routes are the best between the networks. While theLayer 2 switch routes packets based on MAC, Layer 3 switchesroute data packets based on IP. Going a step further, Layer 3switches have the capability to logically separate networks into twoor more VLANs (Virtual LANs), enhancing security andunauthorized access between networks. A Layer 3 switch typicallysits above Layer 2 switches and governs the routes/ accessbetween the different networks. Figure 9
  • 20. 3.5 GBIC Figure 10GBIC is short for gigabit interface converter, it is a input/outputtransceiver used with one end to plug into a gigabit Ethernet portsuch as on the switches, the other end of the transceiver is toconnect the fiber optic patch cords and link the fiber optic networks,thus GBIC modules function is to transform the signals between theEthernet network and fiber optic network. GBIC classification isbased on its working wavelength, data transmitting rate, workingpower, and the working distance. Generally GBIC fiber optic end theinterface is SC type, the laser unit in GBIC module can be 850nmVCSEL, 1310nm FP, 1310nm DFB, and 1550nm DFB.GBIC transceiver is hot pluggable, this feature allows a suitablydesigned enclosure to be changed from one type of externalinterface to another simply by plugging in a GBIC having thealternative external interface. The GBIC transceivers are suitable forinterconnections in the Gigabit Ethernet hubs and switches
  • 21. environment. The design of these converters is also practical forother high performance, point-to-point communication requiringgigabit or fiber channel interconnections.Features for typical types GBIC modules: > Compliant with Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC) Revision 5.5 > Compliant with proposed specifications for IEEE 802.3z/Gigabit Ethernet > Up to 1.25Gb/s bi-directional data link > Various kinds of wavelength and working distances optional > Extended power supply 3.3/5.0V compatible > Hot pluggable > Low EMI > Low power dissipation > Class 1 Laser Product Compliant with the Requirements of IEC 60825-1 and IEC 60825-2When install the GBIC modules, please note at the alignment grooveat the side of the transceiver, and make sure it fit for the Ethernetinterface slot and try the insertion, sometimes you may need to turnit 180 degree to fit for the interface.Although GBIC fiber optic transceiver modules are plug and play, westrongly suggest you disconnect all the fiber optic patch cordsconnected to it before you install or remove it.
  • 22. Chapter 4 Department of fast communication networks 4.1 in this Department what i did ?We connect the circles many wings and linked to the bases byexternal fiber optic, and also we have the technical work(Termination and splicing) linking it with Swish . 4.2 what is optical fiber ? Figure 11An optical fiber is a thin, flexible, transparent fiber that acts as awaveguide, or "light pipe", to transmit light between the two ends ofthe fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concernedwith the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiberoptics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications,which permits transmission over longer distances and at higherbandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibersare used instead of metal wires because signals travel along themwith less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference.
  • 23. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles sothey can be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in tightspaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of otherapplications, including sensors and fiber lasers.Optical fiber typically consists of a transparent core surrounded by atransparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Lightis kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber toact as a waveguide. Fibers which support many propagation pathsor transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), whilethose which can only support a single mode are called single-modefibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger corediameter, and are used for short-distance communication links andfor applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-modefibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,050meters (3,440 ft).Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electricalwire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, andthen spliced together either mechanically or by fusing them togetherwith heat. Special optical fiber connectors are used to makeremovable connections.
  • 24. 4.3 Connect base with other basesThe backbone of the linking bases are as follows Let : > fiber optic > Saudi Telecom Company - STC > moda cable 4.4 Why provide fiber optic > WAN networking > Network connectivity, local > Video Conference System > Encryption > The transfer of information radar > Reload this satellite 4.5 type of fiber optic > Multi-mode fiber > Single-mode fiber 4.5.1 Multi-mode fiberFiber with large core diameter (greater than 10 micrometers) may beanalyzed by geometrical optics. Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber,
  • 25. from the electromagnetic analysis . In a step-index multi-mode fiber,rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internalreflection. Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a highangle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary), greaterthan the critical angle for this boundary, are completely reflected.The critical angle (minimum angle for total internal reflection) isdetermined by the difference in index of refraction between the coreand cladding materials. Rays that meet the boundary at a low angleare refracted from the core into the cladding, and do not convey lightand hence information along the fiber. The critical angle determinesthe acceptance angle of the fiber, often reported as a numericalaperture. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate downthe fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles,allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. However, this highnumerical aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays atdifferent angles have different path lengths and therefore takedifferent times to traverse the fiber.In graded-index fiber, the index of refraction in the core decreasescontinuously between the axis and the cladding. This causes lightrays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding, rather than
  • 26. reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. The resultingcurved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rayspass more through the lower-index periphery of the core, rather thanthe high-index center. The index profile is chosen to minimize thedifference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in thefiber. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationshipbetween the index and the distance from the axis . 4.5.2 Single-mode fiberFiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelengthof the propagating light cannot be modeled using geometric optics.Instead, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure, bysolution of Maxwells equations as reduced to the electromagneticwave equation. The electromagnetic analysis may also be requiredto understand behaviors such as speckle that occur when coherentlight propagates in multi-mode fiber. As an optical waveguide, thefiber supports one or more confined transverse modes by which lightcan propagate along the fiber. Fiber supporting only one mode iscalled single-mode or mono-mode fiber. The behavior of larger-coremulti-mode fiber can also be modeled using the wave equation,which shows that such fiber supports more than one mode of
  • 27. propagation (hence the name). The results of such modeling ofmulti-mode fiber approximately agree with the predictions ofgeometric optics, if the fiber core is large enough to support morethan a few modes.The waveguide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber isnot completely confined in the core. Instead, especially insingle-mode fibers, a significant fraction of the energy in the boundmode travels in the cladding as an evanescent wave.The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of8–10 micrometers and is designed for use in the near infrared. Themode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used, so thatthis fiber actually supports a small number of additional modes atvisible wavelengths. Multi-mode fiber, by comparison, ismanufactured with core diameters as small as 50 micrometers andas large as hundreds of micrometers. The normalized frequency Vfor this fiber should be less than the first zero of the Bessel functionJ0 (approximately 2.405).
  • 28. 4.6 Termination and splicingOptical fibers are connected to terminal equipment by optical fiberconnectors. These connectors are usually of a standard type suchas FC, SC, ST, LC, or MTRJ.Optical fibers may be connected to each other by connectors or bysplicing, that is, joining two fibers together to form a continuousoptical waveguide. The generally accepted splicing method is arcfusion splicing, which melts the fiber ends together with an electricarc. For quicker fastening jobs, a "mechanical splice" is used.Fusion splicing is done with a specialized instrument that typicallyoperates as follows: The two cable ends are fastened inside a spliceenclosure that will protect the splices, and the fiber ends arestripped of their protective polymer coating (as well as the moresturdy outer jacket, if present). The ends are cleaved (cut) witha precision cleaver to make them perpendicular, and are placed intospecial holders in the splicer. The splice is usually inspected viaa magnified viewing screen to check the cleaves before and afterthe splice. The splicer uses small motors to align the end facestogether, and emits a small spark between electrodes at the gap toburn off dust and moisture. Then the splicer generates a larger spark
  • 29. that raises the temperature above the melting point of the glass,fusing the ends together permanently. The location and energy ofthe spark is carefully controlled so that the molten core and claddingdo not mix, and this minimizes optical loss. A splice loss estimate ismeasured by the splicer, by directing light through the cladding onone side and measuring the light leaking from the cladding on theother side. A splice loss under 0.1 dB is typical. The complexity ofthis process makes fiber splicing much more difficult than splicingcopper wire.Mechanical fiber splices are designed to be quicker and easier toinstall, but there is still the need for stripping, careful cleaning andprecision cleaving. The fiber ends are aligned and held together by aprecision-made sleeve, often using a clear index-matching gel thatenhances the transmission of light across the joint. Such jointstypically have higher optical loss and are less robust than fusionsplices, especially if the gel is used. All splicing techniques involvethe use of an enclosure into which the splice is placed for protectionafterward.Fibers are terminated in connectors so that the fiber end is held atthe end face precisely and securely. A fiber-optic connector is
  • 30. basically a rigid cylindrical barrel surrounded by a sleeve that holdsthe barrel in its mating socket. The mating mechanism can be "pushand click", "turn and latch" ("bayonet"), or screw-in (threaded). Atypical connector is installed by preparing the fiber end and insertingit into the rear of the connector body. Quick-set adhesive is usuallyused so the fiber is held securely, and a strain relief is secured to therear. Once the adhesive has set, the fibers end is polished to amirror finish. Various polish profiles are used, depending on the typeof fiber and the application. For single-mode fiber, the fiber ends aretypically polished with a slight curvature, such that when theconnectors are mated the fibers touch only at their cores. This isknown as a "physical contact" (PC) polish. The curved surface maybe polished at an angle, to make an "angled physical contact" (APC)connection. Such connections have higher loss than PCconnections, but greatly reduced back reflection, because light thatreflects from the angled surface leaks out of the fiber core; theresulting loss in signal strength is known as gap loss. APC fiberends have low back reflection even when disconnected.
  • 31. > bag > power splay > Rechargeable Battery > Cut Cable tool > laser splicing tool Figure 12 Figure 13 laser splicing tool 4.7 Optical fiber connectorAn optical fiber connector terminates the end of an optical fiber, andenables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. Theconnectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so thatlight can pass. Most optical fiber connectors are spring-loaded: The
  • 32. fiber endfaces of the two connectors are pressed together, resultingin a direct glass to glass or plastic to plastic contact, avoiding anyglass to air or plastic to air interfaces, which would result in higherconnector losses.A variety of optical fiber connectors are available. Typical connectorsare rated for 500-1000 mating cycles. The main differences amongtypes of connectors are dimensions and methods of mechanicalcoupling. Generally, organizations will standardize on one kind ofconnector, depending on what equipment they commonly use, or pertype of fiber (one for multimode, one for singlemode). In datacomand telecom applications nowadays small form factor connectors(e.g., LC) and multi-fiber connectors (e.g., MTP) are replacing thetraditional connectors (e.g., SC), mainly to pack more connectors onthe overcrowded faceplate, and thus reducing the footprint of thesystems.According to Telcordia GR-326, Generic Requirements forSinglemode Optical Connectors and Jumper Assemblies, opticalfiber connectors are used to join optical fibers where aconnect/disconnect capability is required. The basic connector unitis a connector assembly. A connector assembly consists of an
  • 33. adapter and two connector plugs. Due to the sophisticated polishingand tuning procedures that may be incorporated into opticalconnector manufacturing, connectors are generally assembled ontooptical fiber in a supplier’s manufacturing facility. However, theassembly and polishing operations involved can be performed in thefield, for example, to make cross-connect jumpers to size.Optical fiber connectors are used in telephone company centraloffices, at installations on customer premises, and in outside plantapplications. Their uses include: * Making the connection between equipment and the telephone plant in the central office * Connecting fibers to remote and outside plant electronics such as Optical Network Units (ONUs) and Digital Loop Carrier (DLC) systems * Optical cross connects in the central office * Patching panels in the outside plant to provide architectural flexibility and to interconnect fibers belonging to different service providers * Connecting couplers, splitters, and Wavelength Division Multiplexers (WDMs) to optical fibers
  • 34. * Connecting optical test equipment to fibers for testing and maintenance.Outside plant applications may involve locating connectorsunderground in subsurface enclosures that may be subject toflooding, on outdoor walls, or on utility poles. The closures thatenclose them may be hermetic, or may be “free-breathing.” Hermeticclosures will subject the connectors within to temperature swings butnot to humidity variations unless they are breached. Free-breathingclosures will subject them to temperature and humidity swings, andpossibly to condensation and biological action from airbornebacteria, insects, etc. Connectors in the underground plant may besubjected to groundwater immersion if the closures containing themare breached or improperly assembled. Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 LC connector SC connector ST connector
  • 35. Conclusion and RecommendationsDuring these two months of training, I learned the meaning of qualitywhen construction the projects. Working with a good humansprovided me with a lot of information that will increase myknowledge in the computer Engineering field, I connected what Iwitnessed in the sites with what I learned during my study inuniversity, I gained a knowledge in the network , communication ,design and the most important thing which is engineering standards.I experienced the work environment and improved my self in thecommunication skills and technology. Finally, I am praying to allahfor every body helped me during my training.Thank very muchMy   mother   and   father,   my   family,   my   friends,   members   of   the   teaching  , Engineering   consultant  Eng.   Mohamed   Saeed,   Eng   Awwad   Alchehri   , Captain   Technical   Ibrahim   al­Harbi   ,   Como   technical   Halim   Shqdar  , Como technical Salah  Soleimani  ,  Saddaguet  Technician  , Under a technical sergeant Badr Alchehri

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