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  • 1. TEACHER-STUDENT RELATIONSHIPS: STUDENTS' PERCEPTION OF TEACHER'S LEADERSHIP STYLES AND THE EFFECTS ON THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN SEKSYEN 7, SHAH ALAM, SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN, MALAYSIA ELNIZIANA BINTI SUPAR 2013764701 FACULTY OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA SHAH ALAM 2014 1
  • 2. CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................3 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY .........................................................................................................3 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM......................................................................................4 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES...................................................................................................................5 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS....................................................................................................................5 1.4 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS ...............................................................................................................................................................6 1.4.0 Educational Leadership............................................................................................................6 1.4.1 Academic Performance............................................................................................................6 1.4.2 Student....................................................................................................................................6 1.4.3 Teacher....................................................................................................................................7 1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.............................................................................................................7 1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY............................................................................................................7 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW....................................................................................................9 2.0 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF TEACHERS...............................................................10 2.1 TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF TEACHERS .....................................................................11 2.2 LEADERSHIP STYLES OF TEACHER EFFECTING STUDENTS' PERFORMANCE...................................13 2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY..................................................................................14 CHAPTER THREE : METHODOLOGY......................................................................................................15 3.0 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................15 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN.........................................................................................................................15 3.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT................................................................................................................15 3.2.0 Validity...................................................................................................................................16 3.2.1 Reliability...............................................................................................................................16 3.3 RESEARCH SUBJECT (POPULATION & SAMPLE)..............................................................................17 3.4 RESEARCH PROCEDURE .................................................................................................................17 REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................................18 APPENDIX............................................................................................................................................20 2
  • 3. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The significance of effective leadership for the successful academic performance among schools and colleges students has been increasingly acknowledged in the twenty-first century. The concept of effective leadership styles have been highlighted and stressed by many countries around the world in a variety ways in their daily organizational programs, activities, and performance. In Malaysia, education plays a central role in our country pursuit of economic growth and national development. There is rapid and increasing awareness in various sectors and fields, including the educational institutions such as universities, colleges, schools, and others, which indirectly related to educational domain (Wan Hanum Suraya & Jamal Nordin Yunus, 2012). Based on Priminilary Report of Malaysia Education Blueprint (2013-2025), the Ministry of Education launched a comprehensive review of the education system in Malaysia last October 2011 in order to develop a new National Education Blueprint. This decision was made in the context of rising international education standards, the Government’s aspiration of better preparing Malaysia’s children for the needs of the twenty-first century, and increased public and parental expectations of education policy. As the CfBT 35th Anniversary Research Series editor Dr Arran Hamilton stated (The Malaysian Insider, 2014), there are examples of local schools that have above average student achievement levels in both international and local assessments and they do this within the existing framework. The secret to their success is strong pedagogical leadership. This is supported by CfBT’s study revealed that teachers in schools where trust is high have a greater willingness to try new things; a greater sense of responsibility for their students; more outreach to parents; and a stronger professional community (more shared work, more conversations about teaching and learning, and a stronger collective focus on student learning). 3
  • 4. Education has the capacity to profoundly impact lives, more than ever teachers can make a huge impact in the lives of their students and motivate them to become successful and respected persons. Apart from being able to impart and share their knowledge, teachers also have the opportunity to build meaningful relationships with their students (The Star Online, 2013). 1.1 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM The performance of a school depends on the ability of its teachers. Did the teacher- student relationship have a significant connection to the success of students? Authority is a power (Walberg & Anderson, 1968) and classroom can be considered as an ordinary organization where authority retain with the teacher as manager over the students (Jenkins & Lipitt, 1951). This decision making power of teacher maintains a specific psychological climate in classroom that affects students' performance as Walberg and Anderson (1968) found that students in a democratically organized class show better understanding during learning process. Unlike authoritative and arrogant teachers, the teachers who create a good rapport with their students have a positive impact on the academic performance of their students (Cogan, 1954). Unfortunately, in Malaysia there are few study carries out students' assesment and perception of their teachers towards the teachers' leadership style in secondary school. This can made point of view that study about this matter is crucial and should be carry out in this country because there is no better predictor of a nation’s future than what is currently happening in its classrooms which we know from the students themselves. As the Senior and student body vice president at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA, Jonathan Jeffrey pointed out in The Huffington Post on October 10, 2011, through evaluating their teachers, can provide insight to their instructors on what they are doing well and how they need to improve. How significant is the teachers' leadership styles in effecting students' academic performance towards the Malaysia's (Selangor) secondary school? 4
  • 5. This study aims to investigate the perceptions of students' towards the teacher's leadership styles in effecting students achievement in schools. To further stipulate, it seek to examine the relationship between teacher's leadership styles and students academic performance. Due to the wide variation in secondary school types, similar studies with other secondary schools may yield different, and potentially more positive results. 1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES The primary objective of the study is to obtain a clear picture of teacher's leadership styles in secondary school from the students' perspective and how its effects on their achievement in school. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: 1. To assess the teacher's leadership styles in school from the students' perspective. 2. To determine student's perception about their academic performance. 3. To examine the relationship between teacher's leadership style and the effects on students academic performance. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study is aimed to discover the answer to these following research questions: 1. What are the teacher's leadership styles in school from the students' perspective? 2. What is the student's perception about their academic performance? 3. Is there any significant relationship between teacher's leadership style and the effects on students academic performance? 5
  • 6. 1.4 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS 1.4.0 Educational Leadership According to the Theories of Educational Leadership and Management book fourth edition, 2011 written by Tony Bush, Gunter (2004) shows that the labels used to define this field have changed from 'educational administration' to 'educational management' and more recently, to 'educational leadership'. In England, this shift is exemplified most strongly by the opening of the National College for School Leadership in 200, describe as a 'paradigm shift' by Bolam (2004). There are many different conceptualizations of leadership, leading Yukl (2002:4-5) to argue that 'the definition of leadership is arbitrary and very subjective. Some definitions are more useful than others, but there is no "correct" definition'. Three dimensions of leadership may be identified as a basis for developing a working definition. 1.4.1 Academic Performance According to Wan & Jamal, 2012 academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important — procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. 1.4.2 Student A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In some nations, the English term (or its cognate in another language) is reserved for those who attend university, while a schoolchild under the age of eighteen is called a pupil in English (or an equivalent in other languages). In its widest use, student is 6
  • 7. used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university (Jenkins & Lipitt, 1951). 1.4.3 Teacher A teacher (also called a schoolteacher) is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and students (adults). The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications or credentials from a university or college (Jeffery, 2011). 1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY This study included numerous limitations which are limitation in the size of the study population as the study was restricted to secondary school in Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia and the study sample are secondary schools students with age range of teenagers (13-17 years old) where a lot of school students might not be mature enough to evaluate their teacher's in a constructive and appropriate way without personal attacks. 1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY The study is important to educational leadership specifically among teachers because strong teacher's leadership was perceived to be one of the most important contributory factors to a school’s success. This study will help most schools to identified the important factors include a more disciplined environment, better academic approach in teaching and learning process, teachers’ dedication and cooperation, team spirit, good teacher-student relationship. This vision, and these aspirations by the teachers and students, will set the stage for the transformation of the Malaysian education system. Moreover, study will revealed leadership of teachers is important in determining the high-academic performance of students in examinations emphasis on 7
  • 8. the importance students’ improved attitude towards education in schools, both academic and non-academic. From this study, teachers can learn how to improve their instruction quality, without fearing retribution from administrators. The students' assessment and perceptions towards them can be a tool for growth, not as a cause of stress. 8
  • 9. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW As with educational management, the vast literature on leadership has generated a number of alternative, and competing, models. Some writers have required to cluster these various conceptions into a number of broad themes or types. The best known of these typologies is that by Leithwood, Jantzi, and Steinbach (1999), who identified sis 'models' from their scruntiny of 121 articles in four international journals. Bush and Glover (2002) extended this typology to eight models. Table 2.1 elaborates these typologies to identify 10 leadership models and sets them against the six management models. Management model Leadership model (styles) Formal Managerial Collegial Participative Transformational Distributed Political Transactional Subjective Postmodern Emotional Ambiguity Contingency Cultural Moral Instructional Table 2.1 Typolgy of management and leadership models 9
  • 10. This study focuses on two distinct class leadership styles of teachers which are Transformational and Transactional which they follow to influence the students and eventually their academic performance. 2.0 TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF TEACHERS This form of leadership assumes that the central focus of leadership ought to be the commitments and capacities of organisational members. Higher levels of personal commitment to organisational goals and greater capacities for accomplishing those goals are assumed to result in extra effort and greater productivity (Leithwood, Jantzi, and Steinbach, 1999). Leithwood (1994) conceptualizes transformational leadership along eight dimensions: 1. Building school vission 2. Establishing school goals 3. Providing intellectual stimulation 4. Offering individualized support 5. Modelling best practices and important organizational values 6. Demonstarting high performance expectations 7. Creating a productive school culture 8. Developing structures to foster participation inschool decisions. Caldwell and Spinks (1992) argue that transformational leadership essential for autonomous schools, they stated that transformational leaders succeed in gaining the commitment of followers to such a degree that...higher levels of acomplishment become virtually a moral imperative. In our view a powerful capacity for 10
  • 11. transformational leadershipis required for the successful transition to a system of self- managing schools. The transformational model is comprehensive in that it provides a normative approach to school leadership which focuses primarily on the process by which leaders seek to influence school outcomes, rather than on the nature or direction of those outcomes (Tony, 2011). However, it may also be criticized as being a vehicle for control over teachers and more likely to be accepted by the leader that the led (Chirichello, 1999). Allix (2000) goes further and alleges that transformational leadership has the potential to become 'despotic' because of its strong, heroic and charismatic features. He believes that the leader's power power have to raise 'moral qualms' and serious doubts about its appropriatness for democratic organizations. Transformational leadership is consistent with the collegial model in that is assumes that leaders and staff have shared values and common interests. When it works well, it has the potential to engage all stakeholders in the acheivement of educational objectives. "The strongest advocacy of a transformational approach to reform has come from those whose policies ensure that the opportunity for transformation is in fact denied to people working in schools" (Hoyle & Wallace, 2005). 2.1 TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLE OF TEACHERS The leadership model most closely aligned with micropolitics is that of transactional leadership. This is often contrasted with the transformational leadership styles explained in previous sub topic of literature review. Miller and Miller (2001) explain these twin phenomena: "Transactional leadership is leadership in which relationships with teachers are based upon an exchange for some valued resource. To the teacher interaction between administrators and teachers is usually episodic short-lived and limited to the exchange 11
  • 12. transaction. Transformational leadership is more potent and complex and occurs when one or more teachers engage with others in such a way that administrations and teachers raise one another to higher levels of commitment and dedication. motivation and morality. Through the transforming process, the motives of the leader and follower merge." Miller and Miller's (2001) definition refers to transactional leadership as an exchange process while Judge and Piccolo (2004) add that transactional leaders 'focus on the proper exchange of resources'. Exchange is an established political strategy for members of organizations. Heads and principals possess authority arising from their positions as the formal leaders of their institutions. They also hold power in the form of key rewards such as promotion and references. However, the head requires the co-operation of staff to secure the effective management of the school. An exchange may secure benefits for both parties to the arrangement. Judge and Piccolo (2004) say that there are three dimensions of transactional leadership: 1. Contingent reward. The degree to which the leader sets up constructive exchanges with followers. 2. Management by exception - active. Active leader monitor follower behaviour, anticipate problems, and take corrective actions. 3. Management by exception - passive. Passive leaders wait until the behaviour has caused problems before taking action. Bolivar and Moreno (2006) report on leadership in Spain, where principals are elected by teachers and the community. Despite the apparent democratic legitimacy of this process, the authors reports that principals are in 'permanent transaction' with colleagues, and that such processes inhibit change. The major limitation of transactional leadership is that it does not engage staff beyond the immediate gains arising from the transaction. As Miller and Miller's definition implies, it does not produce long-term commitment to the values and vision being promoted by school leaders. 12
  • 13. However, Bass (1998) stresses that leaders often use both transformational and transactional approaches: 'Consistent of transactional agreements builds trust, dependability, and perceptions of consistency with leader by followers, which are each a basis for transformational leadership'. Judge and Piccolo (2004) conclude that 'transformational and transactional leadership are so highly related that it makes it difficult to separate their unique effects'. 2.2 LEADERSHIP STYLES OF TEACHER EFFECTING STUDENTS' PERFORMANCE Authority is the power basically (Walberg and Anderson, 1968) and classroom can be considered as an ordinary organization where authority retains with the teacher as manager over the students (Jenkins and Lipitt, 1951). The decision making power of teacher maintains a specific psychological climate in classroom that affects students' performance as Walberg and Anderson (1968) found that students in a democratically organized class show better understanding of what they are taught. Unlike authoritative and arrogant teachers, the teachers who create a good rapport with their student have a positive impact on the academic performance of their students (Cogan, 1954). Authoritative style of teacher's leadership is translated into distant and directive relationship of teacher with his students. Authoritative teacher is task oriented who just dictates the course of interaction in classroom (Krech and Crutchfield, 1962). Outcome of this style has been observed as anxiety; frustration; aggression; tension and fighting among the students (Ekpe, 1982). Hence, the major determinant of students' productivity is the behavior of teacher (Ann, 1974, Bergan and Dunn, 1976). The deliberate decisions such as strong, healthy, harmonious and two way interactions between teacher and students affect the outcome of students that significantly base upon teacher-student relationship (Flander, 1965: Poter & Applewhite, 1968; Donaldson and Elias, 1976; Gronlund, 1985). 13
  • 14. Being a leader, a teacher decides the course of interaction between teacher and student and among students as well and acts as a moderator in the classroom to keep the communication and ways of interaction aligned with the overall study targets set for the students. Democratic style of teacher's leadership promote the co-operation among students and thus, improved relationship reinforce their learning experience and outcomes (Gronlund, 1985). Teacher being a moderator provides autonomy of self expression to interact within the peer groups. Greater the autonomy given to students for maintaining their peer group relationships, the more they feel socially accepted and satisfied both in personal and work related matters. This, in turn, affects their academic output (Walberg and Anderson, 1968). 2.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY The study believes that teachers' leadership styles affecting students' academic performance. When the students perception is good towards their teachers leadership styles, they are more likely to become a perform and excellent students in the school. In other words, leadership style of the school teachers influence on students' academic achievement in their school. 14 Teachers' Leadership Styles Students' Academic Performance
  • 15. CHAPTER THREE : METHODOLOGY 3.0 INTRODUCTION Research methodology used in the study is described in this chapter. Specifically the research design, quantitative research are described. The instrument used to collect data, including methods implemented to maintain validity and reliability of the instrument, are explained. 3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN A quantitative approach is used in the research design by employing a survey as a research design. The survey design is used to collect data for describing population of SMK Seksyen 7, Shah Alam from a sample of students from Form 1 to Form 5 in the school. In this study the primary data is collected through 100 questionnaires distributed to the randomly selected students. This design is chosen to meet the objectives of the study, which are to assess the teacher's leadership styles in school from the students' perspective, to determine student's perception about their academic performance and to examine the relationship between teacher's leadership style and the effects on students academic performance. 3.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT A questionnaire is chosen as data collection instrument. The questionnaires included a variety of questions to measured the respective constructs. The questionnaire consists of three sections and will be calculated by using the sum of the relevant questions on the likert scale. First section, aims to find the factor scores for leadership style using the standard MLQ (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) adopted from Siew (1998). Second ection, aims to measure the pattern level of students' perception of their teacher and academic performance with the Questionnaire on Teacher 15
  • 16. Interaction (QTI). To map interpersonal teacher behavior, the QTI was designed according to the two- dimensional Leary model. In the last section of questionnaire, the research focus on in examining the relationship between teacher's leadership style and the effects on students academic performance by using correlation which the linear relationship between two quantitative variables, was used to assess the variations in one variable as the second variable changes. The subjects are required to complete all sections of questionnaire. The information obtained could assist the researcher when interpreting results. The Bahasa Malaysia version was also provided for the respondents’ better comprehension of understanding. Realizing that the respondents consist of different demographic and socio-economic background, the study also incorporated certain demographic variables in the questionnaire. 3.2.0 Validity To achieve content validity, all the items were constructed based on the constructs developed by Suraya & Yunus, 2012 in their research about Principal Leadership Styles in High-Academic Performance of Selected Secondary Schools in Kelantan Darulnaim. The constructs were extracted from the literature review as illustrated in the conceptual framework ( in Chapter Two). The criterion validity of instrument was tested. A well-known instrument, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to explore how individual survey items constitute to certain construct management which means for the testing of criterion validity. 3.2.1 Reliability The reliability of questionnaires was observed from the consistency in responses. Test retest method was used to reveal the consistency. In this study, an internal consistency measures called Crobach's Alpha will be used which the value 0.6 or higher is an acceptable measure to prove the instruments' reliability. 16
  • 17. 3.3 RESEARCH SUBJECT (POPULATION & SAMPLE) The study population consists of SMK Seksyen 7 in Shah Alam. A random sample consists of Snowball sampling which researcher can find one to undertake the survey and the researcher will ask the sample to help find with a similar traits of interest. The sample includes 20 students represent form each Form 1, Form 2, Form 3, Form 4 and Form 5 in the school which made the total of 100 samples. 3.4 RESEARCH PROCEDURE Data collection technique: The supervisor of the research will approved the collection of the data and proper procedures will be followed to ensure the ethics of this study. All participants (students and teachers) were notified of the purpose of the study, which will clearly defined. Student confidentiality was closely guarded and will obtained permissions from the right parties. This study will use student state testing numbers for data collection, and will protect the identity of participants. The school granted permission for this study by gaining approval from the division superintendent of the school division. The final draft of questionnaire will deliver to the school board office of the school before conduct the actual survey. The assistant principal will received the survey, read all directions, go through all the questions and will decide either all the questions are appropriate to their school's context. Once approved, the researcher will run the survey at the school and personally distribute questionnaires to the respondents and continue with the data analysis. The data collected over a period of five school days. 17
  • 18. REFERENCES Bolam, R. (2004). Reflection on the NCSL from a historical perpective. Educational Management, Administration and Leadership , 251-68. Cogan, M. (1954). Preparation for college in the United States. Higher Education Quarterly , 251-264. Gunter, H. (2004). Labels and labelling in the feild of educational leadership. Discourse - Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education , 21-41. Jenkins D.H. & Lipitt. (1951). Interpersonal perception of teacher, student and parent. Washington DC: National Education Association. Jeffrey, J. (2011, Obtober 10). Why Students Should Evaluate Their Teachers. Retrieved April 13, 2014, from The Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jonathan- jeffrey/why-students-should-evalu_b_1003787.html Leadership in schools is critical to transformation – CfBT Education Malaysia. (2014, April 15). Retrieved April 13, 2014, from The Malaysia Insider: http://www.themalaysianinsider.com/sideviews/article/leadership-in-schools-is- critical-to-transformation-cfbt-education-malaysia Teachers can make a huge impact in their students’ lives. (2013, May 16). Retrieved April 13, 2014, from The Star Online: http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2013/05/16/Teachers-can-make-a-huge- impact-in-their-students-lives.aspx/ Walberg H.J. & Anderson G.J. (1968). Classroom climate and individual learning. Journal of Educational Psychology , 414-419. Wan Hanum Suraya & Jamal Nordin Yunus. (2012). Principal's Leadership Styles in High- Academic Performance of Selected Secondary Schools in Kelantan Darulnaim. International Journal of Independent Research and Studies - IJIRS , 57-67. Bush, T. & Glover, D. (2002). School Leadership: Concepts and Evidence. Nottingham: NCSL. 18
  • 19. Leithwod, K., Jantzi, D. and Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing Leadership for Changing Times. Buckingham: Open University Press. Bush, T. (2011). Theories of Educational Leadership & Management. SAGE Publication Ltd. Chirichello, M. (1999). Building capacity for change: transformational leadership for school principals'. ICSEI. San Antonio. Hoyle, E. and Wallace, M. (2005). Educational Leadershio: Ambiguity, Professionals and Managerialism. London: SAGE Publication Ltd. Miller, T.W. and Miller, J.M . (2001). Educational leadership in the new millennium: a vision for 2020. International Journal of Leadership in Education , 4(2): 181-9. Krech, D. Crutchfield, L. (1962). Individuals in society: A textbook of social psycology. New York: McGraw Hill. Ann.J.K. (1974). Sex differences in performance ability test as a function of masculity, feminity and androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 4, 42-51. Bergan, J. and Dunn, J. (1976). Psychology and Education: A science for instruction. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Donald Son, B. and Elias, R.F. (1976). Mood and memory in learning. Sal Francisco: The Free Press. Ekpe E.S, (1982). The personal characteristics of secondary school principals and their relationship to teachers' participation in decision making in secondary schools in Calabar Municipality. Unpunlished M.Ed Thesis University of Calabar . Flender N.A., (1965). Teachers' influence on students' altitudes and acheivement. Coop.Res.Mono , 12:17-21. Gronlund N.E, (1985). Measurement and Evaluation in Teaching. New York: Macmillan Press. Porter D.E & Applewhite P.A. (1968). Studies of organizational behavior and management. Scranton: Textbook press. 19
  • 20. APPENDIX 20