Section III            Psychology, Behavior and               Behavior ManagementChapter 7 Child Psychology .................
Chapter                      Child Psychology                                                                    71.   A c...
Ans c.      7                          This procedure is known as desensitization. Systematic desensitization as a        ...
Table 7.1                                                                                         7 Ages          Freud’s ...
6.   When a child is complemented or rewarded in some manner for      7                          his or her cooperative be...
Table 7.2                                                                                          7 S. No.     Components...
11. The id is based on      7                         a. Reality principle                                b. Egoistic prin...
Ans b.     The boy child tries to imitate the father and the girl child tries to imitate the         7     mother to win t...
18. Adolescent girls feeling constantly onstage is called      7                         a. Imaginary audience        c. P...
Ans c.      Acquisition, generalization, discrimination, spontaneous recovery and               7      extinction are the ...
Ans c.      7                          The preoperational period of Jean Piaget’s theory is divided into preconceptual    ...
Multiple Choice Questions in Pediatric Dentistry, 2/e samplechapter
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Multiple Choice Questions in Pediatric Dentistry, 2/e samplechapter


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This is an elaborate and penetrating collection of multiple choice questions in the subject of Pediatric dentistry. The book aims at helping the undergraduate and post graduate students of dentistry to strengthen their basics in this upcoming field. Competitive examinations of these days demand a sound knowledge of the fundamentals of any subject.

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Multiple Choice Questions in Pediatric Dentistry, 2/e samplechapter

  1. 1. Section III Psychology, Behavior and Behavior ManagementChapter 7 Child Psychology .......................................55Ch a p t e r 8 Behavior Management ...............................65Ch a p t e r 9 Pharmacological Behavior Management ...............................................77
  2. 2. Chapter Child Psychology 71. A child aged 4 would be classified developmentally according to Stone and Church as a a. Toddler b. Preschooler c. Middle year child d. AdolescentAns b. Stone and Church’s classification: Infant – Till 15 months Toddler – 5 months to 2 years of age Preschooler – 2 to 6 years of age Middle year child – 6 to 12 years of age Adolescent – 12 years till maturity2. A 2-year-old preschooler shows active happy hustle-bustle type of reception room behavior. His most likely response for oral exami- nation will be a. Definitely negative b. Negative c. Positive to modeling d. Positive to effective communicationAns b. A 2-year-old child is classified by Wright as too young to cooperate. Hence the response for oral examination may invariably be negative.3. When a patient is exposed step by step in a hierarchy from the least to the most stressful procedures repeatedly until there is no evidence of stress, the procedure is known as a. Modeling c. Desensitization b. Restraining d. Reinforcement 55
  3. 3. Ans c. 7 This procedure is known as desensitization. Systematic desensitization as a behavior modification procedure uses two important elements:Pediatric Dentistry: mCqs i. Gradational exposure of the child to his or her fear. ii. Induced state of incompatibility with his or her own fear. 4. Appraising the child’s positive behavior in front of parent verbally is known as __________ reinforcer. a. Social b. Material c. Activity d. None of the above Ans a. Praise, positive facial expressions, nearness and physical contact come under social reinforcers and they represent the majority of all reinforcing events. Reinforcers Social In the form of a pat on the back of shoulder, shaking hands, hugging the child or verbal praise in the presence of parent for which the child will be happy. Material In the form of gifts like toothbrush kits, drawing kits, favorite cartoon stickers or toys appropriate for their age. Activity In the form of allowing the child to perform his/her choice of activity like watching a favorite TV show or movie or playing his favorite instrument for some time or games of interest. 5. Which of the following is not a part of Erikson’s model for person- ality development? a. Trust versus mistrust b. Initiative versus guilt c. Autonomy versus doubt d. None of the above Ans d. All the above-mentioned concepts are a part of Erikson’s psychosocial theory (see Table 7.1 on next page). 56
  4. 4. Table 7.1 7 Ages Freud’s Stages Erikson’s Stages Birth to 1 Oral Stage Trust vs. Mistrust Child Psychology year A child’s primary source of Children learn to either trust pleasure is through the mouth, or mistrust their caregivers via sucking, eating and tasting 1–3 years Anal Stage Autonomy vs. Doubt Children gain a sense of mastery Children develop self- and competence by controlling sufficiency by controlling bladder and bowel movements activities such as eating, toilet training and talking 3–6 years Phallic Stage Initiative vs. Guilt The libido’s energy is focused Children begin to take on the genitals. Children begin more control over their to identify with their same sex environment parent 7–11 years Latent Period Industry vs. Inferiority The libido’s energy is suppressed Children develop a sense of and children are focused on competence by mastering other activities such as school, new skills friends and hobbies Adolescence Genital Stage Identity vs. Role Confusion Children begin to explore Children develop a personal romantic relationships identify and sense of self Adulthood According to Freud, the Intimacy vs. Isolation genital stage lasts throughout Young adults seek out adulthood. He believed the goal romantic love and is to develop a balance between companionship all areas of life Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle-aged adults nurture others and contribute to society Integrity vs. Despair Older adults reflect on their lives, looking back with a sense of fulfillment or bitterness 57
  5. 5. 6. When a child is complemented or rewarded in some manner for 7 his or her cooperative behaviors, it is known as a. PunishmentPediatric Dentistry: mCqs b. Restrainment c. Positive reinforcement d. Negative reinforcement Ans c. If a pleasant consequence follows a response, the response has been positively reinforced and the behavior that led to this pleasant consequence becomes more likely in the future dental visits. 7. A child’s behavior problem in the dental office can be handled by familiarization if the basis of the problem is a. The parents b. Pain c. Emotional d. Fear Ans d. Once the child is familiar with the things around, he/she becomes comfortable and the fear diminishes. 8. Preventive desensitization means a. Behavior shaping b. Tell, show and do procedures c. Graded introduction of child to dentistry d. All of the above Ans d. All these techniques are effective methods of managing child behavior during initial and subsequent dental visits which can be categorized as preventive desensitization. 9. Id, ego and superego are part of a. Freud’s psychoanalytical theory b. Erikson’s model of personality development c. Piaget’s theory d. Skinner’s theory Ans a. Id, ego and superego are components of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical 58 theory (see Table 7.2 on next page).
  6. 6. Table 7.2 7 S. No. Components Description Principle 1. Id Id is defined as the Pleasure–pain Child Psychology inherited reservoir of principle unorganized drives, it is mostly unconscious, is governed by the pleasure–pain principle, aims at immediate satisfaction of libidinal urges, is immoral, illogical and lacks unity of purpose. 2. Ego Ego is defined as the Reality principle integrating or mediating part of personality, which develops out of interaction of id and environment. It has perception of both the internal and the external world. 3. Superego Superego is defined as Moral principle the latest development of the mind embodying the code of society and including concepts of right and wrong, the value system and the ideals.10. The basic fear of most children under 2 years of age is concerned with a. Separation from the parent b. Injection of local anesthetics c. The reason for dental treatment d. The instruments to perform dental treatmentAns a. The basic fear of most children under the age of 2 years is separation anxiety. 59
  7. 7. 11. The id is based on 7 a. Reality principle b. Egoistic principlePediatric Dentistry: mCqs c. Pleasure–pain principle d. Moral principle Ans c. Id is the portion of the mind that contains the unconscious drives for pleasure and destruction. It is one of the three hypothetical structures of personality as explained by Sigmund Freud. Id works on pleasure–pain principle and ego is based on the reality principle (also refer to the table and explanation of Q. No. 7). 12. Among the psychic triad, the executive of personality is a. Id b. Ego c. Superego d. Ego ideal Ans b. The psychic triad includes the id, ego and superego. The ego works on a reality principle. It is the mediating part of personality, which develops out of interaction of id and the environment. The superego here is termed as the policeman, monitoring the “right” and “wrong” (also refer to the explanation and table of Q. No. 7). 13. Oedipus and Electra complexes are seen in _______stage of psy- chosexual theory. a. Oral b. Anal c. Phallic d. Latency Ans c. Children in phallic stage develop a feeling of attraction to the opposite sex parent. This is called Oedipus complex in the boys and the Electra complex in the girls. They sometimes wish to eliminate the same sex parent whom they envy and fear as a rival for the affection. 14. Oedipus or Electra complex is resolved by a process called a. Sublimation b. Identification c. Fixation 60 d. Repression
  8. 8. Ans b. The boy child tries to imitate the father and the girl child tries to imitate the 7 mother to win the love and affection of the opposite sex parent. This specific aspect of identification with parents is adopting their values and morals. Child Psychology Sublimation and repression are other ego defense mechanisms. Freud believed that there are erogenous zones (zones of extreme tension) in different stages of childhood. Concept of fixation is the failure of development in which the individual continues to seek a particular kind of gratification even after he has passed through the stage in which that kind of pleasure is normally is sought.15. The basic fear of oral sensory stage according to Erikson is a. Fear of abandonment b. Fear of bodily injury c. Fear of loss of love d. Fear of sudden movementsAns a. The conflict in the oral sensory stage is basic trust versus mistrust. The tight bond between the parent and the child is reflected in a strong sense of “separation anxiety” in the child when separated from the parent. They have the fear of abandonment when tried to separate from the parent in the dental office.16. Mastery of skills is characteristic of ________stage of psychosocial theory. a. Adolescence b. Latency c. Locomotor genital d. Muscular analAns b. Children in this stage go to school, learn about people, culture, values, skills, their capacities and interests. They like to participate and compete to improve their skills. Erogenous zone is absent in this stage of Freud’s theory.17. Object permanence is seen around _____ months according to Jean Piaget. a. 2–3 months c. 6–8 months b. 4–6 months d. 8–12 monthsAns d. Object permanence is the notion that an object continues to exist even after it disappears from view. It is seen in the end of the preverbal sensorimotor period. Till this comes into existence, peak-a-boo game works magic with these children. 61
  9. 9. 18. Adolescent girls feeling constantly onstage is called 7 a. Imaginary audience c. Personal fable b. Centration d. EgocentrismPediatric Dentistry: mCqs Ans a. Imaginary audience makes young adolescents self-conscious and particularly susceptible to peer influence. They feel they are the center of attraction and are very conscious of their appearance. This phenomenon was proposed by David Elkind. The notion that “others care about my appearance and feelings as much as I do” leads adolescents to think that they are unique, special individuals. As a result of this, a second phenomenon called “personal fable” emerges. This concept holds good that because I am unique, I am not subject to consequences others will experience. The personal fable is a powerful motivator that allows us to cope in a dangerous World. Both these factors can also result in dysfunctional behavior and fool hardy risk taking. 19. Match the following: A. Sigmund Freud - 1. Cognitive theory B. Erik Erikson - 2. Operant conditioning C. Jean Piaget - 3. Hierarchy of Needs D. Ivan Pavlov - 4. Psychosexual theory E. Skinner - 5. Observational Learning F. Abraham Maslow - 6. Psychosocial theory G. Albert Bandura - 7. Classical conditioning Ans A-4, B-6, C-1, D-7, E-2, F-3, G-5 20. Negative reinforcement is a. Presenting unpleasant stimulus b. Removing unpleasant stimulus c. Presenting pleasant stimulus d. Removing pleasant stimulus Ans b. Rescheduling an extraction appointment based on the child’s wish and decision, substituting a high speed handpiece with a slow speed handpiece or spoon excavator are classical examples of negative reinforcement. 21. Which of the following processes is not a part of classical condi- tioning? a. Acquisition d. Discrimination 62 b. Generalization c. Equilibration
  10. 10. Ans c. Acquisition, generalization, discrimination, spontaneous recovery and 7 extinction are the five processes associated with classical conditioning. Equilibration is a part of the cognitive theory put forward by Jean Piaget (see Child Psychology Table 7.3). S. No. Name of the process Explanation 1. Acquisition Acquiring/learning a new experience (fear of dentist, fear of white coat, drilling, needles) 2. Generalization Generalizing all similar stimuli (all white coat people can be dangerous and can cause pain) 3. Discrimination Differentiating individual stimuli (not all dentists or not all dental procedures are painful) 4. Extinction Disappearance of the acquired knowledge (loss of fear of dentist and dental procedures) 5. Spontaneous recovery Reappearance of the extinguished response (in the subsequent dental visits, if the dentist takes it for granted the child knows the procedure very well and fails to use adequate behavior management strategies, fear of dental procedure reappears)22. Intuitive stage in Piaget’s theory is a. Less than 2 years b. 2 to 4 years c. 4 to 7 years d. More than 7 years 63
  11. 11. Ans c. 7 The preoperational period of Jean Piaget’s theory is divided into preconceptual period (2 to 4 years) and intuitive period (4 to 7 years).Pediatric Dentistry: mCqs 23. Withdrawal of pleasant stimulus is a. Escape b. Time-out c. Punishment d. Reward Ans b. The best example for time-out or omission is sending the mother out of the dental operatory when the child does not cooperate for the dental treatment. The child is first explained what he is expected to do in the dental office. But on repeated attempts if the child fails to cooperate, the child is informed that the mother will be sent outside if the child does not cooperate. In spite of instructions if the child fails to cooperate the mother is asked to wait outside. 24. Characteristic of a preschooler is a. Stranger anxiety b. Role playing c. Time of loose tooth d. Peer group influence Ans b. Role playing is very characteristic in preschoolers (2 to 6 years). They tend to imitate or model-like parents, siblings and teachers. The best behavior management technique used to manage these children is modeling (imitation). 64