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Prelims of Anatomy for Dental Students by AS Moni


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  • 1. Anatomy for Dental StudentsPrelims.indd i 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 2. Prelims.indd ii 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 3. Anatomy for Dental Students AS Moni, MBBS, MSc (Anatomy) Professor and Head, Dept of Anatomy Rajas Dental College, Kavalkinaru Junction Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu formerly Professor of Anatomy, Medical College, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu Senior Consultant and HOD, UE Institute of Medical Sciences Kochi, Kerala Professor of Anatomy, Sree Gokulam Medical College and Research Foundation, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala A division of Reed Elsevier India Private LimitedPrelims.indd iii 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 4. Anatomy for Dental Students Moni ELSEVIER A division of Reed Elsevier India Private Limited Mosby, Saunders, Churchill Livingstone, Butterworth Heinemann and Hanley & Belfus are the Health Science imprints of Elsevier. © 2012 Elsevier All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system—without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN: 978-81-312-2816-6 Notice Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our knowledge, changes in practice, treatment and drug therapy may become necessary or appropriate. Readers are advised to check the most current information provided (i) on procedures featured or (ii) by the manufacturer of each product to be administered, to verify the recommended dose or formula, the method and the duration of administration, and the contraindications. It is the responsibility of the practitioners, relying on their own experience and knowledge of the patient, and to take diagnoses, to determine dosages and the best treatment for each individual patient, and to take all appropriate safety precautions. To the fullest extent of the law, neither the Publisher nor the Authors assume any liability for any injury and/or damage to persons or property arising out or related to any use of the material contained in this book. Please consult full prescribing information before issuing prescription for any product mentioned in this publication. The Publisher Published by Elsevier, a division of Reed Elsevier India Private Limited. Registered Office: 622, Indraprakash Building, 21 Barakhamba Road, New Delhi–110 001. Corporate Office: 14th Floor, Building No. 10B, DLF Cyber City, Phase II, Gurgaon–122 002, Haryana, India. Publishing Manager: Ritu Sharma Commissioning Editor: Nimisha Goswami Managing Editor (Development): Anand K Jha Copy Editor: Saroj K Sahu Manager-Publishing Operations: Sunil Kumar Production Executive: Arvind Booni Cover Designer: Raman Kumar Typeset by Chitra Computers, New Delhi Printed and bound at Rajkamal Electric Press, Kundli, Haryana, India.Prelims.indd iv 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 5. Dedicated to My parents Late Mr A Sivagurunathan, Mrs K Veeralakshmi They gave me all good things in life and made me what I am today My wife Mrs U Bhagavathy Her constant encouragements inspired me to make this book successful My sons Dr SM Sivakumar, M Pharm (Biotech), PhD Asst Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, College of Pharmacy Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The chapter on human genetics is provided by Dr SM Sivakumar Mr MB Thanu Krishna, BE (Printing Technology) For wholehearted support during the making of this book My Teacher Late Dr MM Cooper, MBBS, MSc Former Director of Institute of Anatomy, Madras Medical College, Chennai He demonstrated the art of anatomy for generations in the University of MadrasPrelims.indd v 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 6. Prelims.indd vi 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 7. Preface Anatomy is the lifeline of medical science. Anatomy fascinates anybody who comes across the subject. With great pleasure I am presenting this book to the students of dental profession. I have taken great efforts to explicate the subject in a simple, lucid and precise manner. This book presents a compact and a concise text which the students will find useful with a limited amount of time to devote to the subject. Every effort has been made to provide a well illustrated review of anatomy in an easy to understand format. While preparing the book the syllabus recommended by the Dental Council of India is strictly followed. Clinical and applied emphasis are given wherever needed. During my tenure as a teacher in human anatomy for many years, I had the opportunity to go through various standard textbooks. These are the established sources of information on the subject. I have freely consulted these publications in anatomy during the preparation of this book. I would like to express my acknowledgement and thanks to these great authors. I sincerely hope that this book will prove useful to the undergraduate and postgraduate students of the dental faculty. This book is comprehensive, student oriented and contains gross anatomy, histology, embryology, applied anatomy and human genetics, etc., so that the students need not run for information from book to book. Highlight of this book are the clinical procedures as recommended by the Dental Council of India. Valuable comments and suggestions for the improvement of the book from readers are welcome. I will be amply awarded if this book is found useful by those for whom it is intended. AS MoniPrelims.indd vii 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 8. Prelims.indd viii 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 9. Acknowledgements I gratefully acknowledge the help and encouragement offered by the following Doctors: Dr SA Jacobraja, MDS, Chairman, Rajas Dental College, Kavalkinaru Junction, Tirunelveli District. Dr G Suresh Sathya Sekar, MDS, Principal , Rajas Dental College, Kavalkinaru Junction, Tirunelveli District. Late Dr SM Shanmugasundaram, MBBS, MS, formerly Professor and HOD, Department of Surgery, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli. Late Dr S Ramanathan, MBBS, MSc, formerly Professor and HOD, Department of Anatomy, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli. Dr M Joseph Devadasan, MBBS, MSc, Professor and HOD, Department of Anatomy, Best Dental College, Madurai. Dr Mrs R Saraswathi, MBBS, MS, formerly Dean, Kanyakumari Medical College, Nagercoil. Dr T Jayaramakrishnan, MBBS, DPM, formerly Professor and HOD, Department of Psychiatry, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli. Mrs K Aruna, MSc, Dr Devi Raja Rajeswari, BSMS, MSc, both are working as reader in anatomy, Rajas Dental College, Kavalkinaru, Tirunelveli District. My special thanks to Mr M Maharaja, Maharaja DTP Center, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli, He is intelligent, sincere and hardworking and helped me in making this book as good as possible by his computer knowledge. I am thankful to the staff of Elsevier (India) especially, Ritu Sharma, Nimisha Goswami, Anand K Jha, Mr Chari. Their cooperation is a stimulant for my work during the making of the book.Prelims.indd ix 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 10. Prelims.indd x 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 11. Contents Preface vii 9. Thorax and its Contents 51 Acknowledgements ix Bones of thoracic wall 51 Thoracic cage 53 SECTION – I Mediastinum 54 GENERAL ANATOMY Introduction to respiratory system 56 Introduction to cardiovascular system 61 1. Cell 3 Blood vessels of thorax 65 Plasma membrane 3 Nerves of the thorax 67 Cytoplasm 3 10. Abdominal Wall 73 Reproduction of cells 5 Anterior abdominal wall 73 2. Tissues of the Body 8 Muscles of abdominal wall 74 Tissues of the body 8 Bones of abdominal wall 75 Epithelial tissue 8 11. Introduction to Digestive System 78 Connective tissue 11 Mouth 78 3. Bone and Classification of Joints 16 Teeth 79 The bone 16 Tongue 80 Classification of joints of the body 22 Pharynx 81 Tonsils 81 4. Muscular Tissue 26 Oesophagus 82 Classification 26 Stomach 82 Neuromuscular junction 29 Peritoneum 84 Tendon 30 Small intestine 84 Large intestine 86 5. Structure of Blood Vessels and Lymphatic Tissue 32 12. Salivary Glands, Liver, Gallbladder Arteries 32 and Pancreas 90 Veins 33 Salivary glands 90 Lymphatic tissue 34 Saliva 91 Lymphatic organs 36 Liver 91 Infection 37 Gallbladder 93 Reticuloendothelial system 38 Pancreas 93 Portal vein 95 6. Nervous Tissue 39 Neurons 39 13. Blood Vessels of Abdomen 97 Synapse 41 Abdominal aorta 97 Nerve fibres 42 Veins of the abdomen 98 Ganglia 43 Lymphatic drainage of abdomen and pelvis 99 7. Reproductive Tissue 44 14. Urinary System 102 Spermatozoa 44 Kidneys 102 Ovum 45 Ureters 104 Urinary bladder 104 8. Skin and Fascia 47 Urethra 105 Skin 47 Normal and abnormal constituents of Fasciae 50 urine and their significance 105Prelims.indd xi 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 12. XII CONTENTS 15. Reproductive System 107 22. Muscles and Blood Vessels of the Orbit 187 Male reproductive system 107 Muscles of the orbit (extrinsic muscles of the eyeball) 187 Male genital organs 107 Blood vessels of the orbit 189 Female reproductive system 112 External genital organs 112 23. Nerves of the Orbit 192 Internal genital organs 113 Optic nerve (II cranial nerve) 192 Female sex hormones 117 Oculomotor nerve (III cranial nerve) 195 Pregnancy 118 Ciliary ganglion 198 Secondary sex organs 118 Trochlear nerve (IV cranial nerve) 198 16. Autonomic Nerves of Abdomen and Pelvis 120 Abducent nerve (VI cranial nerve) 199 Ophthalmic nerve (V1) 201 Autonomic nervous system in the abdomen 120 Pelvic part of autonomic nervous system 122 24. Eyeball 204 17. Endocrine System 124 Outer fibrous coat 204 Uveal tract (vascular pigmented coat) 206 Hormones 124 Pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri) 124 Retina (nervous coat) 208 Thyroid gland 127 Lens 210 Parathyroid glands 128 25. Triangles of the Neck 213 Suprarenal glands (adrenal glands) 129 Skin of the neck 213 18. Nervous System 134 Deep cervical fascia 213 Brain 134 Posterior triangle 215 Blood supply to the brain 141 Brachial plexus 218 Cerebrospinal fluid 143 Midline of neck 220 Spinal cord 143 Anterior triangle 221 Reflex action 145 Receptors 146 26. Muscles of the Neck 225 Pain 146 Sternocleidomastoid muscle 225 Peripheral nervous system 146 Infrahyoid muscles 227 Autonomic nervous system 151 Suprahyoid muscles 227 Back of the neck 228 19. Special Senses 154 Vision 154 27. Vessels of the Neck 233 Eyeball 154 Arteries of the neck 233 Lacrimal apparatus 157 Brachiocephalic artery 233 Colour vision 158 Common carotid arteries 233 Functions of smell (olfactory receptors) 158 Internal carotid artery 234 Ear 159 External carotid artery 236 Vertebral arteries 240 SECTION – II Subclavian artery 242 HEAD AND NECK Veins of the neck 243 Internal jugular vein 243 20. Scalp and Face 165 External jugular vein 245 Scalp 165 Anterior jugular vein 245 Face 168 Subclavian vein 246 Skin of the face 168 Lymphatic drainage of head and neck 246 Sensory nerve supply to the face 168 Motor nerve supply to the face 170 28. Nerves of the Neck 250 Muscles of the facial expression 173 Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX cranial nerve) 250 21. Orbit 180 Vagus nerve (X nerve) 252 Orbit 180 Accessory nerve (XI cranial nerve) 256 Eyelids 182 Hypoglossal nerve (XII cranial nerve) 257 Lacrimal apparatus 183 Ansa cervicalis 259 Conjunctiva 185 Cervical plexus 260Prelims.indd xii 10/17/2011 4:24:00 PM
  • 13. CONTENTS XIII 29. Autonomic Nervous System 261 35. Ear 357 Parasympathetic nervous system (craniosacral outflow) 261 External ear 357 Sympathetic nervous system 264 Middle ear cavity 359 Cervical sympathetic trunk 265 Mastoid antrum 364 Pharyngotympanic tube (auditory tube/eustachian tube) 366 30. Glands of Head and Neck 267 Internal ear 367 Salivary glands 267 Statoacoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear or Thyroid gland 275 eighth cranial nerve) 370 Parathyroid glands 279 Thymus gland 280 36. Bones of the Head 371 Hypophysis cerebri (pituitary gland) 281 Frontal bone 371 Pineal gland 285 Parietal bones 372 Occipital bone 374 31. Infratemporal Fossa and Temporal bone 376 Temporomandibular Joint 287 Sphenoid bone 380 Infratemporal fossa 287 Ethmoid bone 384 Muscles of mastication 288 Zygomatic bone 385 Maxillary artery 291 Palatine bones 387 Mandibular nerve 294 Lacrimal bone 388 Temporomandibular joint 299 Nasal bones 388 Pterygopalatine fossa 301 Vomer bone 389 Inferior nasal concha (turbinate bone) 389 32. Cranial Fossae and Meninges 304 Mandible 389 Cranial fossae 304 Maxilla 393 Anterior cranial fossa 304 Hyoid bone 396 Middle cranial fossa 305 Posterior cranial fossa 306 37. Exterior of the Skull 398 Meninges 308 Norma verticalis 399 Pachymeninges (dura mater) of the brain 308 Norma basalis 399 Arachnoid mater 310 Norma lateralis 403 Pia mater 311 Norma occipitalis 404 Meninges of the spinal cord 311 Norma frontalis 405 Dural venous sinuses 313 Neonatal skull 406 Emissary veins 317 Differences between male and female skull 407 Diploic veins 317 Foramina of skull 407 Trigeminal ganglion (Gasserian ganglion or semilunar ganglion) 317 38. Cervical Vertebrae and Vertebral Column 410 Cervical vertebrae 410 33. Nose and Larynx 319 Atlas 411 Nose 319 Axis 412 External nose 319 Seventh cervical vertebra 413 Medial wall of the nose (septum of the nose) 320 Vertebral column 413 Lateral wall of the nose 321 Functions of the vertebral column 414 Olfactory nerves (first cranial nerve) 324 Curvatures of the vertebral column 414 Paranasal air sinuses 324 Larynx 328 Identification of vertebral levels 415 Cartilages of the larynx 328 Intervertebral discs 415 Muscles of the larynx 329 Ligaments of the vertebral column 416 Membranes and ligaments of the larynx 331 Craniovertebral joints 417 Interior of the larynx 331 Atlanto-occipital joint 417 Trachea (cervical part) 333 Atlantoaxial joints 417 34. Mouth, Teeth, Tongue and Pharynx 335 39. Cranial Nerves 419 Mouth 335 Olfactory nerves (I cranial nerve) 419 Teeth 337 Optic nerve (II cranial nerve) 420 Palate 341 Oculomotor nerve (III cranial nerve) 423 Tongue 343 Trochlear nerve (IV cranial nerve) 426 Pharynx 348 Trigeminal nerve (V cranial nerve) 427 Deglutition 354 Abducent nerve (VI cranial nerve) 436Prelims.indd xiii 10/17/2011 4:24:01 PM
  • 14. XIV CONTENTS Facial nerve (VII cranial nerve) 438 Projection fibres 501 Statoacoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear Internal capsule 501 or VIII cranial nerve) 442 Basal ganglia (basal nuclei) 504 Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX cranial nerve) 443 Vagus nerve (X nerve) 445 45. Ventricles of the Brain 507 Accessory nerve (XI cranial nerve) 450 Lateral ventricles 507 Hypoglossal nerve (XII cranial nerve) 451 Third ventricle 509 Fourth ventricle 510 SECTION – III Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 511 BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD 46. Blood Supply to the Brain 513 Blood–brain barrier 513 40. Spinal Cord and Medulla Oblongata 457 Formation of circle of Willis 513 Spinal cord 457 Arteries of the brain 515 Internal structure 458 Venous drainage of the brain 519 Tracts of the spinal cord 460 Spinal nerves 463 SECTION – IV Medulla oblongata 463 HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY External features 464 Internal structure of the medulla oblongata 465 47. Basic Embryology for Dental Students 523 41. Pons and Cerebellum 469 Embryology 523 Pons 469 Structure of ovum 524 Parts of the pons 470 Fertilization 526 Internal structure of the pons at the Implantation 527 level of facial colliculus 470 Foldings of the embryo 530 Internal structure of pons at the level of Placenta 531 motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve 471 Fetal circulation 533 Cerebellum 473 Derivatives of the pharyngeal arches 536 Parts of cerebellum 473 Derivatives of the pharyngeal pouches 538 Peduncles of the cerebellum 475 Development of nervous system 538 Nuclei of cerebellum 476 Development of face 539 Connections of the cerebellum 476 Development of the vertebral column 541 Structure of the cerebellum 477 Development of skull 541 Development of eye 542 42. Midbrain: Thalamus and Metathalamus 479 Development of ear 543 Midbrain (mesencephalon) 479 Parts of the midbrain 479 48. Human Genetics 545 Structure of the midbrain 480 Genes 545 Connections of the midbrain 482 Sex-linked inheritance 548 Reticular formation in the brainstem 483 Chromosomal aberrations or abnormalities 549 Thalamus (diencephalon) 484 Hypothalamus 486 SECTION – V Epithalamus 488 EXTREMITIES Metathalamus 489 49. Upper Limb 555 43. Cerebrum: External Features 490 Bones and joints of upper limb 555 Cerebrum 490 Clavicle (collar bone) 555 Superolateral surface of cerebrum 491 Scapula (shoulder blade) 556 Medial surface of the cerebrum 496 Humerus 557 Inferior surface of cerebrum 496 Radius 558 Interpeduncular fossa 498 Ulna 559 Bones of the hand 559 44. White Matter of the Cerebrum Joints of the upper limb 560 and Basal Ganglia 499 Muscles of the upper limb 562 Corpus callosum 499 Flexor muscles of the forearm 564 Anterior commissure 500 Extensor muscles of the forearm 564 Posterior commissure 501 Vessels of the upper limb 565 Fornix 501 Arteries of the upper limb 565Prelims.indd xiv 10/17/2011 4:24:01 PM
  • 15. CONTENTS XV Veins of the upper limb 566 Muscles of back of the thigh 580 Nerves of the upper limb 567 Muscles of front of leg 581 Important branches of brachial plexus 567 Muscles of lateral compartment of leg 581 Muscles of posterior compartment of leg 581 50. Lower Limb 569 Muscles of the foot 582 Bones of the lower limb 569 Diseases of the muscles 583 Hip bone (innominate bone) 569 Vessels of the lower limb 583 Pelvis 571 Arteries of the lower limb 583 Femur 571 Venous drainage of the lower limb 585 Tibia 572 Lymphatic drainage of lower limb 586 Fibula 573 Nerves of the lower limb 586 Bones of the foot 574 Lumbar plexus 586 Arches of the foot 575 Sacral plexus 587 Joints of the lower limb 575 Hip joint 575 APPENDIX Knee joint 576 Tibiofibular joints 577 Clinical Procedures* 591 Ankle joint 578 Arterial pulse 591 Muscles of the lower limb 579 Parenteral methods of drug administration 593 Gluteal muscles 579 Lumbar puncture in the adult 596 Adductor muscles of the thigh 579 Muscles of front of the thigh 580 Index 599 *As recommended by Dental Council of IndiaPrelims.indd xv 10/17/2011 4:24:01 PM
  • 16. Prelims.indd xvi 10/17/2011 4:24:01 PM