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Sample chapter quick review series for bds 1st year 2e by rao to order call sms at 91 8527622422

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  • 1. Section-ID.indd 135 S e c t i o n 1D PRACTICE FIGURES IN ANATOMY 11/22/2013 3:02:57 PM
  • 2. Section-ID.indd 136 11/22/2013 3:02:59 PM
  • 3. S e c t i o n 1D PRACTICE FIGURES IN ANATOMY 1 F 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 2 P P 3 Bregma Superior and inferior temporal lines Sagittal suture Lambda Lambdoid suture Coronal suture Parietal foramen 7 4 5 Fig. 1D.1a Norma verticalis. 1 9 2 3 4 8 5 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Coronal suture Parietal bone Temporal bone Occipital bone Mastoid process External auditory meatus Mandible Maxilla Frontal bone 6 Fig. 1D.1b Norma lateralis. Section-ID.indd 137 11/22/2013 3:02:59 PM
  • 4. 138 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 8 1 2 9 7 3 6 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Sagittal suture Lambda External occipital protuberance Occipital bone Mastoid process Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line Parietal bone Lambdoid suture 4 Fig. 1D.1c Norma occipitalis. 1. Dangerous area of face 1 Fig. 1D.2 Dangerous area of face. 1 2 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Temporal Zygomatic Buccal Mandibular Cervical 4 5 Fig. 1D.3 Facial nerve—branches. Section-ID.indd 138 11/22/2013 3:03:01 PM
  • 5. Practice Figures in Anatomy 139 1 6 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 2 8 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 Common tendinous ring Optic canal Optic nerve Ophthalmic artery Inferior ophthalmic vein Lacrimal nerve Frontal nerve Superior ophthalmic nerve Trochlear nerve Oculomotor nerve (superior inferior division) Nasociliary nerve Abducent nerve Fig. 1D.4 Superior orbital fissure. 3 4 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 5 2 6 Pterion Asterion Parietal bone Frontal bone Squamous part of temporal bone Greater wing of sphenoid Fig. 1D.5 Skull–lateral view. 7 8 2 9 1 3 6 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Mandibular foramen Inferior alveolar nerve in mandibular foramen Lingual nerve Sublingual fossa Submandibular fossa Mylohyoid groove Condyle Coronoid Ramus of mandible Angle of the mandible Body of the mandible 10 5 11 Fig. 1D.6 Ramus of mandible—medial surface. Section-ID.indd 139 11/22/2013 3:03:01 PM
  • 6. 140 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 2 16 15 3 14 4 5 6 13 7 12 8 9 11 Apical ligament Alar ligament Transverse ligament of atlas Scalenus anterior Levator scapulae Splenius cervicis Membrane tectoria Ligamentum nuchae Obliquus capitis inferior Rectus capitis posterior major Spine Lamina Vertebral canal Foramen transversarium Superior articular facet Dens Anterior longitudinal ligament Rectus capitis anterior Transverse ligament of atlas Levator scapulae Oblique capitis superior Rectus capitis posterior minor Ligamentum nuchae Posterior tubercle Posterior arch Transverse process Foramen transversarium Superior articular facet Anterior arch Anterior tubercle 10 Fig. 1D.7 Axis. 14 1 13 2 3 12 4 11 5 10 9 6 7 8 Fig.1D.8 Atlas. Skin and subcutaneous tissue Scalp Galea aponeurotica Fat Loose subaponeurotic tissue S C A L P Bone Dura Pericranium Fig. 1D.9 The scalp (S: skin, C: connective tissue, A: aponeurosis, L: loose areolar tissue, P: pericranium). Section-ID.indd 140 11/22/2013 3:03:01 PM
  • 7. Practice Figures in Anatomy 141 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 5 1 2 Lateral nasal Superior labial Inferior labial Facial artery Transverse facial artery Superficial temporal artery 3 4 Fig. 1D.10 Arteries of the face. 1 2 11 1. Supraorbital 2. Supratrochlear 3. Angular vein 4. Maxillary vein 5. Deep facial vein 6. Facial vein 7. Common facial vein 8. External jugular vein 9. Posterior auricular 10. Retromandibular vein 11. Superficial temporal vein 3 10 4 5 9 6 8 7 Fig. 1D.11 Veins of the face. 1 2 3 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 8 15 9 1. Ophthalmic division (V1) 2. Supraorbital 3. Supratrochlear 4. Infratrochlear 5. External nasal 6. Infraorbital 7. Maxillary division (V2) 8. Mandibular division (V3) 9. Mental 10. Buccal 11. Third occipital (C3) 12. Greater occipital (C2) 13. Lesser occipital (C2) 14. Auriculo-temporal 15. Great auricular (C2,3) 10 Fig. 1D.12 Cutaneous nerves of face. Section-ID.indd 141 11/22/2013 3:03:01 PM
  • 8. 142 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 1. Pterygomandibular raphe 2. Superior pharyngeal constrictor 3. Buccinator 1 2 3 Fig. 1D.13 Pterygomandibular raphe. 2 3 a 4 1 b 1. Lacrimal gland a. Orbital portion b. Palpebral portion 2. Lacrimal vessels and nerve 3. Orbital septum 4. Lateral horn of levator aponeurosis Fig. 1d.14 Lacrimal gland. 1 2 8 9 3 4 10 Maxillary sinus 5 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Lacrimal puncta Lacrimal canaliculi Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct Middle meatus Lacrimal fold Inferior meatus Lacrimal gland Lacrimal ducts Conjunctival sac 7 Fig. 1D.15 Lacrimal apparatus. Section-ID.indd 142 11/22/2013 3:03:02 PM
  • 9. Practice Figures in Anatomy 143 1 2 8 1. Sternomastoid 2. Upper trunk 3. Lower trunk 4. Subclavian artery and vein 5. Pectoralis major 6. Deltoid 7. Delto-pectoral triangle 8. Middle trunk 3 7 4 6 5 Fig. 1D.16 Subclavian triangle. 1 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 7 3 4 Internal carotid artery External carotid artery Common carotid artery Internal jugular vein Vagus nerve Sympathetic trunk Ansa cervicalis 5 6 Fig. 1D.17 Longitudinal and transverse section of carotid sheath. 10 1 11 2 12 13 14 15 16 17 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. Occipital artery 2. Splenius capitis 3. Sternomastoid 4. Scalenus medius 5. Inferior belly of omohyoid 6. External jugular vein 7. Subclavian artery 8. Anterior jugular vein 9. Clavicle 10. Superior nuchal line 11. Semi spinalis capitis 12. Levator scapulae 13. Lymph node 14. Transverse cervical artery 15. Suprascapular nerve 16. Suprascapular artery and vein 17. Subclavian vein (behind clavicle) Fig. 1D.18 The posterior triangle—boundaries and floor. Section-ID.indd 143 11/22/2013 3:03:02 PM
  • 10. 144 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 1 1. Superficial temporal 2. Transverse facial 3. Maxillary 4. Posterior auricular 5. Occipital 6. Ascending pharyngeal 7. Facial 8. Lingual 9. Superior thyroid 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fig. 1D.19 External carotid artery. 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 2 Sternocleidomastoid Trapezius Omohyoid Subclavian triangle Occipital triangle 5 3 Fig. 1D.20 Triangles of the neck. 1 2 5 6 1. Posterior belly of digastric 2. Anterior belly of digastric 3. Superior belly of omohyoid 4. Sternocleidomastoid 5. Posterior triangle 6. Inferior belly of omohyoid 7. Trapezius 3 7 4 Fig. 1D.21a Posterior triangle—boundaries. Section-ID.indd 144 11/22/2013 3:03:02 PM
  • 11. Practice Figures in Anatomy 145 1 1. Lesser occipital nerve 2. Greater auricular nerve 3. Transverse cutaneous nerve of neck 4. Sternocleidomastoid muscle 5. Posterior triangle 6. Spinal accessory nerve 7. Levator scapulae muscle 8. Trapezius muscle 2 6 3 7 8 4 5 Fig. 1D.21b Posterior triangle of the neck–contents. 1 2 1. Stylopharyngeus muscle 2. Stylohyoid muscle 3. Styloglossus muscle 4. Stylohyoid ligament 5. Stylomandibular ligament 3 4 5 Fig. 1D.22 Styloid apparatus. 1 2 3 4 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Intercavernous sinus Cavernous sinus Inferior petrosal sinus Marginal sinus Right sigmoid sinus Right transverse sinus Confluence of sinuses Left sigmoid sinus Left transverse sinus 8 9 6 7 Fig. 1D.23 Dural venous sinuses. Section-ID.indd 145 11/22/2013 3:03:02 PM
  • 12. 146 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 2 1 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 4 5 6 7 Cavernous sinus Pituitary gland Internal carotid artery III Nerve IV Nerve Ophthalmic nerve (V1) VI Nerve Maxillary nerve (V2) 8 Fig. 1D.24a Cavernous sinus. g f a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. c a d e b h i j k l n m Anterior intercavernous sinus Posterior intercavernous sinus Superficial middle cerebral vein Inferior cerebral vein Hole for stalk of pituitary body Ophthalmic veins Sphenoparietal sinus Middle meningeal sinus Cavernous sinus Emissary sphenoidal foramen Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum Superior petrosal sinus Inferior petrosal sinus Fig. 1D.24b Cavernous sinus—extent and connections. a f b c a. Free margin of tentorium b. Tentorial notch c. Tentorium cerebelli d. Left transverse sinus e. Straight sinus f. Midbrain cut g. Right transverse sinus d g e Fig. 1D.25 Tentorium cerebelli—superior view. Section-ID.indd 146 11/22/2013 3:03:02 PM
  • 13. Practice Figures in Anatomy 147 1 2 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 4 5 6 7 8 Anterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery Anterior cerebral artery Middle cerebral artery Posterior communicating artery Posterior cerebral artery Basilar artery Vertebral artery Fig. 1D.26 Circle of Willis. a b c d a. Superior sagittal sinus b. Falx cerebri c. Inferior sagittal sinus d. Diaphragma sellae e. Straight sinus e Fig. 1D.27a Falx cerebri. 2 1 3 1. Superior sagittal sinus 2. Falx cerebri 3. Inferior sagittal sinus Fig. 1D.27b Falx cerebri. Section-ID.indd 147 11/22/2013 3:03:03 PM
  • 14. 148 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year (A) Branches of maxillary artery (first part) A1 Deep auricle artery A2 Anterior tympanic artery A3 Middle meningeal artery A4 Accessory meningeal artery A5 Inferior alveolar artery B1 C5 A3 and A4 C3 A2 A1 C4 C2 B4 C1 B2 B3 (B) Branch of maxillary artery B1 Deep temporal artery B2 Pterygoid artery B3 Masseteric artery B4 Buccal artery (C) Branch of maxillary artery (third part) C1 Posterior superior alveolar artery C2 Infraorbital artery C3 Sphenopalatine (terminal part) C4 Pharyngeal artery C5 Artery of pterygoid canal A5 Fig. 1D.28 Branches of maxillary artery. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1 6 2 7 3 4 Submandibular triangle Anterior belly of digastric muscle Carotid triangle Superior belly of omohyoid muscle Muscular triangle Posterior belly of digastric muscle Sternocleidomastoid muscle Clavicle 8 5 Fig. 1D.29 Contents of carotid triangle. 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 4 3 Inferior labial artery Superior labial artery Lateral nasal artery Angular vessels Dorsal nasal artery 2 1 Fig. 1D.30 Facial artery. Section-ID.indd 148 11/22/2013 3:03:03 PM
  • 15. Practice Figures in Anatomy 149 8 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 6 1 5 Facial artery External carotid artery Lingual artery Vena comitans of lingual artery Geniohyoid Position of sublingual gland Genioglossus Dorsalis linguae artery 4 2 3 Fig. 1D.31 Lingual artery. B B1 A A1 A2 A3 A4 B B1 B2 B3 C B2 B3 A C A1 A2 Superior roots of ansa cervicalis To superior belly of omohyoid To sternohyoid To sternothyroid To inferior belly of omohyoid Hypoglossal nerve Ventral ramus of C1 Ventral ramus of C2 Ventral ramus of C3 Inferior root of ansa cervicalis (descending cervicalis) A4 A3 Fig. 1D.32 Ansa cervicalis. a b c d e f g j h k a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. I. j. k. Supraorbital vein Supratrochlear vein Angular vein Superficial temporal vein Maxillary vein Retromandibular vein Deep facial vein Facial vein Common facial vein Posterior auricular vein External jugular vein i Fig. 1D.33 External jugular vein. Section-ID.indd 149 11/22/2013 3:03:03 PM
  • 16. 150 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 2 Cervical Buccal Mandibular Temporal 3 1 Fig. 1D.34 Branches of facial nerve on face. T 1. Facial nerve (VII) 2. Retromandibular vein 3. External carotid artery Z 1 Branches of facial nerve: T. Temporal branch Z. Zygomatic branch B. Buccal branch M. Mandibular branch C. Cervical branch B 2 M 3 C Fig. 1D.35 Structures within parotid gland. 1 2 3 1. Parotid duct 2. Masseter muscle 3. Parotid gland Fig. 1D.36 Parotid duct—relations. Section-ID.indd 150 11/22/2013 3:03:03 PM
  • 17. Practice Figures in Anatomy 151 1. Masseter muscle 1 Fig. 1D.37 Masseter muscle. 6 5 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2 Condyloid process Lateral pterygoid muscle Coronoid process Temporalis Inferior temporal line Superior temporal line 3 1 Fig. 1D.38 Temporalis muscle. 7 4 3 6 2 5 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Deep head of medial pterygoid Insertion of lateral pterygoid into pterygoid fovea Articular disc Fibrous capsule Superficial head of medial pterygoid Pterygomaxillary fissure Upper and lower head of lateral pterygoid Fig. 1D.39 Lateral pterygoid muscles. Section-ID.indd 151 11/22/2013 3:03:03 PM
  • 18. 152 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 7 1 8 9 2 3 10 4 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Submental lymph nodes Anterior belly of digastric Mylohyoid Hyoglossus Posterior belly of diagastric Pulley Facial artery Nerve to mylohyoid Submental artery Masseter Hyoid bone 11 6 Fig. 1D.40 Relations of mylohyoid muscle. 1 1. Mandible (lower border) 2. Anterior belly of digastric muscle (from digastric fossa of mandible) 3. Intermediate tendon held by fibrous pulley to hyoid bone 4. Hyoid bone 5. Posterior belly of digastric muscle (mastoid notch of temporal bone) 2 5 3 4 Fig. 1D.41 Digastric muscle. 1 6 5 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Styloglossus muscle Submandibular gland Hyoglossus muscles Geniohyoid muscle Mandible Submandibular duct 3 4 Fig. 1D.42 Submandibular gland. Section-ID.indd 152 11/22/2013 3:03:03 PM
  • 19. Practice Figures in Anatomy 153 1 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3 4 5 6 Semilunar ganglion Minor petrosal nerve Otic ganglion Auriculotemporal nerve Tympanic nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve Parotid gland 7 Fig. 1D.43 Otic ganglion. 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 2 8 3 4 5 7 Semilunar ganglion Lingual nerve Facial nerve Chorda tympani Submandibular ganglion Submandibular gland Sublingual gland Lingual nerve 6 Fig. 1D.44 Submandibular ganglion. 9 10 8 7 6 5 4 11 3 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Oesophagus Prevertebral fascia Carotid sheath Thyroid gland Trachea Omohyoid Sternocleidomastoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Recurrent laryngeal nerve Parathyroid gland 1 Fig. 1D.45 Thyroid gland and its relations. Section-ID.indd 153 11/22/2013 3:03:04 PM
  • 20. 154 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 1. Tensor aponeurosis 2. Pterygoid hamulus 3. Palatopharyngeus 4. Palatoglossus 5. Musculus uvulae 6. Levator veli palatini 1 2 3 6 4 5 Fig. 1D.46 Muscles of the soft palate. 1 1. Mylohyoid 2. Hyoglossus 3. Thyrohyoid 4. Trachea 5. Oesophagus 6. Superior constrictor pharynx 7. Middle constrictor pharynx 8. Inferior constrictor pharynx 2 6 3 7 4 8 5 Fig. 1D.47 Constrictor muscles of pharynx. 1 13 12 Orbit Orbit 11 10 9 2 3 8 4 Maxillary sinus Maxillary sinus 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Orbital plate of frontal bone Orbital plate of ethmoidal labyrinth Perpendicular plate Nasal cavities Palate Nasal septum Inferior concha Ostium Middle concha Ethmoidal sinuses Superior concha Crista galli Cranial cavity, cribriform plate 5 6 7 Fig. 1D.48 Coronal section through skull. Section-ID.indd 154 11/22/2013 3:03:04 PM
  • 21. Practice Figures in Anatomy 1 155 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 7 3 4 8 10 5 6 9 Opening of posterior ethmoidal cells Opening of sphenoidal sinus Bulla ethmoidalis Opening of maxillary sinus Hiatus semilunaris Opening of nasolacrimal duct Opening of frontal sinus as infundibulum Opening of middle ethmoidal cells Vestibule Opening of anterior ethmoidal cells Fig. 1D.49 Openings in the meatuses. 1 7 1. Olfactory bulb 2. Posterior superior lateral nasal nerve 3. Pterygopalatine ganglion 4. Pharyngeal nerve 5. Lesser palatine nerve 6. Greater palatine nerve 7. Anterior ethmoidal nerve 8. Internal and external nasal nerve 9. Posterior inferior lateral nasal nerves 2 3 8 4 9 5 6 Fig. 1D.50 Nerve supply of nasal cavity. 1 4 2 1. Posterior ethmoidal artery 2. Sphenopalatine artery 3. Greater palatine artery 4. Anterior ethmoidal artery 5. Twigs from facial artery 3 5 Fig. 1D.51 Arterial supply of nasal cavity. Section-ID.indd 155 11/22/2013 3:03:04 PM
  • 22. 156 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 1 8 9 2 3 10 4 11 12 5 Ethmoidal sinuses Nasal septum Middle ethmoidal sinus Maxillary sinus Floor of nose Palate forming roof of mouth Floor of anterior cranial fossa Orbit Superior concha Middle concha Maxillary hiatus Inferior concha 6 Fig. 1D.52 Maxillary sinuses. 1 1. Meningeal layer of dura mater 2 2. Oculomotor nerve 10 3. Trochlear nerve 3 4. Cavernous sinus 4 5. Maxillary nerve 6. Mandibular nerve 5 9 7. Abducent nerve 8. Internal carotid artery 9. Sphenoidal sinus 6 10. Hypophysis cerebri 7 8 Fig. 1D.53 Sphenoidal air sinuses. 1 10 2 11 3 12 4 5 13 6 7 14 8 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Vallecula Epiglottis Median glossoepiglottic fold Lingual follicles Foramen caecum Vallate papillae Foliate papillae Fungiform papillae Filiform papillae Area for internal laryngeal nerve (X) Lateral glossoepiglottic fold Palatine tonsil Area for glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Area for lingual nerve (V3) with chorda tympani (VII) Fig. 1D.54 Tongue—external features. Section-ID.indd 156 11/22/2013 3:03:04 PM
  • 23. Practice Figures in Anatomy 2 1 6 157 7 3 8 9 1. Palatoglossus 2. Hyoglossus 3. Genioglossus 4. Geniohyoid and mylohyoid 5. Hyoglossus 6. Styloglossus 7. Superior pharyngeal constrictor 8. Stylopharyngeus 9. Stylohyoid ligament 10. Middle pharyngeal constrictor 4 10 5 Fig. 1D.55 Musculature of the tongue. 2 1 3 4 1. Anterior malleolar fold 2. Pars flaccida 3. Posterior malleolar fold 4. Position of handle of malleus 5. Pars tensa (outer surface) 5 1 2 1. Short process and body of incus 2. Head, anterior process and handle of malleus 3. Pars tensa 4. Chorda tympani 3 4 Fig. 1D.56 Tympanic membrane. Section-ID.indd 157 11/22/2013 3:03:04 PM
  • 24. 158 Quick Review Series: BDS 1st Year 1 2 10 3 4 11 5 6 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Levator palpebrae Superior rectus Optic nerve Inferior oblique Inferior rectus Optic nerve Superior rectus Levator palpebrae Lateral rectus Superior oblique Medial rectus 8 9 Fig. 1D.57 Muscles of the eyeball. Section-ID.indd 158 11/22/2013 3:03:05 PM