Genealogy in the Sun 2014. Beyond Parish Registers. Name Rich Sources for the Long 18th Century

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Genealogy in the Sun 2014
Else Churchill
Beyond Parish Registers. Name Rich Sources for the Long 18th Century

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Genealogy in the Sun 2014. Beyond Parish Registers. Name Rich Sources for the Long 18th Century

  1. 1. Genealogy in the Sun 2014 Pre 1841 Name Rich Sources for the “long 18th Century” 1688-1837 Else Churchill www.sog.org.uk
  2. 2. Lists • Census substitutes • Name rich resources • Lists of people used by genealogists, demographers, social & local historians, psephologists (study of elections) and other academics that include information on name, age, occupations & relationships » Not necessarily all together  • Listed by Chapman and Gibson but others may crop up BIBLIOGRAPHY • Colin Chapman Pre 1841 Census and Population Listings in the British Isles, 1998 • Jeremy Gibson and Mervyn Medlycott Local Census Listings 1522-1930 Holdings in the British Isles, Federation of Family History Societies, 1997. – also a list online from Essex university http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~alan/family/N- EarlyCensuses.html
  3. 3. • Fragmentary nominal householders’ lists found locally in ROs and Libraries • Ad hoc lists created for local needs • May not survive for every parish • Often only include certain sections of the community, middle and upper class or poor
  4. 4. How big? How Many? • Gregory King et all debating size of population since late 17th Century • War with France • 1753 Bill proposing annual enumeration of the poor and ecclesiastical registration of vital events • 1st census USA 1790 • Malthus Essay on principle of population, 1798
  5. 5. 1800 Census Act • Act for taking into account the Population of Great Britain, and the increase or diminunation thereof” – Enumeration of population – Obtain data from baptisms, marriages and burials for the whole of the 18th Century – How many working in agriculture or trade, manufacture and handicrafts? » Administered for the Home Office by John Rickman1801-1831 and enacted by Clergy and overseers of the poor who along with other substantial householders were responsible for making house to house enumerations on March 10 1801 and every 10 years from then on.
  6. 6. 1801 census questions • How many inhabited and uninhabited houses? • How many persons, males and females, exclusive of men in regular forces or militia, seamen or on registered vessels? • How many working in agriculture or trade, manufacture and handicrafts or neither • What number of C&B in 1700, 1710, 1720 -1801 etc? • What number of marriages 1754-1800? • Any explanations?
  7. 7. Approx 800 returns in local record offices and libraries • Fragmentary nominal householders lists compiled by clergy etc • content can vary – some quite detailed • Often in parish registers or parish papers • Overseers accounts • Churchwardens accounts – Listed by Chapman and Gibson and also a list online from Essex university http://privatewww.essex.ac.uk/~alan/family/N -EarlyCensuses.html
  8. 8. Dartford 1801 • The information given in the 1801 book is particularly informative. The listing is arranged by location, e.g. 'High Street', then 'Overy Liberty' etc. For each family full names are given, including those of servants. Relationships are indicated either as 'wife', or for children can be read from the column headed 'Issue'. Occupations are identified, but only as three broad classes as required by the government: these are 'Agriculture', 'Trade etc', or '3rd class' (those not in the other two). • Total number of double-page spreads: 53; total population named and enumerated: 2,406.
  9. 9. Note extra remarks include occupations within the households, value of rent paid and the number of windows and dogs in each household!
  10. 10. Search SoGCAT census AND 1831 etc
  11. 11. Census reports Essex University Histpop.org.
  12. 12. 1811 census report comments on deficiencies of registers
  13. 13. 1831 parish register abstract the source of what we know about PRs
  14. 14. 1831 census parish register abstract used to compile Phillimore Atlas & Index of Paris Registers
  15. 15. Problems with Parish Registers Baptisms Marriages Burials From 1538 in England & Wales From c 1660 in Scotland Originals in local county record offices Copies and indexes at Society of Genealogists Some online, on FamilySearch etc.
  16. 16. Registration Acts of William III for carrying on the War against France with vigour “designed to help the exchequer” • 1694-1706 graduated scale of duties on marriages, births and burials (and tax on bachelors & widowers for 5 years) tax collectors allowed full access to registers and £100 penalty on ministers who neglected to register assessors presented lists of all persons with the sums they would be liable to pay in the event of birth, burial or marriage.
  17. 17. 1696 Inhabitants of Bristol Bristol RS 25 based on Marriage Duty assessments 1695-1706 • Taxed burials, births, marriages, bachelors aged 25 and over and childless widowers. Imposed sliding scale of charges on all. • Bur 4sh • Mar 2sh • Births 2sh • Bachelors and widowers paid a shilling a year • Enforced 1695 for 5 years and extended to 1st August 1706 Bristol has 81 surviving assessments for its 17 parishes in this period with a complete set for the year 1696 London has lots with a published index by London Record Society as Inhabitants of London 1695 (within the Walls) online on www.british-history.ac.uk
  18. 18. London Inhabitants Outside the Walls 1695 London Record Society (vol. 45, edited by Patrick Wallis.2011) BIDDLE :- • Elizabeth a servant in St Giles Cripplegate • James, his wife Mary, his son Isaac and daughter Mary in St Bride • Joseph, his wife Anne and his niece Sara Briteridge in St Giles Cripplegate • Robert and his wife Elizabeth in St Giles Cripplegate • Thomas, his wife Mary, his son John and his daughter Elizabeth in St Giles Cripplegate
  19. 19. Results of Marriage duties • Rise in number of paupers • Fall in number of entries in registers • Rise in number of peculiars, extra parochial or non parochial churches. • Unbeneficed clergy performing marriages • Ministers in prisons engaged in unlicenced matrimonial business
  20. 20. Growth and Acceptance of Nonconformity • Move to accept Quakers and Jewish Marriage records from 1754 but others still had to marry in CoE • Roman Catholic Emancipation 1832 • Moves towards Civil Registration • Dissenting registries of ZMD College of Arms, Doctor Williams’s Library & Paternoster Row on BMD registers website
  21. 21. Returns of Papists 1767 At Parliamentary Archives Roman Catholic Returns 1680, 1706, 1767, 1781 (HL/PO/JO/10) – The names of known or reputed Roman Catholics are listed for 1680 and 1706, but some may be suppressed for 1767 or not collected for 1781. For details see the National Index of Parish Registers, vol. 3 (1974), Historical Manuscripts Commission, Eleventh Report, Appendix, part 2, and E. S. Worrall, Returns of Papists, 1767: dioceses of England and Wales except Chester (Catholic Record Society, 1989). Durham examples
  22. 22. Surviving non parochial records collected in 1841 & 1857 and now held at TNA Online on BMD Registers
  23. 23. Newspapers • British Library British Newspaper Archives • Times on Line 24
  24. 24. 25 Search by place - Whitstable
  25. 25. Daily Courant appeared in 1702 but several provincial towns had weekly papers dating earlier than this. The Norwich Post (later the Gazette) was first published in 1701. Berrow’s Worcester Journal began as the Worcester Post in 1690 and the Stamford Mercury dates from 1695. Birmingham has papers dating back to 1741, Canterbury to 1729, Chelmsford to 1764, Carmarthen to 1770, Chester to 1739, Colchester to 1736, Exeter to1711, Ipswich to 1720, Kingston upon Hull to 1746, Leeds to 1720, Leicester to 1775, Lincoln and Liverpool to1712 26
  26. 26. 27 Gloucester Journal 1830
  27. 27. Burney Collection • The newspapers and news pamphlets gathered by the Reverend Charles Burney 1757-1817 are the largest single collection of 17th and 18th century English news media available from the British Library. The 700 or so bound volumes of newspapers and pamphlets were mainly published in London. However there are also some provincial papers included within the 127 titles in the collection. It is surprising how many obituaries or biographical entries for people outside London can be found in some of the London papers included in the collection such as the Morning Chronicle or London Evening Post. The collection is available free to UK Higher and Further Education institutions and can be searched by name and place in the Connected Histories website although its optical character recognition does render some names and places rather peculiarly as can be seen in the screen shot from the Connected Histories site below. http://www.connectedhistories.org/resource. aspx?sr=bu 28
  28. 28. • Some smaller local newspapers, although not digitized with images, do have online indexes. Bath and North East Somerset Council has indexed copies of the Bath Chronicle held at the Bath Record Office from 1770-1800 with abstracts. You can search the index at http://www.bathnes.gov.u k/leisureandculture/record sarchives/georgian 29
  29. 29. Gentleman’s Magazine • Gentleman's Magazine started in 1731, a Britain- focused miscellany of information about people, places and events, including news summaries, parliamentary reports, biographies, birth, marriage, death and obituary notices, poems, essays, and a register of current publications. • The Gentleman’s Magazine has been partly digitised and indexed through the world wide web and many volumes can be found through Google Books and the Internet Archive but there are gaps in the runs available on various sites. The best links to finding text of this magazine is http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/serial?id =gentlemans • Local extracts from the Gentlemans’s Magazine were edited and published as 15 or so volumes called the Gentleman’s Magazine Library. Arranged by regional and/or county volumes the Library volumes do not include all the obituaries and names from births marriages and deaths mentioned in each magazine. The GM Library volumes have been digitized widely including on Ancestry. However its OCR does not always enable a reader to establish the context of the entry of a name that is found and the browsing functionality for each volume is very poor. • There are cumulative subject indexes for the period 1731-1818 at various places online. The College of Arms holds a 75 volume index to names appearing in the magazine which was typed up by the Genealogical Society of Utah. This has been microfilmed and microfiched and should therefore be available through your local LDS family history centre. You can find information about this on the Family History Library Catalogue available through www.familysearch.org. 30
  30. 30. Musgrave’s Obituaries MUSGRAVE’S OBITUARIES. A very useful source for obituaries for this period is a series of volumes known as Musgrave’s Obituaries published by the Harleian Society (Harleian Society Volumes 44-49) – or to give it its full tile Obituary prior to 1800 (as far as relates to England, Scotland, and Ireland) as compiled by Sir William Musgrave 6th Bart of Hayton Castle and entitled by him “A General Nomenclature and Obituary” with reference to the books where the persons are mentioned and where some account of their character is to be found edited by Sir George J Armitage Bart FSA. Based on a manuscript compiled by Musgrave now held at the British Library these printed volumes are full of obituary notices published before 1800. Many are taken from journals and magazines of the period particularly The Annual Register, the European Magazine and London Review, the Gentleman’s Magazine and published biographies of the period. Musgrave’s Obituaries has been largely digitized on various sites. A full text version appears on the Internet Archive. http://www.archive.org/stream/obituarypriorto01socigoog/ obituarypriorto01socigoog_djvu.txt Finding the magazine that contains the original obituary can be difficult. The Society of Genealogists has some of the sources cited but it can mean “trawling the Internet” or good reference libraries for others. 31
  31. 31. Local Directories • Lists of people “flourishing” in a certain time and place • 18th-20th Century • County and Large Cities • Large collection at Guildhall, SoG (both have plans to digitise) • Several publishers – Kelly/Post Office, Piggot & Co
  32. 32. Every man in his place
  33. 33. Search Directories on line www.historicaldirectories.org
  34. 34. Poll Books • Act of 1696 introduced published poll books designed to prevent fraud showing how electors had voted. Returning officers allowed printers to publish poll books commercially The Poll for the Knights of the Shire to represent the county of Leicestershire 1775
  35. 35. Many poll books digitised follow county/voting registers links on GENUKI Also Essex University History Data Service. Local archives, CDs etc. SoG Data online includes PDFs of SoG holdings Norfolk voting registers
  36. 36. Borough Freemen • Apprenticeship • Matrimony • Patrimony • Redemption • Bristol, Canterbury, Coventry, York etc Canterbury Freemen
  37. 37. Freeholders/Jurors • A property qualification for jurors was first established in 1225. From 1692 jurors had to possess land in freehold, copyhold or life tenure worth at least £10 per year and from 1730 qualification extended to include long term lease holders. From 1696 Constables required to return and certify at the first Quarter Session after Michelmas a list of persons between 21 and 70 qualified to serve with names, rank, occupation and sometimes house or street. • From 1825 jury service restricted to men 21-70 with freehold property worth £10 or leasehold worth £20or householders with houses worth £30 per annum and in Middlesex assess for the duty on inhabited houses or, in other places, for the poor rate • Lists of qualified jurors made by parish overseers of the poor and certified by 2 justices sent to Clerk of the Peace to be copied into the jurors book. • Search CRO catalogues – Many QS records catalogues into Access to Archives or A2A
  38. 38. Middlesex Free holders LMA film X66/1-7 cat ref MR/F/B 001-14 Oussulton Hundred - Tower Dvn
  39. 39. Inhabitants of Ardleigh …1796 “In consequence of the avowed intention of the French to make descent upon this coast … I have thought it my duty to number my parishioners; which I have done by domiciliary visitation…” see Ardleigh in 1796 its farms, families and local government” by F H Erith , ES/L 71. See Ardleigh One Place Study and cf 1811 & 1821 censuses, directories etc.
  40. 40. Census Substitutes • Lists of Names – Church & Parish • Marriage duty assessments on births, marriages and burials 1695-1706 • Nonconformists and Papists • Loyal Protestants • Tithes • Communicants & Easter Books • Provision for parish poor particularly after introduction of the “Speenhamland system” introduced in 1796 as outdoor poor relief provided according to size of families
  41. 41. Militia Lists from 1757 – adult males • Militia Ballot Lists 1757-1831 – 1757-175:NAMES & INFIRMITITES – 1758-1802: NAMES, OCCUPATIONS & INFIRMITIES – 1802-1806: NAMES, DESCRIPTIONS,INFIRMITIES, No of CHILDREN OVER & UNDER 14, (and in household forms ages) – 1806-1831: NAMES, DESCRIPTIONS,INFIRMITIES, No of CHILDREN OVER & UNDER 14, • Defence Lists (Posse Comitatus) 1798 &1803-4 • Musters 1781-82 [WO/13]
  42. 42. Wing – One Place Study includes Posse Cometatus, poll books and land tax
  43. 43. Taxation records • Local Parish Rates or Assessments • Land tax 1780-1820 (few from 1698) • Window tax from 1697-1851 • Stamp Duties from 1695 e.g. lawyers articles of clerkship 1730-1838 (TNA CP5), Apprentices 1710-1811 ( TNA IR1) • Assesses tax payers paying tax on – Coaches, Silver plate, Male Servants David Garrick paid £6 in tax for the year 5 April 1756 on his four wheeled chariot and two wheeled chase (TNA T47/2) See Jeremy Gibson Land and Window Tax Assessments
  44. 44. Window Tax – a tax on air! Given the unpopularity of a tax which allowed inspectors to come your home to count the number of hearths a new tax was introduced in 1696 which cunningly was not an intrusion because you could assess the number of windows from the outside. Initially the window tax was more successful than hearth tax but people became skilled at avoiding tax by blocking up windows. A version of the window tax went on until 1851 although collection was not strictly enforced at the end of its life. To start off all occupiers paid 2 shillings with householders having between 10-20 windows paying 8 shillings. The dues were tinkered with over the period as people got better at blocking windows. Like the hearth tax the window tax was inefficient and didn’t raise the expected revenues. Protests were made against this tax on light and air. Window tax records can be found locally.
  45. 45. East Sussex Window Tax 1747
  46. 46. Land Tax • Introduced in the seventeenth century (1693) and only finally abolished in the mid twentieth century the records are of most use for the period 1780-1832 (before and after this date returns are fragmentary). For this period the records doubled as “electoral registers” of those who were entitled to vote and are stored in the quarter session records at county record offices. Returns for the tax in 1798 were copied by the Inland Revenue and hence returns for this year for the whole country can be found at the National Archives (IR 23). Many returns for the counties have been published by local history or family history societies. See the Gibson Guide Land and Window Tax Assessments 1691-1950.
  47. 47. Land Tax exemptions @TNA • IR 23 a snapshot of Land Tax payers in the year 1798-99 which lists all owners of property subject to land tax in England and Wales when the tax became a fixed annual charge and many people purchased exemptions. • IR 22 contains what are called the Parish Books of Redemptions 1799-1954 • IR 24 contains Registers of Redemptions Certificates 1799-1963. Both are partially indexed
  48. 48. Land Tax 1780-1832 Land Tax Assessment Redemption Contracts for the parish of St Ives 1799-1805 taken from Cornish Land Tax Assessments in Cornwall County Record Office AD 103/228- 229 [microfilm copy at Society of Genealogists MF 1564]. The land tax was first regularly imposed in 1693 but is most useful from the period after 1780 when duplicates of the returns were lodged with the Clerk of the Peace at Quarter Sessions so they could be used to establish the residential and landowning qualifications to vote at Parliamentary elections and hence it is only for this period that there is any uniformity in the records’ survival. The original assessments for Cornwall have not survived so these redemption contracts are of unique importance.
  49. 49. Local Lists - Parish examples at SoG from “parish chest”
  50. 50. Parish Poor Rates and Assessments • Overseers of the Poor empowered to raise assessments or rates in order to meet demands of poor relief. Had to submit accounts to the vestry. System started in reign of Q Elizth and continued beyond Poor Law amendment Act of 1834 (though reformed in 1836 to provide accompanying maps assessing properties and set annual rateable values) but was not abolished until 1927
  51. 51. Parish Assessments who’s liable for the Poor Pate Deal 1821
  52. 52. Parish Highway Rates • From 1555 parishes were obliged to appoint a surveyor of the highways for each parish or township who was empowered to collect local rates and submit accounts. He supervised local labour to maintain their roads.
  53. 53. Local Lists
  54. 54. Bradford on Avon
  55. 55. www.one-place-studies.org
  56. 56. Using some of the sources for the parish of Wing we can devise timelines for men called William Heley :- • Heley William (maltster and corn dealer, farmer & grazier) appears in directories from 1830-1877 • William Heley is included in the 1830 Poll for the Knight of the Shire • William Heley is noted in the Land Tax for 1830, 1820 • William Heley senior and Junior are noted in the Land Tax for 1810 • 2 men called William Heley appear in the Posse Comitatus of 1798 • William Heley appears in the 1784 poll book (probably William Senior?) • A William Haley appears in the 1722 poll book – – Unfortunately the registers for the parish are defective for the years 1753-1769. We would need to compare the above entries with surviving parish registers (especially later burials), Victorian censuses and wills to see if there are in fact 3 generations of William Heley in this parish between1722-1877 or is the run of generations filled by one of the other Heleys in the parish?
  57. 57. Stamp Duties & Assessed Taxes • Stamp Duties from 1695 e.g. lawyers articles of clerkship 1730- 1838 (TNA CP5), Apprentices 1710-1811 ( TNA IR1) • Silver plate 1756-77 (TNA T/47/5-7) • Playing cards and dice (TNA T/47/2-4) • Employment of male servants 1777-1852 (TNA T/47/8) • Employment of female servants 1785-92 • Gamekeepers 1784-1807 • Horses 1784-1884 • Coats of arms 1793-1892 • Hair Powder 1785-8 • Dogs 1796-1882 • Clocks and Watches 1797-8
  58. 58. Garrick Family paying duties Tax on employing male servants indexed at SoG 1780 lists numbers but not names of servants Duty on coaches, Berlins, chariots, laundaus, etc
  59. 59. Garrick Pedigree by Stella Colwell Family Roots, Discovering the Past in the PRO, 1991
  60. 60. www.oldbaileyonline.org 1674-1834
  61. 61. www.connectedhistories.org.
  62. 62. 69 Civil Litigation Chancery – Bernau Index
  63. 63. 70 How to use the Bernau index
  64. 64. 71 Bernau index: eg. from correspondence notebooks
  65. 65. 72 TNA Trafalgar database
  66. 66. 73 Militia Lists from 1757 • Militia Ballot Lists 1757-1831 – 1757-1758:NAMES & INFIRMITITES – 1758-1802: NAMES, OCCUPATIONS & INFIRMITIES – 1802-1806: NAMES, DESCRIPTIONS,INFIRMITIES, No of CHILDREN OVER & UNDER 14, (and in household forms ages) – 1806-1831: NAMES, DESCRIPTIONS,INFIRMITIES, No of CHILDREN OVER & UNDER 14, • Defence Lists 1798 &1803-4 • Musters 1781-82 [WO/13] • WO 96 Militia on FMP
  67. 67. 74 Trinity House Petitions Merchant seamen & their families 1780-1890
  68. 68. SoG/Findmypast • 1831 census project • Plans to digitise SoG holdings of directories, poll-books, almanacs and other lists that will complement the fragmentary 1831 census • Any volunteers? » See Librarian

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