Barthes roland -_fragmentos_de_un_discurso_amoroso

88
-1

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
88
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Barthes roland -_fragmentos_de_un_discurso_amoroso

  1. 1. )5$*0(1726 '(81 ',68562$025262 SRU 52/$1'%$57+(6 Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  2. 2. WUDGXFFLyQGH ('8$5'202/,1$ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  3. 3. VLJORYHLQWLXQRHGLWRUHVVDGHFY (552'(/$*8$'(/(*$,Ï122$È10e;,2') VLJORYHLQWLXQRGHHVSDxDHGLWRUHVVD $//(3/$=$0$'5,'(63$f$ HGLFLyQDOFXLGDGRGHPDUWLVROHUSRUWDGDGH DQKHORKHUQiQGH] SULPHUDHGLFLyQHQHVSDxRO GHFLPRSULPHUDHGLFLyQHQHVSDxRO ‹VLJOR[[LHGLWRUHVVDGHFY LVEQ SULPHUDHPFLyQHQIUDQFpV ‹pGLWLRQVGX VHXLWSDUtV WtWXORRULJLQDOIUDJPHQWVG·XQGtVFRXUVDPRXUHX[ GHUHFKRVUHVHUYDGRVFRQIRUPHDODOH LPSUHVRKHFKRHQPp[LFRSULQWHGDQGPDGHLQPH[LFR Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  4. 4. ÌQGLFHV ÌQGLFHV yPRHVWiKHFKRHVWHOLEUR )LJXUDV 2UGHQ 5HIHUHQFLDV ´0HDELVPRVXFXPERµ ´(QODFDOPDWLHUQDGHWXVEUD]RVµ ´£$GRUDEOHµ /R,QWUDWDEOH 8QSHTXHxRSXQWRGHODQDUL] $JRQ $PDUHODPRU 6HUDVFpWLFR $WRSRV (ODXVHQWH /DFDUWDGHDPRU /DFDWiVWURIH /RVFHORV /DHWLWLD ´7XWWLVLVWHPDWLµ ´0HGXHOHHORWURµ ´4XLHURFRPSUHQGHUµ ´¢4XpKDFHUµ /DFRQQLYHQFLD ´XDQGRPLGHGRSRUGHVFXLGR $FRQWHFLPLHQWRVUHYHVHVFRQWUDULHGDGHV (OFRUD]yQ (OFXHUSRGHORWUR /DFRQYHUVDFLyQ /DGHGLFDWRULD ´6RPRVQXHVWURVSURSLRVGHPRQLRVµ 'RPQHL (OGHVROODGR (ODOED (OPXQGRDWyQLWR ¢'ROLGR 1RYHODGUDPD £4XpD]XOHUDHOFLHOR (OEXTXHIDQWDVPD +DFHUXQDHVFHQD ,QH[SUHVDEOHDPRU Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  5. 5. /D HVSHUD (OH[LOLRGHOR,PDJLQDULR )DGLQJ )DOWDV /DQDUDQMD ´'tDVHOHJLGRVµ /DH[XEHUDQFLD /D*UDGLYD /DKDEODGXUtD ,GHQWLILFDFLRQHV /DV,PiJHQHV /RLQFRJQRVFLEOH ´0XpVWUDPHDTXLpQGHVHDUµ 7UDMHD]XOFKDOHFRDPDULOOR (OLQIRUPDQWH ´(VWRQRSXHGHFRQWLQXDUµ /DODQJXLGH]GHODPRU ´(VWRORFRµ /DORFXHOD (ORJLRGHODVOiJULPDV /D~OWLPDKRMD ´6RRGLRVRµ ´8QDLUHHPEDUD]DGRµ 6LQUHVSXHVWD ´ODQRFKHDOXPEUDEDODQRFKHµ 1XEHV /DFLQWD /RREVFHQRGHODPRU /RVOHQWHVRVFXURV ¢3RUTXp ¢3RUTXp 6REULDHEULHWDV (OUDSWR ´(OXFHYDQOHVWHOOHµ /DUHVRQDQFLD ´7RGDVODVYROXSWXRVLGDGHVGHODWLHUUDµ ,GHDVGHVROXFLyQ /DLQFHUWLGXPEUHGHORVVLJQRV ´1LQJ~QVDFHUGRWHORDFRPSDxyµ ,GHDVGHVXLFLGLR 7DO 7HDPR 7HUQXUD 8QLyQ 9HUGDG 7DEXODJUDWXODWRULD Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  6. 6. $ELVPDUVH ³0($%,6026880%2´ /DGXO]XUD,VROGD1LQJXQDSDUWH 3HQVDPLHQWRIDOVRGHODPXHUWH)XQFLyQGHODELVPR $EUD]R ³(1 /$ $/0$ 7,(51$ '( 786 %5$=26´(ODGRUPHFLPLHQWR 'H XQ DEUD]RDORWURROPDGR $GRUDEOH ³£$'25$%/(´ 3DUtV HQ XQD PDxDQD GH RWRxR $WRWDO /D HVSHFLDOLGDGGHOGHVHR/DWDXWRORJtD $ILUPDFLyQ /2 ,175$7$%/( /D SURWHVWD GH DPRU 9LROHQFLD JRFH GH OR LPDJLQDULR/DIXHU]DQRUHVLGHHQHO,QWpUSUHWH9ROYDPRVD HPSH]DU $OWHUDFLyQ 813(48(f238172'(/$1$5,=(OSXQWRGHFRUUXSFLyQ9HUDORWUR VRPHWLGR ³+DFHUVH URPSHU HO WUDVHUR´ (O HQORTXHFLPLHQWR GHOVHU³0LVPXMHUFLWDV´ $QJXVWLD $*21/DDQJXVWLDFRPRYHQHQR3ULPLWLYHDJRQ $QXODFLyQ $0$5(/$025/DVGRVSDORPDV3URYHFKRSUHMXLFLR $VFHVLV 6(5$6e7,2DVWLJDUPHKDQWDMH $WRSRV $72326,QFODVLILFDEOH,QRFHQFLD/DUHODFLyQRULJLQDO $XVHQFLD (/$86(17((ODXVHQWHHVHORWUR¢8QGLVFXUVRIHPHQLQR(O ROYLGR6XVSLUDU0DQLSXODFLyQGHODDXVHQFLD(OGHVHR ODQHFHVLGDG/DLQYRFDFLyQ.RiQGHODFDEH]DEDMRHODJXD DUWD /$ $57$ '( $025 ³3LHQVR HQ XVWHG´ RUUHVSRQGHQFLD UHODFLyQ1RFRQWHVWDU DWiVWURIH /$$7É6752)('RVGHVHVSHUDQ]DV/DVLWXDFLyQH[WUHPD HORV /26(/26:HUWKHU$OEHUWR(OSDVWHOUHSDUWLGR5HKXVDUORV FHORV/RVFXDWURVXIULPLHQWRVGHOFHORVR LUFXQVFULELU /$(7,7,$*DXGLXPHW/DHWLWLD/DPLVHULDDPRURVD RORFDGRV ³7877,6,67(0$7,´O8Q MXHJRFUXHO 7RGDHVWUXFWXUDHVKDELWDEOH ,UULVRULRHQYLGLDEOH RPSDVLyQ ³0('8(/((/2752´/DXQLGDGGHVXIULPLHQWR£9LYDPRV/D GHOLFDGH]D RPSUHQGHU ³48,(52 2035(1'(5´ %DMR OD OiPSDUD 6DOLHQGR GHO FLQH 5HSUHVLyQ,QWHUSUHWDFLyQ 9LVLyQHOJUDQVXHxRFODUR RQGXFWD ³¢48e +$(5´2ELHQRELHQ3UHJXQWDVI~WLOHV3HUH]D RQQLYHQFLD /$ 211,9(1,$ $ODEDQ]DV PXWXDV ¢4XLpQ VREUD 2GLRVDPDWR Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  7. 7. RQWDFWRV ³8$1'2 0, '('2 325 '(68,'2´ /R TXH VH OH SLGH D OD SLHO RPRORVGHGRVGHXQSHOXTXHUR RQWLQJHQFLDV $217(,0,(17265(9(6(62175$5,('$'(63XHVWRTXH(OYHOR QHJUR GH OD 0DD /D HVWUXFWXUD QR OD FDXVD (O LQFLGHQWH FRPRKLVWHULD RUD]yQ (/25$=Ð18QyUJDQRHUpFWLO0LFRUD]yQFRQWUDPLHVStULWX eOFRUD]yQRSULPLGR XHUSR (/8(532'(/2752(OFXHUSRGLYLGLGR(VFUXWDU 'HFODUDFLyQ /$219(56$,Ð15RFHV/DSDODEUHUtDJHQHUDOL]DGD 'HGLFDWRULD /$'(',$725,$(OUHJDORDPRURVR%HFDXVH,ORYH+DEODUGH ORTXHVHUHJDOD'HGLFDU(VFULELU,QVFULELUQRUHJDODU 'HPRQLRV ³6202618(675263523,26'(021,26´RQHOSLxyQOLEUH3OXUDO +RPHRSDWtD 'HSHQGHQFLD '201(,(OYDVDOODMHDPRURVR/DUHEHOLyQ 'HVROODGR (/'(62//$'23XQWRVGHOLFDGRV,QFRQWUDULDEOH 'HVSHUWDU (/$/%$'RUPLUSURORQJDGDPHQWH)RUPDVGHGHVSHUWDU 'HVUHDOLGDG (/081'2$7Ð1,720LQLDWXUDFXELHUWDGHEDUQL]/DFRQYHUVDFLyQ JHQHUDO(OYLDMHD,WDOLD 8QVLVWHPDGHSRGHU(OYLGULR ,UUHDOGHVUHDO(QODIRQGDGHODHVWDFLyQGH/DXVDQD(O SXHULOUHYHUVRGHODVFRVDV 'ROLGR ¢'2/,'2/DYLGDFRQWLQXDUi3DSHDU 'UDPD 129(/$'5$0$(OGLDULRLPSRVLEOH8QDKLVWRULDTXHDWXYROXJDU (QFXHQWUR £48e$=8/(5$(/,(/2(OWLHPSRDPRURVR5HWRUQRGHOHQFXHQWUR $VRPEUR (UUDEXQGHR (/%848()$17$60$'HVDSDULFLyQGHODPRU)pQL[8QPLWR (OPDWL] (VFHQD +$(5 81$ (6(1$ +LVWyULFDPHQWH OD HVFHQD 0HFiQLFD GH OD HVFHQD/DHVFHQDLQWHUPLQDEOH/DHVFHQDLQVLJQLILFDQWH /D~OWLPDSDODEUD (VFULELU ,1(;35(6$%/( $025 $PDU FUHDU $MXVWDU (VFULWXUD H LPDJLQDULR,QGLYLVR/DHVFULWXUDPiVDOOiGHOLQWHUFDPELR (VSHUD /$ (63(5$ (UZDUWXQJ (VFHQRJUDItD (O WHOpIRQR $OXFLQDFLyQ(ORODTXHHVSHUD(OPDQGDUtQODFRUWHVDQD ([LOLR (/(;,/,2'(/2,0$*,1$5,2([LOLDUVH(OGXHORGHODLPDJHQ /DWULVWH]D'REOHGXHOR(ODEUD]R Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  8. 8. )DGLQJ )$',1*,WIDGHVIDGHVDQGIDGHV/D0DGUHVHYHUD/D QRFKH GHO RWUR 1HNXLD /D YR] /D IDWLJD (O WHOpIRQR¢'HMDUPHRDFRJHUPH )DOWDV )$/7$6(OWUHQ(OGRPLQLRFRPRIDOWD/DLQRFHQFLDGHO GRORU )DVWLGLRVR /$1$5$1-$(OYHFLQRLQGLVFUHWR,UULWDFLyQ )LHVWD ³'Ì$6(/(*,'26´(OIHVWtQ8QDUWHGHYLYLU *DVWR /$ (;8%(5$1,$ (ORJLR GH OD WHQVLyQ XULRVD UHVSXHVWD GH *RHWKHDVXVGHWUDFWRUHVLQJOHVHV,QJHQLRVLGDGHVSRUQDGD /DEHOOH]D *UDGLYD /$*5$',9$(OGHOLULR/DFRQWUD*UDGLYD8QDYH]PiVOD GHOLFDGH]D$PDUHVWDUHQDPRUDGR +DEODGXUtD /$+$%/$'85Ì$6REUHODUXWDD3DOHUD9R]GHODYHUGDG eOHOOD ,GHQWLILFDFLyQ ,'(17,),$,21(6(OVLUYLHQWHHOORFR9tFWLPDYHUGXJR /DDUUHEDWLxD/DSURHFFLyQ ,PDJHQ /$6 ,0É*(1(6 UXHOGDG GHODV LPiJHQHV +HQGLGXUD /D LPDJHQWULVWH(OHQDPRUDGRFRPRDUWLVWD ,QFRJQRVFLEOH /2 ,12*126,%/( (O HQLJPD (O QR FRQRFLPLHQWR 'HILQLFLyQSRUODIXHU]D ,QGXFFLyQ ³08e675$0($48,e1'(6($5´(OFRQWDJLRDIHFWLYR/DSURKLELFLyQ FRPRtQGLFH ,QGXPHQWDULD 75$-($=8/+$/(2 $0$5,//2(ODUUHJORSHUVRQDO,PLWDFLyQ 'LVIUD] ,QIRUPDQWH (/,1)250$17(/DLQWULJD(OH[WHULRUFRPRVHFUHWR ,QVRSRUWDEOH ³(672 12 38('( 217,18$5´ /D SDFLHQFLD DPRURVD /D H[DOWDFLyQ/DUHVLVWHQFLD /DQJXLGH] /$ /$1*8,'(= '(/ $025 (O 6iWLUR 'HVHR , 'HVHR ,, ([WHQXDQWH /RFR ³(672/22´(OORFRGHODVIORUHV/DORFXUDLQYLVLEOH1R VRRWUR/LPSLRGHWRGRSRGHU /RFXHOD /$/28(/$7ZLGGOLQJ/DYROXELOLGDG(ODUUHEDWR /ORUDU (/2*,2 '( /$6 /$*5,0$6 XDQGR HO KRPEUH OORUD 0RGRV )XQFLyQGHODVOiJULPDV Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  9. 9. 0DJLD /$Ô/7,0$+2-$/DPiQWLFD(OYRWR 0RQVWUXRVR ³622',262´(OHQDPRUDGRLPSRUWXQR/DFRVDPRQVWUXRVD 0RUWLILFDFLyQ ³81 $,5( (0%$5$=$'2´ /D VLWXDFLyQ FDUJDGD 8QD IDVFLQDFLyQ DOHUWD 0XWLVPR 6,15(638(67$/DUHVSXHVWDUHWUDVDGD+DEODUSRUQDGD/D 0XGD 1RFKH ³ /$ 12+( $/80%5$%$ /$ 12+(´ /DV GRV QRFKHV 8QD QRFKHHQYXHOYHDODRWUD 1XEHV 18%(68QPHQVDMHYHUJRQ]RVR1XEHVVXWLOHVHOIXUX 2EMHWRV /$ ,17$0HWRQLPLDV(ONLJR 2EVFHQR /22%6(12'(/$025(MHPSORV(OLQWHOHFWXDOHQDPRUDGR/D WRQWHUtDGHOHQDPRUDGR$QDFUyQLFR/D~OWLPDLQFRQYHQLHQFLD 6HQWLPHQWDOLGDGVH[XDOLGDG(OIRQGRGHORREVFHQR 2FXOWDU /26 /(17(6 268526 'HOLEHUDFLyQ 'RV GLVFXUVRV /DUYDWXV SURGHR/RVOHQWHVRVFXURV/DGLYLVLyQGHORVVLJQRV(O ³IXURU´ 3RUTXp ¢32548e:DUXP$PDUXQSRFR'HOLULR³VRDPDGR´ 4XHUHUDVLU 62%5,$ (%5,(7$6 1RTXHUHUDVLU 5HWLUDUVH VLQ FHGHU ¢8Q SHQVDPLHQWRWiFWLFR(QWUHHO=HQHO7DR6REULDHEULHWDV 5DSWR (/ 5$372 (O UDSWR OD KHULGD +LSQRVLV (QWUHJDUVH ,QIOH[LRQHV(QPDUFDU(QVLWXDFLyQ$GHVWLHPSR 5HFXHUGR ³(/8(9$1/(67(//(´/DDQDPQHVLV/RLPSHUIHFWR 5HVRQDQFLD /$5(621$1,$5HVRQDQFLDUHVHQWLPLHQWR(OWHPRUDPRURVR (ODGRER/DHVFXFKDSHUIHFWD 6DFLHGDG RFROPR ³72'$6/$692/837826,'$'(6'(/$7,(55$´ /D VXSHUDEXQGDQFLD UHHUHQHO6REHUDQR%LHQ 6DOLGDV ,'($6'(62/8,Ð1$SXHUWDVFHUUDGDV3DWpWLFR/DWUDPSD 6LJQRV /$,1(57,'80%5('(/266,*126¢6LJQRVGHTXp5HVSXHVWDV FRQWUDGLFWRULDVGHOVHQWLGRFRP~Q/DSUXHEDSRUHOOHQJXDMH 6ROR ³1,1*Ô16$(5'27(/2$203$fд5HFDOFLWUDQWH7RGDVODVSXHUWDV VHFLHUUDQ6ROHGDGGHOHQDPRUDGR,QDFWXDO3RUTXHHVWR VROR 6XLFLGLR ,'($6'( 68,,',2)UHFXHQWHIiFLOOLJHUR RQWDUHOVXLFLGLR 1REOH]DHVFDUQLR Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  10. 10. 7DO 7$/ 4XDOLWDV 7DO , 7DO ,, (O OHQJXDMH REWXVR $PLVWDGHVGHDVWURV 7HDPR 7($026]HUHWOHN8QDSDODEUDVLQHPSOHR/DSURIHULFLyQ 1RKDUHVSXHVWD³RWDPELpQ´ (OUHOiPSDJR~QLFR 8QD UHYROXFLyQ %0 ,24 FRPR DILUPDFLyQ WUiJLFD R WH DPRWDPELpQ$PpQ 7HUQXUD 7(5185$7HUQXUDGHPDQGD7HUQXUDGHVHR 8QLyQ 81,Ð13DUDtVR1RHVILJXUDEOH6LQSDSHOHV0RUWDO SRVLEOH 9HUGDG 9(5'$' (O VDEHU DEVROXWR /D VHQVDFLyQ GH YHUGDG /D SDUWHLUUHGXFWLEOH GHOIDQWDVPD(OKiELWRGHVLHWH NLQ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  11. 11. $%5$=2 $'25$%/( $),50$,Ð1 $/7(5$,Ð1 $1*867,$ $18/$,Ð1 $6(6,6 $72326 $86(1,$ $57$ $7É6752)( (/26 ,58165,%,5 2/2$'26 203$6,Ð1 2035(1'(5 21'87$ 211,9(1,$ 217$726 217,1*(1,$6 25$=Ð1 8(532 '(/$5$,Ð1 '(',$725,$ '(021,26 '(3(1'(1,$ '(62//$'2 '(63(57$5 '(65($/,'$' '2/,'2 '5$0$ (18(1752 (55$%81'(2 (6(1$ (65,%,5 (63(5$ (;,/,2 )$',1* )$/7$6 )$67,',262 ),(67$ *$672 *5$',9$ +$%/$'85Ì$ ,'(17,),$,Ð1 ,0$*(1 ,12*126,%/( ,1'8,Ð1 ,1'80(17$5,$ ,1)250$17( ,1623257$%/( /$1*8,'(= //25$5 /22 /28(/$ 0$*,$ 0216758262 0257,),$,Ð1 087,602 12+( 18%(6 2%-(726 2%6(12 28/7$5 32548e 48(5(5$6,5 5$372 5(8(5'2 5(621$1,$ 6$,('$'22/02 6$/,'$6 6,*126 62/2 68,,',2 7$/ 7($02 7(5185$ 81,Ð1 9(5'$' Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  12. 12. /D QHFHVLGDG GH HVWH OLEUR VH VXVWHQWD HQ OD FRQVLGHUDFLyQ VLJXLHQWH HO GLVFXUVRDPRURVRHVKRGHXQDH[WUHPDVROHGDG(VXQGLVFXUVRWDOYH]KDEODGR SRU PLOHV GH SHUVRQDV ¢TXLpQ OR VDEH
  13. 13. SHUR DO TXH QDGLH VRVWLHQH HVWi FRPSOHWDPHQWH DEDQGRQDGR SRU ORV OHQJXDMHV FLUFXQGDQWHV R LJQRUDGR R GHVSUHFLDGR R HVFDUQHFLGR SRU HOORV VHSDUDGR QR VRODPHQWH GHO SRGHU VLQR WDPELpQ GH VXV PHFDQLVPRV FLHQFLDV FRQRFLPLHQWRV DUWHV
  14. 14. XDQGR XQ GLVFXUVR HV GH WDO PRGR DUUDVWUDGR SRU VX SURSLD IXHU]D HQ OD GHULYD GH OR LQDFWXDO GHSRUWDGR IXHUD GH WRGD JUHJDULHGDG QR OH TXHGD PiV TXH VHU HO OXJDUSRUH[LJXRTXHVHDGHXQDDILUPDFLyQ(VWDDILUPDFLyQHVHQVXPDHO WHPDGHOOLEURTXHFRPLHQ]D Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  15. 15. yPRHVWiKHFKRHVWHOLEUR 7RGRSDUWLyGHHVWHSULQFLSLRQRVHGHEtDUHGXFLUORDPRURVRDXQVLPSOH VXMHWR VLQWRPiWLFR VLQR PiV ELHQ KDFHU HQWHQGHU OR TXH KD HQ VX YR] GH LQDFWXDOHVGHFLUGHLQWUDWDEOH'HDKtODHOHFFLyQGHXQPpWRGR´GUDPiWLFRµ TXH UHQXQFLD D ORV HMHPSORV GHVFDQVD VREUH OD VROD DFFLyQ GH XQ OHQJXDMH SULPHURQRGHXQPHWDOHQJXDMH
  16. 16. 6HKDVXVWLWXLGRSXHVODGHVFULSFLyQGHO GLVFXUVRDPRURVRSRUVXVLPXODFLyQVHOHKDUHVWLWXLGRDHVWHGLVFXUVRVX SHUVRQD IXQGDPHQWDO TXH HV HO R GH PDQHUD GH SRQHU HQ HVFHQD XQD HQXQFLDFLyQQRXQDQiOLVLV(VXQUHWUDWRVLVHTXLHUHORDTXtSURSXHVWRSHUR HVWHUHWUDWRQRHVSVLFROyJLFRHVHVWUXFWXUDOGDDOHHUXQOXJDUGHSDODEUDHO OXJDU GHDOJXLHQTXHKDEODHQVtPLVPRDPRURVDPHQWHIUHQWHDRWURHOREMHWR DPDGR
  17. 17. TXHQRKDEOD ),*85$6 'LVFXUVXV HV RULJLQDOPHQWH OD DFFLyQ GH FRUUHU DTXt DOOi VRQ LGDV YHQLGDV´DQGDQ]DVµ´LQWULJDVµ(QVXFDEH]DHOHQDPRUDGRQRFHVDHQHIHFWR GHFRUUHUGHHPSUHQGHUQXHYDVDQGDQ]DVGHLQWULJDUFRQWUDVtPLVPR6X GLVFXUVRQRH[LVWHMDPiVVLQRSRUDUUHEDWRVGHOHQJXDMHTXHOHVREUHYLHQHQDO FDSULFKRGHFLUFXQVWDQFLDVtQILPDVDOHDWRULDV 6H SXHGH OODPDU D HVWRV UHWD]RV GH GLVFXUVR ILJXUDV /D SDODEUD QR GHEH HQWHQGHUVH HQ VHQWLGR UHWyULFR VLQR PiV ELHQ HQ VHQWLGR JLPQiVWLFR R FRUHRJUiILFRHQVXPDHQHOVHQWLGRJULHJRÔØ¿ÍÂQRHVHO´HVTXHPDµHVGH XQDPDQHUDPXFKRPiVYLYDHOJHVWRGHOFXHUSRVRUSUHQGLGRHQDFFLyQQR FRQWHPSODGR HQ UHSRVR HO FXHUSR GH ORV DWOHWDV GH ORV RUDGRUHV GH ODV HVWDWXDV OR TXH HV SRVLEOH LQPRYLOL]DU GHO FXHUSR WHQVR $Vt VXFHGH FRQ HO HQDPRUDGR SUHVD GH VXV ILJXUDV VH DJLWD HQ XQ GHSRUWH XQ SRFR ORFR VH SURGLJDFRPRHODWOHWDDUWLFXODFRPRHORUDGRUVHYHFDSWDGRFRQJHODGRHQ XQSDSHOFRPRXQDHVWDWXD/DILJXUDHVHOHQDPRUDGRKDFLHQGRVXWUDEDMR /DVILJXUDVVHUHFRUWDQVHJ~QSXHGDUHFRQRFHUVHHQHOGLVFXUVRTXHIOXH DOJRTXHKDVLGROHtGRHVFXFKDGRH[SHULPHQWDGR/DILJXUDHVWiFLUFXQVFULWD FRPRXQVLJQR
  18. 18. HVPHPRUDEOHFRPRXQDLPDJHQRXQFXHQWR
  19. 19. 8QDILJXUD VHIXQGDVLDOPHQRVDOJXLHQSXHGHGHFLU´£4XpFLHUWRHV5HFRQR]FRHVWDHVFHQD GHOHQJXDMHµ3DUDFLHUWDVRSHUDFLRQHVGHVXDUWHORVOLQJLVWDVVHYDOHQGHXQ DOJRYDJRHOVHQWLPLHQWROLQJtVWLFRSDUDFRPSRQHUODVILJXUDVQRVHQHFHVLWD QLPiVQLPHQRVTXHHVWDJXtDHOVHQWLPLHQWRDPRURVR 3RFRLPSRUWDHQHOIRQGRTXHODGLVSHUVLyQGHOWH[WRVHDULFDDTXtSREUH DOOiKDWLHPSRVPXHUWRVPXFKDVILJXUDVVHLQWHUUXPSHQGHSURQWRDOJXQDV VLHQGR KLSyVWDVLV GH WRGR HO GLVFXUVR DPRURVR SRVHHQ OD UDUH]D PLVPD³OD SREUH]D³ GH ODV HVHQFLDV ¢TXp GHFLU GH OD /DQJXLGH] GH OD ,PDJHQ GH OD Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  20. 20. DUWD GH $PRU D TXH WRGR HO GLVFXUVR DPRURVR HVWi XUGLGR GH GHVHR GH LPDJLQDULRGHGHFODUDFLRQHV3HURHOTXHVRVWLHQHHVWHGLVFXUVRGHVJORVD ORVHSLVRGLRVQRVDEHTXHVHKDUiGHHOORVXQOLEURQRVDEHWDPSRFRTXHFRPR EXHQVXMHWRFXOWXUDOQRGHEHQLUHSHWLUVHQLFRQWUDGHFLUVHQLWRPDUHOWRGRSRU ODSDUWHVDEHVRODPHQWHTXHORTXHOHSDVDSRUODFDEH]DHQHVHPRPHQWRHVWi PDUFDGRFRPRODVHxDOGHXQFyGLJRHQRWURWLHPSRIXHHOFyGLJRGHODPRU FRUWHVDQRRODDWLHGX7HQGUp
  21. 21. DGD XQR SXHGH OOHQDU HVWH FyGLJR VHJ~Q FRQYHQJD D VX SURSLD KLVWRULD PDJUDRQRHVQHFHVDULRSXHVTXHODILJXUDHVWpDOOtTXHHOOXJDUODFDVLOOD
  22. 22. OH HVWp UHVHUYDGR (V FRPR VL KXELHVH XQD 7ySLFD DPRURVD GH OD TXH OD ILJXUD IXHUD XQ OXJDU WRSRV
  23. 23. $KRUD ELHQ OR SURSLR GH XQD 7ySLFD HV VHU XQ SRFR YDFtDXQD7ySLFDHVSRUHVWDWXWRDPHGLDVFRGLILFDGDD PHGLDVSURHFWLYD RSURHFWLYDSRUFRGLILFDGD
  24. 24. /RTXHVHKDSRGLGRGHFLUDTXtGHODHVSHUDGH OD DQJXVWLD GHO UHFXHUGR QR HV QXQFD PiV TXH XQ FRPSOHPHQWR PRGHVWR RIUHFLGR DO OHFWRU SDUD TXH VH WRPH GH pO OH DJUHJXH OR UHFRUWH OR SDVH D RWURVHQ WRUQRGHODILJXUDORVMXJDGRUHVKDFHQFLUFXODUODVRUWLMDDYHFHVSRU XQ~OWLPRSDUpQWHVLVUHWLHQHQODVRUWLMDXQVHJXQGRWRGDYtDDQWHVGHSDVDUOD (O OLEUR LGHDOPHQWH VHUtD XQD FRRSHUDWLYD ´$ ORV /HFWRUHV³$ ORV (QDPRUDGRV³8QLGRVµ
  25. 25. /R TXH VH OHH D OD FDEH]D GH FDGD ILJXUD QR HV VX GHILQLFLyQ HV VX DUJXPHQWR $UJXPHQWXP ´H[SRVLFLyQ UHODWR VXPDULR SHTXHxR GUDPD KLVWRULD LQYHQWDGDµ R DJUHJR ,QVWUXPHQWR GH GLVWDQFLDFLyQ SDQFDUWD D OR %UHFKW(VWHDUJXPHQWRQRUHILHUHDORTXHHVHOVXMHWRDPRURVRQDGLHH[WHULRU D HVWH VXMHWR QDGD GH GLVFXUVR VREUH HO DPRUULxR i OR TXH GLFH 6L KD XQD ILJXUD ´$QJXVWLDµ HV SRUTXH HO VXMHWR H[FODPD D YHFHV VLQ SUHRFXSDUVH GHO VLJQLILFDGR FOtQLFR GH OD SDODEUD
  26. 26. ´£(VWR DQJXVWLDGR·´£$QJRVFLDµFDQWDHQ DOJ~Q PRPHQWR OD DOODV /D ILJXUD HVGHDOJ~QPRGRXQDULDGHySHUDDVt FRPRHVWDDULDVHLGHQWLILFDHYRFDPDQHMDDWUDYpVGHVXLQFLSLW´-HYHX[YLYUH FH UrYHµ ´3OHXUH] PHV HX[µ ´/XFHYDQ OH VWHOOHµ ´3LDQJHUz OD PtD VRUWHµ
  27. 27. GHO PLVPRPRGRODILJXUDSDUWHGHXQSOLHJXHGHOOHQJXDMHHVSHFLHGHYHUVtFXOR GHUHIUiQGHFDQWLQHOD
  28. 28. TXHORDUWLFXODHQODVRPEUD 6HGLFHTXHVyORODVSDODEUDVWLHQHQXVRVQRODVIUDVHVSHURHQHOIRQGRGH FDGDILJXUDVHDOEHUJDXQDIUDVHDPHQXGRGHVFRQRFLGD¢LQFRQVFLHQWH
  29. 29. TXH WLHQH VX HPSOHR HQ OD HFRQRPtD VLJQLILFDQWH GHO VXMHWR DPRURVR (VWD IUDVH PDGUH DTXt VRODPHQWH SRVWXODGD
  30. 30. QR HV XQD IUDVH SOHQD QR HV XQ PHQVDMH DFDEDGR 6X SULQFLSLR DFWLYR QR HV OR TXH GLFH VLQR OR TXH DUWLFXOD QR HV GHVSXpV GH WRGR PiV TXH XQ ´DULD VLQWiFWLFDµ XQ ´PRGR GH FRQVWUXFFLyQµ 3RUHMHPSORVLHOVXMHWRHVSHUDDOREMHWRDPDGRHQXQDFLWDXQDLUHGHIUDVH YLHQH D UHSHWLUVH PDFKDFRQDPHQWH HQ VX FDEH]D ´'H WRGRV PRGRV QR HVWi yGLJRGH7HQGUpSDtVRUHLQRLPDJLQDULRGHODPRUFRUWHVDQR
  31. 31. FRQFHELGRSRU 0DJGHOHLQH GH 6FXGpU 7HQGUp VH XWLOL]DED HQ HO VLJOR ;9,, HQ HO VHQWLGR GH ´VHQWLPLHQWRVHPRFLRQHVWLHUQDVµ (@ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  32. 32. ELHQµ ´pOHOOD KDEUtD SRGLGR SHUIHFWDPHQWHµ ´pOHOOD VDEH PX ELHQµ ¢SRGHU VDEHU TXp 3RFR LPSRUWD OD ILJXUD ´(VSHUDµ HVWi D IRUPDGD(VWDV IUDVHV VRQ PDWULFHV GH ILJXUDV SUHFLVDPHQWH SRUTXH TXHGDQ HQ VXVSHQVR GLFHQHODIHFWROXHJRVHGHWLHQHQVXSDSHOHVWiFXPSOLGR/DVSDODEUDVQR VRQMDPiVORFDVDORVXPRVRQSHUYHUVDV
  33. 33. HVODVLQWD[LVODTXHHVORFD¢QRHVi QLYHOGHODIUDVHTXHHOVXMHWREXVFDVXOXJDU³QRORHQFXHQWUD³ RHQFXHQWUD XQOXJDUIDOVRTXHOHHVLPSXHVWRSRUODOHQJXD(QHOIRQGRGHODILJXUDKD DOJR GH ´DOXFLQDFLyQ YHUEDOµ )UHXG /DFDQ
  34. 34. IUDVH WUXQFD TXH VH OLPLWD JHQHUDOPHQWH D VX SDUWH VLQWiFWLFD ´$XQTXH VHDVµ ´6L GHEHV D~Qµ
  35. 35. $Vt QDFHODHPRFLyQGHWRGDILJXUDKDVWDODPiVGXOFHOOHYDHQVtHOSDYRUGHXQ VXVSHQVRHVFXFKRHQHOODHOTXRVHJRQHSW~QHRERUUDVFRVR 25'(1 $WRGRORODUJRGHODYLGDDPRURVDODVILJXUDVVXUJHQHQODFDEH]DGHOVXMHWR DPRURVR VLQ QLQJ~Q RUGHQ SXHVWR TXH GHSHQGHQ HQ FDGD FDVR GH XQ D]DU LQWHULRURH[WHULRU
  36. 36. (QFDGDXQRGHHVWRVLQFLGHQWHVORTXHOH´FDHµHQFLPD
  37. 37. HO HQDPRUDGR H[WUDH GH OD UHVHUYD ¢HO WHVRUR
  38. 38. GH ILJXUDV VHJ~Q ODV QHFHVLGDGHV ODV H[KRUWDFLRQHV R ORV SODFHUHV GH VX LPDJLQDULR DGD ILJXUD HVWDOODYLEUDVRODFRPRXQVRQLGRVHSDUDGRGHWRGDPHORGtDRVHUHSLWHKDVWD ODVDFLHGDGFRPRHOPRWLYRGH XQDP~VLFDGRPLQDQWH1LQJXQDOyJLFDOLJDODV ILJXUDVQLGHWHUPLQDVXFRQWLJLGDGODVILJXUDVHVWiQIXHUDGHWRGRVLQWDJPD IXHUDGHWRGRUHODWRVRQ(ULQLDVVHDJLWDQVHHVTXLYDQVHDSDFLJXDQYXHOYHQ VHDOHMDQVLQPiVRUGHQTXHXQYXHORGHPRVTXLWRV(OGLVFXUVXVDPRURVRQR HVGLDOpFWLFRJLUDFRPRXQFDOHQGDULRSHUSHWXRFRPRXQDHQFLFORSHGLDGHOD FXOWXUDDIHFWLYDHQHOHQDPRUDGRKDDOJRGH%RXYDUG3pFXFKHW
  39. 39. (QWpUPLQRVOLQJtVWLFRVVHGLUtDTXHODVILJXUDVVRQGLVWULEXFLRQDOHVSHUR TXHQR VRQLQWHJUDWLYDVSHUPDQHFHQVLHPSUHHQHOPLVPRQLYHOHOHQDPRUDGR KDEODSRUSDTXHWHVGHIUDVHVSHURQRLQWHJUDHVDVIUDVHVDXQQLYHOVXSHULRUD XQD REUD HV XQ GLVFXUVR KRUL]RQWDO QLQJXQD WUDVFHQGHQFLD QLQJXQD VDOYDFLyQQLQJXQDQRYHODSHURPXFKR GHQRYHOHVFR
  40. 40. 7RGRHSLVRGLRDPRURVR SXHGH HVWDU SRU FLHUWR GRWDGR GH XQ VHQWLGR QDFH VH GHVDUUROOD PXHUH VLJXH XQ FDPLQR TXH HV VLHPSUH SRVLEOH LQWHUSUHWDU VHJ~Q XQD FDXVDOLGDG R XQDILQDOLGDGRPRUDOL]DULQFOXVRVLHVSUHFLVR´(VWDEDORFRHVWRFXUDGRµ ´(O DPRU HV XQ VHxXHOR GHO TXH VHUi QHFHVDULR GHVFRQILDU HQ DGHODQWHµ HWFpWHUD
  41. 41. DKt HVWi OD KLVWRULD GH DPRU HVFODYD GHO JUDQ 2WUR QDUUDWLYR GH OD RSLQLyQ JHQHUDO TXH GHVSUHFLD WRGD IXHU]D H[FHVLYD TXLHUH TXH HO VXMHWR UHGX]FDSRUVtPLVPRHOJUDQUHVSODQGRULPDJLQDULRTXHORDWUDYLHVDVLQRUGHQ VLQILQDXQDFULVLVGRORURVDPyUELGDGHODTXHHVQHFHVDULRFXUDUVH´1DFH FUHFH KDFH VXIULU SDVDµ H[DFWDPHQWH FRPR XQD HQIHUPHGDG KLSRFUiWLFD
  42. 42. OD KLVWRULDGHDPRUOD´DYHQWXUDµ
  43. 43. HVHOWULEXWRTXHHOHQDPRUDGRGHEHSDJDUDO PXQGRSDUDUHFRQFLOLDUVHFRQpO Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  44. 44. ´0X GLVWLQWR HV HO GLVFXUVR HO VROLORTXLR HODSDUWH TXH DFRPSDxD D HVWD KLVWRULDVLQMDPiVFRQRFHUOD(VSULQFLSLRPLVPRGHHVWHGLVFXUVRGHOWH[WR TXHORUHSUHVHQWD
  45. 45. TXHVXVILJXUDVQRSXHGDQDOLQHDUVHRUGHQDUVHSURJUHVDU FRQFXUULU D XQ ILQ D XQ SURSyVLWR SUHVWDEOHFLGR
  46. 46. QR KD HQ pO SULPHUDV QL ~OWLPDV3DUDGDUDHQWHQGHUTXHQRVHWUDWDEDDTXtGHXQDKLVWRULDGHDPRUR GH OD KLVWRULD GH XQ DPRU
  47. 47. SDUD GHVDOHQWDU OD WHQWDFLyQ GHO VHQWLGR HUD QHFHVDULRHOHJLUXQRUGHQDEVROXWDPHQWHLQVLJQLILFDQWH6HKDVRPHWLGRSXHVOD VXFHVLyQ GH ODV ILJXUDV LQHYLWDEOH SXHVWR TXH HO OLEUR HVWi REOLJDGR HVWDWXWDULDPHQWH D OD SURJUHVLyQ
  48. 48. D GRV DUELWUDULHGDGHV FRQMXJDGDV OD GH OD GHVLJQDFLyQODGHODOIDEHWR6LQHPEDUJRFDGDXQDGHHVWDVDUELWUDULHGDGHV VH DWHPSHUD XQD SRU OD UD]yQ VHPiQWLFD HQWUH WRGRV ORV QRPEUHV GHO GLFFLRQDULR XQD ILJXUD QR SXHGH UHFLELU PiV TXH GRV R WUHV
  49. 49. RWUD SRU OD FRQYHQFLyQPLOHQDULDTXHQRUPDHORUGHQ GHQXHVWURDOIDEHWR6HKDQHYLWDGR LJXDOPHQWH ODV DUWLPDxDV GHO D]DU SXUR TXH ELHQ KDEUtD SRGLGR SURGXFLU VHFXHQFLDVOyJLFDVSXHVWRTXHQRVHGHEHGLFHXQPDWHPiWLFR´VXEHVWLPDUHO SRGHU GHO D]DU GH HQJHQGUDU PRQVWUXRVµ HO PRQVWUXR HQ HVWH FDVR KDEUtD VLGRVXUJLHQGRGHXQFLHUWRRUGHQGHODVILJXUDVXQD´ILORVRItDGHODPRUµDKt GRQGHQRVHGHEHHVSHUDUPiVTXHVXDILUPDFLyQ 5()(5(1,$6 3DUD FRPSRQHU HVWH VXMHWR DPRURVR VH KDQ ´PRQWDGRµ WUR]RV GH RULJHQ GLYHUVR (VWi DTXHOOR TXH SURYLHQH GH XQD OHFWXUD UHJXODUODGHO:HUWKHUGH *RHWKH$TXHOORTXHSURYLHQHGHOHFWXUDVLQVLVWHQWHV(O%DQTXHWHGH3ODWyQHO =HQ HO SVLFRDQiOLVLV DOJXQRV PtVWLFRV 1LHW]VFKH ORV +HGHU DOHPDQHV
  50. 50. $TXHOORTXHSURYLHQHGHOHFWXUDVRFDVLRQDOHV 2ORTXHSURYLHQHGHFRQYHUVDFLRQHVGHDPLJRV(VWiHQILQORTXHVXUJHGH PLSURSLDYLGD 7RGRORTXHSURYLHQHGHORVOLEURVGHORVDPLJRVKDFHDYHFHVVXDSDULFLyQ HQHOPDUJHQGHOWH[WREDMRODIRUPDGHQRPEUHVHQHOFDVRGHORVOLEURVGH LQLFLDOHV HQ HO GH ORV DPLJRV /DV UHIHUHQFLDV DVt GDGDV QR VRQ GH DXWRULGDG VLQR GH DPLVWDG QR LQYRFR JDUDQWtDV HYRFR VRODPHQWH SRU XQD VXHUWH GH VDOXGR GDGR DO SDVDU OR TXH VHGXFH OR TXH FRQYHQFH OR TXH GD SRU XQ LQVWDQWHHOJRFHGHFRPSUHQGHU¢GHVHUFRPSUHQGLGR
  51. 51. 6HKDQGHMDGRSXHV HVWRV UHFXHUGRV GH OHFWXUD GH HVFXFKD HQ HO HVWDGR JHQHUDOPHQWH LQFLHUWR LQDFDEDGR TXH FRQYLHQH D XQ GLVFXUVR FXD LQVWDQFLD QR HV RWUD TXH OD PHPRULDGHORVOXJDUHVOLEURVHQFXHQWURV
  52. 52. GRQGHWDORFXDOFRVDKDVLGROHtGD GLFKD HVFXFKDGD 3XHVWR TXH VL HO DXWRU SUHVWD DTXt DO VXMHWR DPRURVR VX ´FXOWXUDµ D FDPELR GH HOOR HO VXMHWR DPRURVR OH WUDVPLWH OD LQRFHQFLD GH VX LPDJLQDULRLQGLIHUHQWHDORVEXHQRVXVRVGHOVDEHU Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  53. 53. (VSXHV XQHQDPRUDGR HOTXHKDEOD GLFH Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  54. 54. ´0HDELVPRVXFXPERµ $%,60$56($WDTXHGHDQRQDGDPLHQWRTXHVHDSRGHUDGHOVXMHWRDPRURVR SRUGHVHVSHUDFLyQRSOHQLWXG +HULGDRIHOLFLGDGPHGDQDYHFHVJDQDVGHDELVPDUPH (VWDPDxDQDHQHOFDPSR
  55. 55. HOGtDHVJULVEHQLJQR6XIURSRUQRVp TXp LQFLGHQWH
  56. 56. 8QD LGHD GH VXLFLGLR VH SUHVHQWD OLPSLD GH WRGR UHVHQWLPLHQWR QLQJ~Q FKDQWDMH D QDGLH
  57. 57. HV XQD LGHD LQVXOVD QR URPSH QDGD QR ´TXLHEUDµ QDGD
  58. 58. VH DGDSWD DO FRORUDOVLOHQFLRDO DEDQGRQR
  59. 59. GHHVWDPDxDQD 2WURGtDEDMRODOOXYLDHVSHUDPRVHOEDUFRDRULOODV GHXQODJRGH IHOLFLGDGHVWDYH]HOPLVPRDWDTXHGHDQRQDGDPLHQWRPHGRPLQD $Vt D YHFHV OD GHVGLFKD R OD DOHJUtD FDHQ VREUH Pt VLQ TXH VREUHYHQJDQLQJ~QWXPXOWRWDPSRFRQLQJ~QSDWKRVHVWRGLVXHOWR QRGHVSHGD]DGRFDLJRPHGHVOL]RPHFRQVXPR(VWHSHQVDPLHQWR DFDULFLDGR SUREDGR WDQWHDGR FRPR VH WDQWHD HO DJXD FRQ HO SLH
  60. 60. SXHGH UHJUHVDU 1R WLHQH QDGD GH VROHPQH (VWR HV PX SUHFLVDPHQWHODGXO]XUD /DH[SORVLyQGHDELVPRSXHGHYHQLUGHXQDKHULGDSHURWDPELpQGH XQDIXVLyQPRULPRVMXQWRV GHDPDUQRV PXHUWHDELHUWDSRUGLOXFLyQHQHOpWHUPXHUWHFHUUDGDGHODWXPED FRP~Q (ODELVPRHVXQPRPHQWRGHKLSQRVLV8QDVXJHVWLyQDFW~DTXHPH HPSXMDDGHVYDQHFHUPHVLQPDWDUPH'HDKtWDOYH]ODGXO]XUDGHO DELVPRQRWHQJRQLQJXQDUHVSRQVDELOLGDGHODFWRGHPRULU
  61. 61. QRPH LQFXPEH PH FRQItR PH WUDQVILHUR ¢D TXLpQ D 'LRV D OD 1DWXUDOH]DDWRGRVDOYRDORWUR
  62. 62. XDQGRPHRFXUUHDELVPDUPHDVtHVSRUTXHQRKDPiVOXJDUSDUD PtHQQLQJXQDSDUWHQLVLTXLHUDHQODPXHUWH/DLPDJHQGHORWUR³D ODTXHPHDGKHUtDGHODTXHYLYtD³ DQRH[LVWHWDQSURQWRHVXQD FDWiVWURIH I~WLO
  63. 63. OD TXH SDUHFH DOHMDUOD SDUD VLHPSUH WDQ SURQWR HV XQD IHOLFLGDG H[FHVLYD OD TXH PH KDFH UHHQFRQWUDUOD GH WRGDV PDQHUDV VHSDUDGR R GLVXHOWR QR VR DFRJLGR HQ QLQJXQD SDUWH HQIUHQWH QL R QL W~ QL PXHUWH QDGLH PiV D TXLHQ KDEODU XULRVDPHQWH HV HQ HO DFWR H[WUHPR GH OR ,PDJLQDULR DPRURVR³ DQRQDGDUVH SRU KDEHU VLGR H[SXOVDGR GH OD LPDJHQ R SRU KDEHUVH 7ULVWiQ %DXGHODLUH 5XVEURFN :HUWKHU Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  64. 64. FRQIXQGLGRHQHOOD³ TXHVHFXPSOHXQDFDtGDGHHVWH,PDJLQDULRHO WLHPSR EUHYH GH XQD YDFLODFLyQ SLHUGR PL HVWUXFWXUD GH HQDPRUDGRHVXQGXHORDUWLILFLDOVLQWUDEDMRDOJRDVtFRPRXQQR OXJDU
  65. 65. ¢(QDPRUDGRGHODPXHUWH(VGHPDVLDGRGHFLUGHXQDPLWDGKDOILQ ORYH ZLWK HDVHIXO GHDWK .HDWV
  66. 66. OD PXHUWH OLEHUDGD GHO PRULU 7HQJR HQWRQFHV HVWD IDQWDVtD XQD KHPRUUDJLD VXDYH TXH QR PDQD GH QLQJ~Q SXQWR GH PL FXHUSR XQD FRQVXQFLyQ FDVL LQPHGLDWD FDOFXODGD SDUD TXH WHQJD R WLHPSR GH GHVXIULU VLQ KDEHU WRGDYtD GHVDSDUHFLGR0HLQVWDORIXJLWLYDPHQWHHQXQSHQVDPLHQWRIDOVRGH ODPXHUWHIDOVRFRPRXQDFODYHIDOVLILFDGD
  67. 67. SLHQVRODPXHUWHDOODGR ODSLHQVRVHJ~QXQDOyJLFDLPSHQVDGDGHULYRIXHUDGHODSDUHMDIDWDO TXHXQHODPXHUWHODYLGDRSRQLpQGRODV ¢(ODELVPRQRHVPiVTXHXQDQLTXLODPLHQWRRSRUWXQR1RPHVHUtD GLItFLOOHHUHQpOQRXQUHSRVRVLQRXQDHPRFLyQ(QPDVFDURPLGXHOR HQ XQD KXLGD PH GLOXR PH GHVYDQH]FR SDUD HVFDSDU D HVWD FRPSDFLGDG D HVWH DWDVFR TXH KDFH GH Pt XQ VXMHWR UHVSRQVDEOH VDOJRHVHOp[WDVLV 5Xp GX KHUFKH0LGL GHVSXpV GH XQD QRFKH GLItFLO ; PH H[SOLFDED PX ELHQ FRQ XQD YR] SUHFLVD FRQ IUDVHV DFDEDGDV DSDUWDGDVGHWRGRLQH[SUHVDEOHTXHGHVHDEDDYHFHVGHVYDQHFHUVH VHODPHQWDEDGHQRSRGHUQXQFDGHVDSDUHFHUDYROXQWDG 6XVSDODEUDVGHFtDQTXHHVSHUDEDHQWRQFHV VXFXPELUDVXGHELOLGDG QRUHVLVWLUODVKHULGDVTXHOHKDFHHOPXQGRSHURDOPLVPRWLHPSR VXVWLWXtDHVWDIXHU]DGHVIDOOHFLHQWHSRURWUDIXHU]DRWUDDILUPDFLyQ DVXPR D GHVSHFKR GH WRGR XQD QHJDWLYD GH HQWHUH]D SRU OR WDQWR XQD QHJDWLYDGHPRUDOHVR GHFtDODYR]GH; :(57+(5´(QHVWRVSHQVDPLHQWRVPHDELVPRVXFXPEREDMRHOSRGHUGH HVDV PDJQtILFDV YLVLRQHVµ
  68. 68. ´£/D YHUp@ 7RGR WRGR FRPR GHYRUDGR SRUXQDELVPRGHVDSDUHFHDQWHHVWDSHUVSHFWLYDµ
  69. 69. 75,67É1 ´(Q OD YRUiJLQH EHQGLWD GHO pWHU LQILQLWR HQ WX DOPD VXEOLPH LQPHQVD LQPHQVLGDG PH VXPHUMR PH DELVPR VLQ FRQFLHQFLD £RK YROXSWXRVLGDGµ0XHUWHGH,VROGD
  70. 70. %$8'(/$,5( ´8Q DWDUGHFHU KHFKR GH URVD GH D]XO PtVWLFR ,QWHUFDPELDPRVXQFHQWHOOHR~QLFRRPRXQVROOR]RFRQWHQ LGR7RGR FDUJDGRGHDGLyVµ/DPXHUWHGHORVDPDQWHV
  71. 71. 586%52.586%52(.@´HOUHSRVRGHODELVPRµ
  72. 72. 6DUWUH Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  73. 73. ´(QODFDOPDWLHUQDGHWXVEUD]RVµ $%5$=2 (OJHVWRGHODEUD]RDPRURVRSDUHFHFXPSOLUSRUXQPRPHQWR SDUDHOVXMHWRHOVXHxRGHXQLyQWRWDOFRQHOVHUDPDGR )XHUDGHODFRSODPLHQWR£DOGLDEORHQWRQFHVORLPDJLQDULR
  74. 74. KDHVH RWUR DEUD]R TXH HV XQ HQOD]DPLHQWR LQPyYLO HVWDPRV HQFDQWDGRV KHFKL]DGRV HVWDPRV HQ HO VXHxR VLQ GRUPLU HV WDPRV HQ OD YROXSWXRVLGDG LQIDQWLO GHO DGRUPHFLPLHQWR HV HO PRPHQWR GH ODV KLVWRULDV FRQWDGDV HO PRPHQWR GH OD YR] TXH YLHQH D ILMDUPH D GHMDUPHDWyQLWRHVHOUHWRUQRDODPDGUH´HQODFDOPDWLHUQDGHWXV EUD]RVµGLFHXQDSRHVtDPXVLFDOL]DGDSRU'XSDUF
  75. 75. (QHVWHLQFHVWR SURUURJDGR WRGR HVWi HQWRQFHV VXVSHQGLGR HO WLHPSR OD OH OD SURKLELFLyQ QDGD VH DJRWD QDGD VH TXLHUH WRGRV ORV GHVHRV VRQ DEROLGRVSRUTXHSDUHFHQGHILQLWLYDPHQWHFROPDGRV 6LQ HPEDUJR HQ PHGLR GH HVWH DEUD]R LQIDQWLO OR JHQLWDO OOHJD LQIDOWDEOHPHQWH D VXUJLU FRUWD OD VHQVXDOLGDG GLIXVD GHO DEUD]R LQFHVWXRVR OD OyJLFD GHO GHVHR VH SRQH HQ PDUFKD HO TXHUHUDVLU YXHOYHHODGXOWRVHVREUHLPSULPHDOQLxR6RHQWRQFHVGRVVXMHWRVD ODYH]TXLHURODPDWHUQLGDGODJHQLWDOLGDG(OHQDPRUDGRSRGUtD GHILQLUVHFRPRXQQLxRTXHVHWHQVDWDOHUDHOMRYHQ(URV
  76. 76. 0RPHQWR GH OD DILUPDFLyQ GXUDQWH FLHUWR WLHPSR KDOOHJDGRDXQ ILQVHKDGHVTXLFLDGRDOJRVHKDORJUDGRKHVLGRFROPDGRWRGRVPLV GHVHRV DEROLGRV SRU OD SOHQLWXG GH VX VDWLVIDFFLyQ
  77. 77. OD VDFLHGDG H[LVWH QR PH GDUp WUHJXD KDVWD KDFHU TXH VH UHSLWD D WUDYpV GH WRGRV ORV PHDQGURV GH ODKLVWRULDDPRURVDPHREVWLQDUpHQTXHUHU UHHQFRQWUDUUHQRYDUODFRQWUDGLFFLyQ³ODFRQWUDFFLyQ³ GHORVGRV DEUD]RV '83$5´KDQVRQWULVWHµSRHPDGH -HDQ/DKRU¢(VPDODSRHVtD3HUROD ´PDODSRHVtDµWRPDDOVXMHWRDPRURVRHQHOUHJLVWURGHSDODEUDTXHQROH SHUWHQHFHPiVTXHDpOODH[SUHVLyQ 'XSDUF Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  78. 78. ´£$GRUDEOHµ $'25$%/( $OQRFRQVHJXLUQRPEUDUODVLQJXODULGDGGHVXGHVHRSRUHOVHU DPDGR HO VXMHWR DPRURVR GHVHPERFD HQ HVWD SDODEUD XQ SRFR WRQWD £DGRUDEOH ´8Q KHUPRVR GtD GH VHSWLHPEUH VDOt D KDFHU PLV FRPSUDV 3DUtV HVWDEDDGRUDEOHHVDPDxDQDHWFµ 8QD PXOWLWXG GH SHUFHSFLRQHV YLHQHQ D IRUPDU EUXVFDPHQWH XQD LPSUHVLyQ GHVOXPEUDQWH GHVOXPEUDU HV HQ HO OtPLWH LPSHGLU YHU GHFLU
  79. 79. HOWLHPSRTXHKDFHODHVWDFLyQODOX]ODDYHQLGDODFDPLQDWD ORV 3DULVLHQVHV ODV FRPSUDV WRGR HVWR LQFOXLGR HQ OR TXH WLHQHD YRFDFLyQ GH UHFXHUGR XQ FXDGUR HQ VXPD HO MHURJOtILFR GH OD EHQHYROHQFLD WDO FRPR OR KXELHUD SLQWDGR *UHX]H
  80. 80. HO EXHQ KXPRU GHOGHVHR7RGR3DUtVHVWiDPLGLVSRVLFLyQVLQTXHRTXLHUDDVLUOR QLODQJXLGH]QLFRGLFLD2OYLGRWRGRORUHDOTXHHQ3DUtVH[FHGHDVX HQFDQWRODKLVWRULDHOWUDEDMRHOGLQHURODPHUFDGHUtDODGXUH]DGH ODVJUDQGHVFLXGDGHVQRYHRHQHOODPiVTXHHOREMHWRGHXQGHVHR HVWpWLFDPHQWH FRQWHQLGR 'HVGH OR DOWR GHO 3qUH /DFKDLVH 5DVWLJQDF GHFODUDEDDODFLXGDG6RPRVW~RDKRUDRGLJRD3DUtV£$GRUDEOH %DMRXQDLPSUHVLyQQRFWXUQDPHGHVSLHUWRODQJXLGHFLHQGRDQWHXQ SHQVDPLHQWRIHOL]´;HVWDEDDGRUDEOHDQRFKHµ¢(VHOUHFXHUGRGH TXp'HORTXHORV*ULHJRVOODPDEDQODFKDULV´HOEULOORGHORVRMRVOD EHOOH]DOXPLQRVDGHOFXHUSRHOUHVSODQGRUGHOVHUGHVHDEOHµ3RUXQD OyJLFDVLQJXODUHOVXMHWRDPRURVRSHUFLEHDORWURFRPRXQ7RGRD VHPHMDQ]DGHO3DUtVRWRxDO
  81. 81. DOPLVPRWLHPSRHVH7RGROHSDUHFH DSRUWDU XQ UHPDQHQWH TXH pO QR SXHGH H[SUHVDU (V WRGR HO RWUR TXLHQ SURGXFH HQ pO XQD YLVLyQ HVWpWLFD OH ORD VX SHUIHFFLyQ VH YDQDJORULD GH KDEHUOR HOHJLGR SHUIHFWR LPDJLQD TXH HO RWUR TXLHUH VHU DPDGR FRPR pO PLVPR TXHUUtD VHUOR QR SRU WDO R FXDO GH VXV FXDOLGDGHVVLQRSRUWRGRHVWHWRGRVHORFRQFHGHEDMRODIRUPDGH XQD SDODEUD YDFtD SXHVWR TXH 7RGR QR SRGUtD LQYHQWDULDUVH VLQ GLVPLQXLUVHHQ£$GRUDEOHQLQJXQDFXDOLGDGFDEHVLQRVRODPHQWHHO WRGRGHODIHFWR6LQHPEDUJRDOPLVPRWLHPSRTXHDGRUDEOHGLFHWRGR GLFHWDPELpQORTXHOHIDOWDDOWRGRTXLHUHGHVLJQDUHVHOXJDUGHORWUR DO TXH TXLHUH DIHUUDUVHHVSHFLDOPHQWH PL GHVHR SHUR WDO OXJDU QR HV GHVLJQDEOH GH pO QR VDEUp MDPiV QDGD PL OHQJXDMH WDQWHDUi EDOEXFLUi VLHPSUH HQ VX LQWHQWR GH GHFLUOR SHUR QR SRGUp QXQFD SURGXFLUPiVTXHXQDSDODEUDYDFtDTXHHVFRPRHOJUDGRFHURGH 'LGHURW %DO]DF *ULHJR Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  82. 82. WRGRVORVOXJDUHVGRQGH VHIRUPDHOGHVHRPXHVSHFLDOTXHRWHQJR GHHVHRWURQRGHXQRWURFXDOTXLHUD
  83. 83. (QFXHQWURHQPLYLGDPLOORQHVGHFXHUSRVGHHVRVPLOORQHVSXHGR GHVHDUFHQWHQDUHVSHURGHHVRVFHQWHQDUHVQRDPRVLQRXQR(ORWUR GHOTXHHVWRHQDPRUDGRPHGHVLJQDODHVSHFLILFLGDGGHPLGHVHR (VWD HOHFFLyQ WDQ ULJXURVD TXH QR UHWLHQH PiV TXH OR ÔQLFR FRQVWLWXHGLJDPRVODGLIHUHQFLDHQWUHODWUDQVIHUHQFLDDQDOtWLFDOD WUDQVIHUHQFLDDPRURVDXQDHVXQLYHUVDOODRWUDHVSHFtILFD+DQVLGR QHFHVDULDV PXFKDV FDVXDOLGDGHV PXFKDV FRLQFLGHQFLDV VRUSUHQGHQWHVWDOYH]PXFKDVE~VTXHGDV
  84. 84. SDUDTXHHQFXHQWUHOD ,PDJHQTXHHQWUHPLOFRQYLHQHDPLGHVHR+DDOOtXQJUDQHQLJPD GHOTXHMDPiVVDEUpODFODYH¢SRUTXpGHVHRD7DO¢3RUTXpORGHVHR SHUGXUDEOHPHQWH OiQJXLGDPHQWH ¢(V WRGR pO OR TXH GHVHR XQD VLOXHWDXQDIRUPDXQDLUH
  85. 85. ¢2QRHVVyORPiVTXHXQDSDUWHGHVX FXHUSRHQHVHFDVR¢TXpHVORTXHHQHVHFXHUSRDPDGRWLHQH YRFDFLyQ GH IHWLFKH SDUD Pt ¢4Xp SRUFLyQ WDO YH] LQFUHtEOHPHQWH WHQXHTXp DFFLGHQWH¢(OFRUWHGHXQDXxDXQGLHQWHXQSRFRUDMDGR XQPHFKyQXQDPDQHUDGHPRYHUORVGHGRVDOKDEODUDOIXPDU'H WRGRVHVWRVSOLHJXHVGHOFXHUSRWHQJRJDQDVGHGHFLUTXHVRQDGRUDEOHV $GRUDEOH TXLHUH GHFLU pVWH HV PL GHVHR HQ WDQWR TXH HV ~QLFR ´£(V HVR£(VH[DFWDPHQWHHVRORTXHRDPR
  86. 86. µ6LQHPEDUJRFXDQWRPiV H[SHULPHQWRODHVSHFLILFLGDGGHPLGHVHRPHQRVODSXHGRQRPEUDUD OD SUHFLVLyQ GHO HQIRTXH FRUUHVSRQGH XQ WHPEORU GHO QRPEUH OD SURSLHGDG GHO GHVHR QR SXHGH SURGXFLU VLQR XQD LPSURSLHGDG GHO HQXQFLDGR'HHVWHIUDFDVRGHOOHQJXDMHQRTXHGDPiVTXHXQUDVWUR OD SDODEUD´DGRUDEOHµODFRUUHFWDWUDGXFFLyQGH´DGRUDEOHµVHUtDHO LSVHODWLQRHVpOHVSUHFLVDPHQWHpOHQSHUVRQD
  87. 87. $GRUDEOHHVODKXHOODI~WLOGHXQDIDWLJDTXHHVODIDWLJDGHOOHQJXDMH 'H SDODEUD HQ SDODEUD PH FDQVR GH GHFLU GH RWUR PRGR OR TXH HV SURSLRGHPL,PDJHQLPSURSLDPHQWHORSURSLRGHPLGHVHRYLDMHDO WpUPLQRGHOFXDOPL~OWLPDILORVRItDQRSXHGHVLQRVHUODGHUHFRQRFHU ³ OD GH SUDFWLFDU³ OD WDXWRORJtD (V DGRUDEOH OR TXH HV DGRUDEOH 2 WDPELpQ WH DGRUR SRUTXHHUHVDGRUDEOHWHDPRSRUTXHWHDPR/R TXH FODXVXUD DVt HO OHQJXDMH DPRURVR HV DTXHOOR PLVPR TXH OR KD LQVWLWXLGR OD IDVFLQDFLyQ 3XHVWR TXH GHVFULELU OD IDVFLQDFLyQ QR SXHGH MDPiV HQ UHVXPLGDV FXHQWDV H[FHGHU HVWH HQXQFLDGR ´HVWR IDVFLQDGRµ+DELHQGRDOFDQ]DGRHOILQGHOOHQJXDMHDOOtGRQGHpVWHQR SXHGHVLQRUHSHWLUVX~OWLPDSDODEUDDODPDQHUDGHXQGLVFRUDDGR PH HPEULDJR FRQ VX DILUPDFLyQ ¢OD WDXWRORJtD QR HV HVWH HVWDGR LQDXGLWRHQTXHVHUHHQFXHQWUDQPH]FODGRVWRGRVORVYDORUHVHOILQDO JORULRVR GH OD RSHUDFLyQ OyJLFD OR REVFHQR GH OD QHFHGDG OD /DFDQ 3URXVW 1LHW]VFKH Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  88. 88. H[SORVLyQGHOVtQLHW]VFKHDQR ','(527 VREUH OD WHRUtD GHO LQVWDQWHIHFXQGR/HVVLQJ'LGHURW
  89. 89. (XYUHV FRPSOqWHVGH'LGHURW ,,, *5,(*2 'pWLHQQH /$$1 ´1R WRGRV ORV GtDV HQFRQWUDPRV OR TXH HVWi KHFKR SDUD GDU D XVWHGHVODMXVWDLPDJHQGHYXHVWURGHVHRµ /H6pPLQDLUH,
  90. 90. 352867 HVFHQD GH OD VLQJXODULGDG GHO GHVHR HQFXHQWUR GH KDUOXV -XSLHQ HQ HO SDWLR GHO +{WHO GH *XHUPDQWHV IDO FRPLHQ]R GH 6RGRPH HW *RPRUUKH
  91. 91. Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  92. 92. /R,QWUDWDEOH $),50$,Ð1RQWUDYLHQWRPDUHDHOVXMHWRDILUPDHO DPRUFRPRYDORU $ GHVSHFKR GH ODV GLILFXOWDGHV GH PL KLVWRULD D SHVDU GH ODV GHVD]RQHVGHODVGXGDVGHODVGHVHVSHUDFLRQHVDSHVDUGHODVJDQDV GH VDOLUGHHOODQRFHVRGHDILUPDUHQPtPLVPRHODPRUFRPRXQ YDORU7RGRVORVDUJXPHQWRVTXHORVVLVWHPDVPiVGLYHUVRVHPSOHDQ SDUDGHVPLWLILFDUOLPLWDUGHVGLEXMDUHQVXPDGHSUHFLDUHODPRUR ORVHVFXFKRSHURPHREVWLQR´/RVpSHUIHFWDPHQWHSHURDSHVDUGH WRGRµ 5HPLWR OD GHYDOXDFLRQHV GHO DPRU D XQD VXHUWH GH PRUDO RVFXUDQWLVWDDXQUHDOLVPRIDUVDFRQWUDORVFXDOHVOHYDQWRORUHDOGHO YDORURSRQJRDWRGR´ORTXHQRYDµHQHODPRUODDILUPDFLyQGHOR TXHHQpOYDOH(VWDWHVWDUXGH]HVODSURWHVWDGHDPRUEDMRHOFRURGH ODV´EXHQDVUD]RQHVµSDUDDPDUGHRWURPRGRSDUDDPDUPHMRUSDUD DPDUVLQHVWDUHQDPRUDGRHWFVHKDFHRtUXQDYR]WHUFDTXHGXUDXQ SRFRPiVGHWLHPSRODYR]GHOR,QWUDWDEOHDPRURVR (O PXQGR VRPHWH WRGD HPSUHVD D XQD DOWHUQDWLYD OD GHO p[LWR R HO IUDFDVRODGHODYLFWRULDRODGHUURWD3URWHVWRGHVGHRWUDOyJLFDVRD ODYH]FRQWUDGLFWRULDPHQWHIHOL]HLQIHOL]´WULXQIDUµR´IUDFDVDUµQR WLHQHQSDUDPtPiVTXHVHQWLGRVFRQWLQJHQWHVSDVDMHURVORTXHQR LPSLGHTXHPLVSHQDVPLVGHVHRVVHDQYLROHQWRV
  93. 93. ORTXHPHDQLPD VRUGDREVWLQDGDPHQWHQRHVWiFWLFRDFHSWRDILUPRGHVGH IXHUD GH OR YHUGDGHUR GH OR IDOVR GHVGH IXHUD GH OR H[LWRVR GH OR IUDFDVDGRHVWRH[HQWRGHWRGDILQDOLGDGYLYRGHDFXHUGRFRQHOD]DU ORSUXHEDTXHODVILJXUDVGHPLGLVFXUVRPHYLHQHQFRPRJROSHVGH GDGRV
  94. 94. (QIUHQWDGRDODDYHQWXUDORTXHPHRFXUUH
  95. 95. QRVDOJRGHHOOD QLYHQFHGRUQLYHQFLGRVRWUiJLFR6HPHGLFHHVHWLSRGHDPRUQR HVYLDEOH3HUR¢FyPRHYDOXDUODYLDELOLGDG¢3RUTXpORTXHHVYLDEOH HVXQ%LHQ¢3RUTXpGXUDUHVPHMRUTXHDUGHU
  96. 96. (VWD PDxDQD GHER HVFULELU FRQ PXFKD XUJHQFLD XQD FDUWD ´LPSRUWDQWHµ³GHODTXHGHSHQGHHOp[LWRGHFLHUWRQHJRFLR³SHUR RHVFULERHQVXOXJDUXQDFDUWDGHDPRU³TXHQRHQYtR$EDQGRQR JR]RVDPHQWH WDUHDV PRQyWRQDV HVFU~SXORV UD]RQDEOHV FRQGXFWDV UHDFWLYDVLPSXHVWDVSRUHOPXQGRHQSURYHFKRGHXQDWDUHDLQ~WLO VXUJLGD GH XQ 'HEHU UHVSODQGHFLHQWH HO 'HEHU DPRURVR +DJR GLVFUHWDPHQWHFRVDVORFDVVRHO~QLFRWHVWLJRGHPLORFXUD/RTXHHO DPRUGHVQXGDHQPtHVODHQHUJtD7RGRORTXHKDJRWLHQHXQVHQWLGR 3HOOpDV 6FKHOOLQJ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  97. 97. SXHGR SXHVYLYLU VLQ TXHMDUPH
  98. 98. SHUR HVH VHQWLGR HV XQD ILQDOLGDG LQDVHTXLEOHQRHVPiVTXHHOVHQWLGRGHPLIXHU]D/DV LQIOH[LRQHV GROLHQWHVFXOSDEOHVWULVWHVWRGRORUHDFWLYRGHPLYLGDFRWLGLDQDVH UHYLHUWH:HUWKHUDODEDVXSURSLDWHQVLyQTXHpODILUPDIUHQWHDOD VLPSOH]D GH $OEHUWR 1DFLGR GH OD OLWHUDWXUD QR SXGLHQGR KDEODU VLQRFRQODDXGDGHHVRVFyGLJRVXVD GRVHVWRQRREVWDQWHVRORFRQ PLIXHU]DFRQVDJUDGRDPLSURSLDILORVRItD (Q HO 2FFLGHQWH FULVWLDQR KDVWD KR WRGD OD IXHU]D SDVD SRU HO ,QWpUSUHWHFRPRWLSRHQWpUPLQRVQLHW]VFKHDQRVHO6DFHUGRWHMXGtR
  99. 99. 3HURODIXHU]DDPRURVDQRSXHGHWUDQVIHULUVHSRQHUVHHQPDQRVGH XQ ,QWHUSUHWDGRU DKt TXHGD HQ HVWDGR GH OHQJXDMH HQFDQWDGD LQ WUDWDEOH(OWLSRDTXtQRHVHO6DFHUGRWHVLQRHO(QDPRUDGR +D GRV DILUPDFLRQHV GHO DPRU (Q SULPHU OXJDU FXDQGR HO HQDPRUDGR HQFXHQWUD DO RWUR KD DILUPDFLyQ LQPHGLDWD SVLFROyJLFDPHQWH GHVOXPEUDPLHQWR HQWXVLDVPR H[DOWDFLyQ SURHFFLyQORFDGHXQIXWXURSOHQRVRGHYRUDGRSRUHOGHVHRSRUHO LPSXOVR GH VHU IHOL]
  100. 100. GLJR Vt D WRGR FHJiQGRPH
  101. 101. 6LJXH XQ ODUJR W~QHO PL SULPHU Vt HVWi FDUFRPLGR GH GXGDV HO YDORU DPRURVR HV LQFHVDQWHPHQWH DPHQD]DGR GH GHSUHFLDFLyQ HV HO PRPHQWR GH OD SDVLyQWULVWHODDVFHQVLyQGHOUHVHQWLPLHQWRGHODREODFLyQ'HHVWH W~QHOVLQHPEDUJRSXHGRVDOLUSXHGR´VXSHUDUµVLQOLTXLGDUORTXH DILUPp XQD SULPHUD YH] SXHGR DILUPDUOR GH QXHYR VLQ UHSHWLUOR SXHVWR TXH HQWRQFHV OR TXH R DILUPR HV OD DILUPDFLyQ QR VX FRQWLQJHQFLDDILUPRHOSULPHUHQFXHQWURHQVXGLIHUHQFLDTXLHURVX UHJUHVRQRVXUHSHWLFLyQ'LJRDORWURYLHMRRQXHYR
  102. 102. 5HFRPHQFHPRV 3(//e$6´¢4XpWLHQHV1RPHSDUHFHVIHOL] ³6tVtVRIHOL]SHURHVWRWULVWHµ 6+(//,1* ´/R HVHQFLDO GH OD WUDJHGLD HV @ XQ FRQIOLFWR UHDO HQWUH OD OLEHUWDG HQ HO VXMHWR OD QHFHVLGDG HQ WDQWR TXH REMHWLYD FRQIOLFWR TXH FRQFOXHQRFRQODGHUURWDGHXQDRGHODR WUDVLQRFXDQGRDPEDVDODYH] YHQFHGRUDV YHQFLGDV GHVHPERFDQ HQ OD LQGLIHUHQFLD SHUIHFWDµ FLWDGR SRU6]RQGL
  103. 103. :(57+(5´£2KTXHULGRPtRVLWHQVDUWRGRHOVHUHVGDUSUXHEDGHIXHU]D ¢SRUTXpWDQJUDQWHQVLyQVHUtDGHELOLGDGµV
  104. 104. -/% FRQYHUVDFLyQ 1,(7=6+(WRGRHVWRWRPDGRGH'HOHX]HVREUHODDILUPDFLyQGH ODDILUPDFLyQ
  105. 105. -/% 1LHW]VFKH Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  106. 106. 8QSHTXHxRSXQWRGHODQDUL] $/7(5$,Ð1 3URGXFFLyQ EUHYH HQ HO FDPSR DPRURVR GH XQD FRQWUDLPDJHQ GHO REMHWR DPDGR $O FDSULFKR G H LQFLGHQWHV tQILPRV R GH UDVJRVWHQXHVHOVXMHWRYHDOWHUDUVHHLQYHUWLUVHUHSHQWLQDPHQWHODEXHQD ,PDJHQ 5XVEURFN HVWi HQWHUUDGR GHVGH KDFH FLQFR DxRV OR GHVHQWLHUUDQ VX FXHUSR HVWi LQWDFWR SXUR £HYLGHQWHPHQWH VL QR VH DFDEDUtD OD KLVWRULD
  107. 107. SHUR ´KDEtD VRODPHQWHXQSHTXHxRSXQWRGHODQDUL]TXH OOHYDEDXQDPDUFDOLJHUDPDVXQDFODUDPDUFDGHFRUUXSFLyQµ6REUH ODILJXUDSHUIHFWDFRPRHPEDOVDPDGDGHORWURWDQWRPHIDVFLQD
  108. 108. SHUFLERGHUHSHQWHXQSXQWRGHFRUUXSFLyQ(VWHSXQWRHVPHQXGR XQ JHVWR XQD SDODEUD XQ REMHWR XQ WUDMH DOJR LQVyOLWR TXH VXUJH TXH GHVSXQWD
  109. 109. GH XQD UHJLyQ TXH MDPiV LPDJLQp TXH YLQFXOD EUXVFDPHQWHDOREMHWRDPDGRFRQXQPXQGRVLPSOH¢6HUiYXOJDUHO RWUR GH TXLHQ R DODEDED VX HOHJDQFLD RULJLQDOLGDG 'H SURQWR KDFHXQJHVWRSRUHOFXDOVHGHVFXEUHHQpORWUDUD]D(VWRDWyQLWR HVFXFKRXQFRQWUDUULWPRDOJRFRPRXQDVtQFRSDHQODEHOODIUDVHGHO VHU DPDGR HO UXLGR GH XQ GHVJDUUyQ HQ OD HQYROWXUD OLVD GH OD ,PDJHQ RPRODJDOOLQDGHOMHVXtWD.LUFKHUDODTXHVHOLEHUDGHODKLSQRVLV FRQ XQD OHYH SDOPDGD HVWR SURYLVLRQDOPHQWH GHIDVFLQDGR QR VLQ GRORU
  110. 110. 6H GLUtD TXH OD DOWHUDFLyQ GH OD ,PDJHQ VH SURGXFH FXDQGR VLHQWR YHUJHQ]DSRUHORWURHOPLHGRGHHVWDYHUJHQ]DDOGHFLUGH)HGUD PDQWHQtDDORV DPDQWHVJULHJRVHQODYtDGHO%LHQGHELHQGRFDGDXQR YLJLODU VX SURSLD LPDJHQ EDMR OD PLUDGD GHO RWUR
  111. 111. $KRUD ELHQ OD YHUJHQ]D YLHQH GH OD VXMHFLyQ HO RWUR D PHUFHG GH XQ LQFLGHQWH I~WLO TXH VyOR PL SHUVSLFDFLD R PL GHOLULR FDSWDQ DSDUHFH EUXVFDPHQWH ³VH GHVFXEUH VH GHVJDUUD VH UHYHOD HQ HO VHQWLGR IRWRJUiILFRGHOWpUPLQR³ FRPRVRPHWLGRDXQDLQVWDQFLDTXHHVHQVt PLVPD GHO RUGHQ GH OR VHUYLOORYHRGHSURQWRFXHVWLyQGHYLVLyQ
  112. 112. DIDQiQGRVH HQORTXHFLpQGRVH R VLPSOHPHQWH HPSHxiQGRVH HQ FRPSODFHU HQ UHVSHWDU HQ SOHJDUVH D ULWRV PXQGDQRV JUDFLDV D ORV FXDOHV HVSHUD KDFHUVH UHFRQRFHU 3RUTXH OD PDOD ,PDJHQ QR HV XQD LPDJHQDYLHVDHVXQDLPDJHQPH]TXLQDPHPXHVWUDDORWURSUHVRHQ ODVLPSOH]DGHOPXQGRVRFLDO2WDPELpQHORWURVHDOWHUDVLVHSUHVWD pOPLVPRDODVWULYLDOLGDGHVGHODVTXHHOPXQGRKDFHSURIHVLyQSDUD 5XVEURFN 'RVWRLHYVN %DQTXHWH +HLQH Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  113. 113. GHVSUHFLDUHODPRUHORWURVHYXHOYHJUHJDULR
  114. 114. 8QD YH] KDEODQGR GH QRVRWURV HO RWUR PH GLMR ´XQD UHODFLyQ GH FDOLGDGµ HVWD SDODEUD PH IXH GHVDJUDGDEOH YHQtD EUXVFDPHQWH GH IXHUDGHVGLEXMDQGRODVLQJXODULGDGGHODUHODFLyQEDMRXQDIyUPXOD FRQIRUPLVWD 0X D PHQXGR HV SRU HO OHQJXDMH TXH HO RWUR VH DOWHUD GLFH XQD SDODEUDGLIHUHQWHHVFXFKR]XPEDUGHXQDPDQHUDDPHQD]DQWHWRGR RWURPXQGRTXHHVHOPXQGRGHORWUR$OGHMDUHVFDSDU$OEHUWLQDOD H[SUHVLyQYXOJDU´KDFHUVHURPSHUHOWUDVHURµHOQDUUDGRUSURXVWLDQR VH KRUURUL]D SXHVWR TXH HV HO JXHWR WHPLGR GH OD KRPRVH[XDOLGDG IHPHQLQDGHODVHGXFFLyQJURVHUDORTXHVHHQFXHQWUDUHYHODGRGH JROSH WRGD XQD HVFHQD SRU HO RMR GH OD FHUUDGXUD GHO OHQJXDMH /D SDODEUDHVWiKHFKDGHXQDVXVWDQFLDTXtPLFDWHQXHTXHRSHUDODVPiV YLROHQWDVDOWHUDFLRQHVHORWURPDQWHQLGRODUJRWLHPSRHQHOFDSXOOR GH PL SURSLR GLVFXUVR GD D HQWHQGHU SRU XQD SDODEUD TXH VH OH HVFDSDORVOHQJXDMHVDORVTXHSXHGHUHFXUULUTXHSRUFRQVHFXHQFLD RWURVOHSUHVWDQ $YHFHVWDPELpQHORWURVHPHDSDUHFHVRPHWLGRDXQGHVHR3HUROR TXH URPSH OD DUPRQtD HQ pO QR HV D PLV RMRV XQ GHVHR DFDEDGR QRPEUDGR SODQWHDGR ELHQ GLULJLGR ³HQ WDO FDVR HVWDUtD VLPSOHPHQWH FHORVR OR TXH UHYHOD XQD UHSHUFXVLyQ GLVWLQWD
  115. 115. ³ HV VRODPHQWHXQGHVHRQDFLHQWHXQLPSXOVRGHGHVHRTXHGHWHFWRHQHO RWUR VLQ TXH pO PLVPR HVWp PX FRQVFLHQWH GH HOOR OR YHR HQ OD FRQYHUVDFLyQ DJLWDUVH PXOWLSOLFDUVH VREUHSDVDUVH SRQHUVH HQ SRVLFLyQ GH DSHWHQFLD UHVSHFWR GH XQ WHUFHUR FRPR VXVSHQVR GH pO SDUD VHGXFLUOR 2EVHUYHQ ELHQ WDO UHXQLyQ YHUiQ D HVH VXMHWR HQORTXHFLGRGLVFUHWDPXQGDQDPHQWH
  116. 116. SRUDTXHORWURLPSXOVDGRD HVWDEOHFHU FRQ pO XQD UHODFLyQ PiV FiOLGD PiV LQVLVWHQWH PiV HPSDODJRVDVRUSUHQGRDORWURSRUDVtGHFLUHQIODJUDQWHGHOLWRGH LQIODFLyQ GHVtPLVPR3HUFLERXQHQORTXHFLPLHQWRGHVHUTXHQRHVWi PX OHMRV GH OR TXH 6DGH OODPy OD HIHUYHVFHQFLD GH FDEH]D ´9L OD HVSHUPD EURWDU GH VXV RMRVµ
  117. 117. D SRFR TXH OD SHUVRQD VROLFLWDGD UHVSRQGD GH OD PLVPD PDQHUD OD HVFHQD VH KDFH LUULVRULD WHQJR OD YLVLyQGHGRVYLVLyQGHGRVSDYRUUHDOHVGHVSOHJDQGRODVFRODVXQR DQWH HO RWUR /D ,PDJHQ HVWi FRUURPSLGD SXHVWR TXH HO TXH YHR GH UHSHQWHHVHQWRQFHVRWUR QRDHORWUR
  118. 118. XQH[WUDxR¢XQORFR
  119. 119. $VtHQHOWUHQGH%LVNUD*LGHFHGLHQGRDOMXHJRGHWUHVHVFRODUHV DUJHOLQRV´DQKHODQWHMDGHDQWHµDQWHVXPXMHUTXHILQJtDOHHUWHQtD HODLUH´GHXQFULPLQDORGHXQORFRµ¢7RGRGHVHRTXHQRVHDHOPtR QRHVORFR
  120. 120. 3URXVW )ODXEHUW*LGH )ODXEHUW Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  121. 121. (OGLVFXUVRDPRURVRSRUORJHQHUDOHVXQDHQYROWXUDOLVDTXHVHFLxH D OD ,PDJHQ XQ JXDQWH PX VXDYH HQ WRUQR GHO VHU DPDGR (V XQ GLVFXUVR GHYRWR ELHQSHQVDQWH XDQGR OD ,PDJHQ VH DOWHUD OD HQYROWXUD GH GHYRFLyQ VH UDVJD XQD FRQPRFLyQ WUDVWRFD PL SURSLR OHQJXDMH+HULGRSRUXQSURSyVLWRTXHORVRUSUHQGH:HUWKHUYHGH SURQWRDDUORWDFRPRXQDSDUODQFKLQDFXDOTXLHUDODLQFOXHHQHO JUXSRGHODVDPLJDVFRQODVFXDOHVSDUORWHDQRHVDODRWUDVLQRRWUD HQWUH RWUDV
  122. 122. GLFH HQWRQFHV GHVGHxRVDPHQWH ´PLV PXMHUFLWDVµ PHLQH:HLEFKHQ
  123. 123. 8QDEODVIHPLDDVFLHQGHEUXVFDPHQWHDORVODELRVGHO VXMHWRYLHQHDURPSHULUUHVSHWXRVDPHQWHODEHQGLFLyQGHOHQDPRUD GRHVWiSRVHtGRSRUXQGHPRQLRTXHKDEODSRUVXERFDGHGRQGH VDOHQ FRPR HQ ORV FXHQWRV GH KDGDV QR D IORUHV VLQR VDSRV +RUULEOHUHIOXMRGHOD,PDJHQ (OKRUURUGHKHULUHVWRGDYtDPiVIXHUWHTXHODDQJXVWLDGHSHUGHU
  124. 124. '2672,(96.,PXHUWHGHO VWDUHWV=yVLPDHORORUGHOHWpUHRGHOFDGiYHU /RV KHUPDQRV.DUDPD]RY,,,9,,
  125. 125. +(,1( ´6LH VDVVHQ XQG WUDQNHQ DP 7HHWLVFKµ /ULVFKHV ,QWHUPH]]R
  126. 126. 352867/DSULVRQQLqUH,,,V )/$8%(57 ´8Q JROSH GH YLHQWR EUXVFR OHYDQWy ODV ViEDQDV YLHURQ GRV SDYRUUHDOHVXQPDFKRXQDKHPEUD/DKHPEUDVHPDQWHQtDLQPyYLOODV FRUYDVSOHJDGDVODJUXSDDODLUH(OPDFKRVHSDVHDEDDOUHGHGRUGHHOOD GHVSOHJDQGR VX FROD HQ DEDQLFR VDFDED HO SHFKR FORTXHDED GHVSXpV VDOWyHQFLPDDEDWLHQGRVXVSOXPDVTXHODFXEULHURQFRPRXQDFXQDODV GRV JUDQGHV DYHV VH HVWUHPHFLHURQ HQ XQ VROR WHPEORUµ %RXYDUG HW 3pFXFKHW
  127. 127. *,'((WQXQFPDQHWLQWH :(57+(5 :HUWKHU Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  128. 128. $JRQ $1*867,$ (O VXMHWR DPRURVR D PHUFHG GH WDO R FXDO FRQWLQJHQFLD VH VLHQWHDVDOWDGRSRUHOPLHGRDXQSHOLJURDXQDKHULGDDXQDEDQGRQRD XQDPXGDQ]D³VHQWLPLHQWRTXHH[SUHVDFRQHOQRPEUHGH DQJXVWLD (VWDQRFKHUHJUHVpVRORDOKRWHOHORWURGHFLGLyYROYHUPiVWDUGHHQOD PDGUXJDGD /DV DQJXVWLDV HVWiQ D DKtFRPRHOYHQHQRSUHSDUDGR ORVFHORVHODEDQGRQRODLQTXLHWXG
  129. 129. VyORHVSHUDQTXHSDVHXQSRFR GHWLHPSRSDUDSRGHUGHFODUDUVHGHFHQWHPHQWH7RPRXQOLEURXQ VRPQtIHUR ´VHUHQDPHQWHµ (O VLOHQFLR GH HVWH JUDQ KRWHO HV VRQRUR LQGLIHUHQWH LGLRWD PXUPXOOR OHMDQR GH ODV WLQDVTXHVHYDFtDQ
  130. 130. ORV PXHEOHV ODV OiPSDUDV VRQ HVW~SLGRV QR KD QDGD GH DPLVWRVR GRQGH EXVFDU iQLPR ´7HQJR IUtR YROYDPRV D 3DUtVµ
  131. 131. /D DQJXVWLD FUHFHREVHUYRVXSURJUHVLyQFRPR6yFUDWHVPLHQWUDVFRQYHUVDEDR R PLHQWUDV OHtD
  132. 132. VHQWtD HOHYDUVH HO IUtR GH OD FLFXWD OD HVFXFKR QRPEUDUVHHOHYDUVHFRPRXQDILJXUDLQH[RUDEOHVREUHHOIRQGRGH ODV FRVDV TXH HVWiQ DKt ¢ VL SDUD TXH DOJR SDVH KLFLHUD R XQD SURPHVD
  133. 133. (O SVLFyWLFR YLYH HQ HO WHPRU GHO GHVPRURQDPLHQWR GHO TXH ODV GLIHUHQWHV SVLFRVLV QR VHUtDQ PiV TXH GHIHQVDV
  134. 134. 3HUR ´HO WHPRU FOtQLFRDOGHVPRURQDPLHQWRHVHOWHPRUDXQGHVPRURQDPLHQWRTXH KDVLGRDH[SHULPHQWDGRSULPLWLYH DJRQ
  135. 135. @KDPRPHQWRVHQ TXH XQ SDFLHQWH WLHQH QHFHVLGDG GH TXH VH OH GLJD TXH HO GHVPRURQDPLHQWR FXR WHPRU PLQD VX YLGD KD RFXUULGR Dµ /R PLVPRDOSDUHFHUHVYiOLGRSDUDODDQJXVWLDGHDPRUHVHOWHPRUGH XQGXHORTXHDVHKDYHULILFDGRGHVGHHORULJHQGHODPRUGHVGHHO PRPHQWR HQ TXH KH VLGR UDSWDGR 6HUtD QHFHVDULR TXH DOJXLHQ SXGLHUDGHFLUPH´1RHVWpVPiVDQJXVWLDGRDORD
  136. 136. KDVSHUGLGRµ :,11,277´/DFUDLQWHGHO·HIIRQGUHPHQWµ :LQQLFRWW Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  137. 137. $PDUHODPRU $18/$,Ð1 ([SORVLyQ GH OHQJXDMH HQ HO FXUVR GHO FXDO HO VXMHWR OOHJD D DQXODUDOREMHWRDPDGREDMRHOSHVRGHODPRUPLVPRSRUXQDSHUYHUVLyQ WtSLFDPHQWHDPRURVDORTXHHOVXMHWRDPDHVHODPR UQRHOREMHWR DUORWDHVPXLQVXOVDHVHOSREUHSHUVRQDMHGHXQDHVFHQLILFDFLyQ IXHUWH DWRUPHQWDGD EULOODQWH PRQWDGD SRU HO VXMHWR :HUWKHU SRU XQDGHFLVLyQJUDFLRVDGHHVWHVXMHWRXQREMHWRJURWHVFRHVWiXELFDGR HQ HO FHQWUR GH OD HVFHQD DOOt HV DGRUDGR LGRODWUDGR LQFUHSDGR FXELHUWR GH GLVFXUVRV GH RUDFLRQHV WDO YH] HQ VHFUHWR GH LQYHFWLYDV
  138. 138. VH GLUtD XQD JUDQ SDORPD LQPyYLO HQFRJLGD EDMR VXV SOXPDVHQWRUQRGHODFXDOJLUDXQPDFKRXQSRFRORFR%DVWDTXH HQXQUHOiPSDJRYHD DORWUREDMRODHVSHFLHGHXQREMHWRLQHUWHFRPR GLVHFDGR SDUD TXH WUDVODGH PL GHVHR GH HVWH REMHWR DQXODGR D PL GHVHRPLVPRHVPLGHVHRORTXHGHVHRHOVHUDPDGRQRHVPiVTXH VX DJHQWH 0H H[DOWR SHQVDQGR HQ XQD FDXVD WDQ JUDQGH TXH GHMD PX DWUiV GH Vt D ODSHUVRQDGHODTXHKHKHFKRVXSUHWH[WRHVOR PHQRVTXHPHGLJRIHOL]GHHOHYDUPHKXPLOODQGRDORWUR
  139. 139. VDFULILFR ODLPDJHQDOR,PDJLQDULRVLXQGtDOOHJDHQTXHPHHVQHFHVDULR UHQXQFLDUDORWUR HOGXHORYLROHQWRTXHPHHPEDUJDHQWRQFHV HVHO GXHORGHOR,PDJLQDULRPLVPRHUDXQDHVWUXFWXUDTXHULGDOORUROD SpUGLGD GHO DPRU QR GH WDO R FXDO 4XLHUR UHJUHVDU DOOt FRPR OD VHFXHVWUDGDGH3RLWLHUVDVXJUDQIXQGR0DOHPSLD
  140. 140. +HDTXtSXHVDORWURDQXODGREDMRHOSHVRGHODPRUGHHVWDDQXODFLyQ H[WUDLJRXQSURYHFKRVHJXURVLXQDKHULGDDFFLGHQWDOPHDPHQD]D XQDLGHDGHFHORVSRUHMHPSOR
  141. 141. ODUHDEVRUERHQODPDJQLILFHQFLDOD DEVWUDFFLyQGHOVHQWLPLHQWRDPRURVRPHWUDQTXLOL]RDOGHVHDUORTXH HVWDQGR DXVHQWH QR SXHGH D KHULUPH 6LQ HPEDUJR DO PLVPR WLHPSR VXIUR DO YHU DO RWUR TXH DPR
  142. 142. DVt GLVPLQXLGR UHGXFLGR FRPRH[FOXLGRGHOVHQWLPLHQWRTXHKDVXVFLWDGR0HVLHQWRFXOSDEOH PHUHSURFKRSRUDEDQGRQDUOR6HRSHUDXQEUXVFRYLUDMHWUDWRGH GHVDQXODUORPHREOLJRDVXIULUGH QXHYR :HUWKHU *LGH RUWH]LD Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  143. 143. 6HUDVFpWLFR $6(6,6 D VHD TXH VH VLHQWD FXOSDEOH FRQ UHVSHFWR DO VHU DPDGR R TXH TXLHUD LPSUHVLRQDUOR UHSUHVHQWiQGROH VX LQIRUWXQLR HO VXMHWR DPRURVR HVER]D XQD FRQGXFWD DVFpWLFD GH DXWRFDVWLJR UpJLPHQ GH YLGD LQGXPHQWDULDHWFpWHUD
  144. 144. 3XHVWRTXHRVRFXOSDEOHGHHVWRGHDTXHOORWHQJRPHGRPLO UD]RQHVSDUDVHUOR
  145. 145. PHYRDFDVWLJDUYRDPDOWUDWDUPLFXHUSRPH FRUWDUpORVFDEHOORVPXFRUWRVRFXOWDUpPLPLUDGDGHWUiVGHOHQWHV RVFXURVFRPRSDUDHQWUDUDOFRQYHQWR
  146. 146. PHHQWUHJDUpDOHVWXGLRGH XQD FLHQFLD VHULD DEVWUDFWD 0H OHYDQWDUp WHPSUDQR SDUD WUDEDMDU FXDQGRHVWRGDYtDGHQRFKHFRPRXQPRQMH6HUpPXSDFLHQWHXQ SRFRWULVWHHQXQDSDODEUDGLJQRFRPRFRUUHVSRQGHDOKRPEUHGHO UHVHQWLPLHQWR 5HPDUFDUp KLVWpULFDPHQWH PL GXHOR HO GXHOR TXH SUHVXPR
  147. 147. HQPLYHVWLPHQWDHQHOFRUWHGHSHORHQODUHJXODULGDGGH PLVKiELWRV6HUiXQUHWLURDSDVLEOHMXVWRHVHSRFRGHUHWLURQHFHVDULR SDUDHOEXHQIXQFLRQDPLHQWRGHXQSDWpWLFRGLVFUHWR /D DVFHVLV OD YHOHLGDG GH OD DVFHVLV
  148. 148. VH GLULJH DO RWUR UHJUHVD PtUDPHPLUDORTXHKDFHVGHPt(VXQFKDQWDMHSRQJRIUHQWHDORWUR OD ILJXUD GH PL SURSLD GHVDSDULFLyQ WDO FRPR VH SURGXFLUi VHJXUDPHQWHVLQRFHGH¢DTXp
  149. 149. Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  150. 150. $WRSRV $72326 (OVHUDPDGRHVUHFRQRFLGRSRUHOVXMHWRDPRURVRFRPR´iWRSRVµ FDOLILFDFLyQ GDGD D 6yFUDWHV SRU VXV LQWHUORFXWRUHV
  151. 151. HV GHFLU FRPR LQFODVLILFDEOHGHXQDRULJLQDOLGDGLQFHVDQWHPHQWHLPSUHYLVLEOH /D DWRStD GH 6yFUDWHV HVWi OLJDGD D (URV 6yFUDWHV HV FRUWHMDGR SRU $OFLELDGHV
  152. 152. DO 3H] WRUSHGR 6yFUDWHV HOHFWUL]D DGRUPHFH D 0HQyQ
  153. 153. (V iWRSRV HO RWUR TXH DPR TXH PH IDVFLQD 1R SXHGR FODVLILFDUORSXHVWRTXHHVSUHFLVDPHQWHHOÔQLFROD,PDJHQVLQJXODU TXHKDYHQLGRPLODJURVDPHQWHDUHVSRQGHUDODHVSHFLILFLGDGGHPL GHVHR(VODILJXUDGHPLYHUGDGQRSXHGHVHUWRPDGRDSDUWLUGH QLQJ~QHVWHUHRWLSRTXHHVODYHUGDGGHORVRWURV
  154. 154. 6LQHPEDUJRDPpRDPDUpPXFKDVYHFHVHQPLYLGD¢2FXUUHSXHV TXHPLGHVHRSRUHVSHFLDOTXHVHDVHDIHUUDDXQWLSR¢0LGHVHRHV SRU OR WDQWR FODVLILFDEOH ¢+D HQWUH WRGRV ORV VHUHV TXH DPp XQ UDVJRFRP~QXQRVRORSRUWHQXHTXHVHDXQDQDUL]XQDSLHOXQ DLUH
  155. 155. TXH PH SHUPLWD GHFLU £KH DTXt PL WLSR ´(V WRWDOPHQWH PL WLSRµ ´1R HV GHO WRGR PL WLSRµ SDODEUD GH FRQTXLVWDGRU HO HQDPRUDGRQRHVHQUHDOLGDGVLQRXQFRQTXLVWDGRUPiVGLItFLOTXH EXVFDWRGDODYLGD´VXWLSRµ¢(QTXpULQFyQGHOFXHUSRDGYHUVDULR GHEROHHUPLYHUGDG /DDWRStDGHORWURODVRUSUHQGRHQVXPLUDGDFDGDYH]TXHOHRHQ HOOD VX LQRFHQFLD VX JUDQ LQRFHQFLD QRVDEHQDGDGHOPDOTXHPH KDFH R SDUD GHFLUOR FRQ PHQRV pQIDVLV GHO PDO TXH PH GD ¢(O LQRFHQWHQRHVLQFODVLILFDEOHSRUFRQVLJXLHQWHVRVSHFKRVRSDUDWRGD VRFLHGDG TXH QR ´VH UHHQFXHQWUDµ VLQR DOOt GRQGH SXHGH FODVLILFDU )DOWDV
  156. 156. ;WHQtDSRUFLHUWR´UDVJRVGHFDUiFWHUµSRUORVFXDOHVQRHUDGLItFLO GH FODVLILFDU HUD ´LQGLVFUHWRµ ´DVWXWRµ ´SHUH]RVRµ HWFpWHUD
  157. 157. SHUR HQGRVRWUHVRFDVLRQHVPHKDEtDVLGRSRVLEOHOHHUHQVXVRMRVXQD H[SUHVLyQ GH WDO LQRFHQFLD QR KD RWUD SDODEUD
  158. 158. TXH PH REVWLQDED VXFHGLHUDORTXHVXFHGLHVHHQSRQHUORGHDOJ~QPRGRDSDUWHGHVt PLVPR IXHUD GH VX SURSLR FDUiFWHU (Q HVH PRPHQWR OR H[LPt GH WRGRFRPHQWDULRRPRLQRFHQFLDODDWRStDUHVLVWHDODGHVFULSFLyQD ODGHILQLFLyQDOOHQJXDMHTXHHVPDDFODVLILFDFLyQGHORV1RPEUHV GHODV)DOWDV
  159. 159. $WySLFRHORWURKDFHWHPEODUHOOHQJXDMHQRVHSXHGH KDEODU GH pO VREUH pO WRGR DWULEXWR HV IDOVR GRORURVR WRUSH PRUWLILFDQWHHORWURHVLQFDOLILFDEOHHVHVHUtDHOYHUGDGHURVHQWLGRGH 1LHW]VFKH Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  160. 160. iWRSRV
  161. 161. )UHQWHDODRULJLQDOLGDGEULOODQWHGHORWURQRPHVLHQWRMDPiViWRSRV VLQR PiV ELHQ FODVLILFDGR FRPR XQ H[SHGLHQWH PX FRQRFLGR
  162. 162. $ YHFHV VLQ HPEDUJR OOHJR D VXVSHQGHU HO MXHJR GH ODV LPiJHQHV GHVLJXDOHV ´£4XH QR SXHGD R VHU WDQ RULJLQDO WDQ IXHUWH FRPR HO RWURµ
  163. 163. LQWXRTXHHOYHUGDGHUROXJDUGHODRULJLQDOLGDGQRHVQLHO RWUR QL R VLQR QXHVWUD SURSLD UHODFLyQ (V OD RULJLQDOLGDG GH OD UHODFLyQORTXHHVSUHFLVRFRQTXLVWDU/DPDRUSDUWHGHODVKHULGDV PHYLHQHQGHOHVWHUHRWLSRHVWRREOLJDGRDKDFHUPHHO HQDPRUDGR FRPRWRGRHOPXQGRDHVWDUFHORVRDEDQGRQDGRIUXVWUDGRFRPR WRGRHOPXQGR3HURFXDQGRODUHODFLyQHVRULJLQDO HOHVWHUHRWLSRHV FRQPRYLGRUHEDVDGRHOLPLQDGRORVFHORVSRUHMHPSORQRWLHQHQ D HVSDFLR HQ HVD UHODFLyQ VLQ OXJDU VLQ WRSRV VLQ ´SODQRµ ³VLQ GLVFXUVR 1,(7=6+( VREUH OD DWRStD GH 6yFUDWHV 0LFKHO *XpULQ 1LHW]VFKH 6RFUDWH KpU|LTXH 5+FRQYHUVDFLyQ 5+ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  164. 164. (ODXVHQWH $86(1,$ 7RGRHSLVRGLRGHOHQJXDMHTXHSRQHHQHVFHQDODDXVHQFLDGHO REMHWR DPDGR ³VHDQ FXDOHV IXHUHQ OD FDXVD OD GXUDFLyQ ³ WLHQGH D WUDQVIRUPDUHVWDDXVHQFLDHQSUXHEDGHDEDQGRQR +DPXFKRVOLHGHUPHORGtDVFDQFLRQHVVREUHODDXVHQFLDDPRURVD VLQHPEDUJRQRHQFRQWUDPRVHVWDILJXUDFOiVLFDHQ:HUWKHU/DUD]yQ HVVLPSOHDTXtHOREMHWRDPDGRDUORWD
  165. 165. QRVHPXHYHHVHOVXMHWR DPRURVR:HUWKHU
  166. 166. TXLHQHQFLHUWRPRPHQWRVHDOHMD$KRUDELHQQR KDDXVHQFLDPiVTXHGHORWURHVHORWURTXLHQSDUWHVRRTXLHQ PH TXHGR (O RWUR VH HQFXHQWUD HQ HVWDGR GH SHUSHWXD SDUWLGD GH YLDMHHVSRUYRFDFLyQPLJUDWRULRKXLGL]RRVRRTXHDPRSRU YRFDFLyQ LQYHUVD VHGHQWDULR LQPyYLO SUHGLVSXHVWR HQ HVSHUD HQFRJLGR HQ PL OXJDU HQ VXIULPLHQWR FRPR XQ EXOWR HQ XQ ULQFyQ SHUGLGR GH XQD HVWDFLyQ /D DXVHQFLD DPRURVD YD VRODPHQWH HQ XQ VHQWLGRQRSXHGHVXSRQHUVHVLQRDSDUWLUGHTXLHQVHTXHGD³QR GHTXLHQSDUWH³RVLHPSUHSUHVHQWHQRVHFRQVWLWXHPiVTXHDQWH W~VLHPSUHDXVHQWH6XSRQHUODDXVHQFLDHVGHHQWUDGDSODQWHDUTXH HOOXJDUGHOVXMHWRHOOXJDUGHORWURQRVHSXHGHQSHUPXWDUHVGHFLU ´6RPHQRVDPDGRGHORTXHDPRµ +LVWyULFDPHQWHHOGLVFXUVRGHODDXVHQFLDORSURQXQFLDOD0XMHUOD 0XMHUHVVHGHQWDULDHO+RPEUHHVFD]DGRUYLDMHUROD0XMHUHVILHO HVSHUD
  167. 167. HO+RPEUHHVURQGDGRUQDYHJDU~D
  168. 168. (VOD0XMHUTXLHQGD IRUPD D OD DXVHQFLD TXLHQ HODERUD VX ILFFLyQ SXHVWR TXH WLHQH HO WLHPSRSDUDHOORWHMHFDQWDODV+LODQGHUDVORVDQWRVGHWHMHGRUDV GLFHQDODYH]ODLQPRYLOLGDGSRUHOURQURQHRGHO7RUQRGHKLODU
  169. 169. OD DXVHQFLDDOROHMRVULWPRVGHYLDMHPDUHMDGDVFDEDOJDWDV
  170. 170. 6HVLJXH GHHOORTXHHQWRGRKRPEUHTXHGLFHODDXVHQFLDGHORWURORIHPHQLQR VHGHFODUDHVWHKRPEUHTXHHVSHUDTXHVXIUHHVWiPLODJURVDPHQWH IHPLQL]DGR 8Q KRPEUH QR HVWi IHPLQL]DGR SRUTXH VHD LQYHUWLGR VLQRSRUHVWDUHQDPRUDGR0LWRXWRStDHORULJHQKDSHUWHQHFLGRHO SRUYHQLUSHUWHQHFHUiDORVVXMHWRVHQTXLHQHVH[LVWHORIHPHQLQR
  171. 171. $ YHFHV RFXUUH TXH VRSRUWR ELHQ OD DXVHQFLD (VWR HQWRQFHV ´QRUPDOµPHDMXVWRDODPDQHUDHQTXH´WRGRHOPXQGRµVRSRUWDOD SDUWLGD GH XQD ´SHUVRQD TXHULGDµ REHGH]FR FRQ HILFDFLD DO DGLHVWUDPLHQWRSRUHOFXDOVHPHKDGDGRPXWHPSUDQRHOKiELWRGH HVWDUVHSDUDGRGHPLPDGUH³ORTXHQRGHMyVLQHPEDUJRGHVHU :HUWKHU +XJR (% Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  172. 172. GRORURVR SRU QR GHFLU HQORTXHFHGRU
  173. 173. $FW~R FRPR XQ VXMHWR ELHQ GHVWHWDGR Vp DOLPHQWDUPH PLHQWUDV HVSHUR GH RWUDV FRVDV TXH QR YLHQHQGHOVHQRPDWHUQR6LVHVRSRUWDELHQHVWDDXVHQFLDQRHVPiV TXH HO ROYLGR 6R LUUHJXODUPHQWH LQILHO (V OD FRQGLFLyQ GH PL VXSHUYLYHQFLDVLQRROYLGDUDPRULUtD(OHQDPRUDGRTXHQRROYLGDD YHFHV PXHUH SRU H[FHVR IDWLJD WHQVLyQ GH PHPRULDV FRPR :HUWKHU
  174. 174. 6LHQGR QLxR QR ROYLGDED MRUQDGDV LQWHUPLQDEOHV MRUQDGDV DEDQGRQDGDVHQTXHOD0DGUHWUDEDMDEDOHMRVRLEDDODWDUGHFHUD HVSHUDUVXUHJUHVRDODSDUDGDGHODXWRE~V8ELV HQ6qYUHV%DEORQH PXFKDVYHFHVSDVDEDQORVDXWREXVHVXQRWUDVRWURHOODQRDSDUHFtD HQQLQJXQR
  175. 175. 0XSURQWRGHVSHUWpGHHVWHROYLGR$SUHVXUDGDPHQWHSXVHHQVX OXJDUXQDPHPRULDXQGHVDVRVLHJR8QDSDODEUDFOiVLFD
  176. 176. YLHQHGHO FXHUSRTXHGLFHODHPRFLyQGHODDXVHQFLDVXVSLUDU´VXVSLUDUDQWHOD SUHVHQFLDFRUSRUDOµODVGRVPLWDGHVGHODQGUyJLQRVXVSLUDQXQDDQWH OD RWUD FRPR VL FDGD KiOLWR LQFRPSOHWR TXLVLHUD PH]FODUVH FRQ HO RWUR LPDJHQ GHO DEUD]R HQ FXDQWR IXQGHODVGRVLPiJHQHVHQXQD VRODHQODDXVHQFLDDPRURVDVRWULVWHPHQWHXQDLPDJHQGHVDSHJDGD TXHVHVHFDVHDPDULOOHDVHHQFRJH ¢yPRHOGHVHRQRHVVLHPSUHHOPLVPRHVWpSUHVHQWHRDXVHQWHHO REMHWR ¢(O REMHWR QR HVWi VLHPSUH DXVHQWH ³1R HV OD PLVPD ODQJXLGH]KDGRVSDODEUDV3RWKRVSDUDHOGHVHRGHOVHUDXVHQWHH +LPHURVPiVSDOSLWDQWHSDUDHOGHVHRGHOVHUSUHVHQWH
  177. 177. 'LULMR VLQ FHVDU DO DXVHQWH HO GLVFXUVR GH VX DXVHQFLD VLWXDFLyQ HQ VXPD LQDXGLWD HO RWUR HVWi DXVHQWH FRPR UHIHUHQWH SUHVHQWH FRPR DORFXWRU 'H HVWD GLVWRUVLyQ VLQJXODU QDFH XQD VXHUWH GH SUHVHQWH LQVRVWHQLEOH HVWR DWUDSDGR HQWUH GRV WLHPSRV HO WLHPSR GH OD UHIHUHQFLDHOWLHPSRGHODDORFXFLyQKDVSDUWLGRGHHOORPHTXHMR
  178. 178. HVWiVDKtSXHVWRTXHPHGLULMRDWL
  179. 179. 6pHQWRQFHVORTXHHVHOSUHVHQWH HVHWLHPSRGLItFLOXQPHURIUDJPHQWRGHDQJXVWLD /DDXVHQFLDGXUDPHHVQHFHVDULRVRSRUWDUOD9RSXHVDPDQLSXODUOD WUDVIRUPDUODGLVWRUVLyQGHOWLHPSRHQYDLYpQSURGXFLUULWPRDEULUOD HVFHQD GHO OHQJXDMH HO OHQJXDMH QDFH GH OD DXVHQFLD HO QLxR VH DJHQFLDXQFDUUHWHGHKLORORODQ]DORUHFXSHUDLPLWDQGRODSDUWLGD HOUHJUHVRGHODPDGUHVHFUHDDVtXQSDUDGLJPD
  180. 180. /DDXVHQFLDVH FRQYLHUWHHQXQDSUiFWLFDDFWLYDHQXQDMHWUHRTXHPHLPSLGHKDFHU FXDOTXLHURWUDFRVD
  181. 181. HQpOVHFUHDXQDILFFLyQGHP~OWLSOHVIXQFLRQHV GXGDV UHSURFKHV GHVHRV PHODQFROtDV
  182. 182. (VWD HVFHQLILFDFLyQ 5XVEURFN %DQTXHWH 'LGHURW *ULHJR :HUWKHU Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  183. 183. OLQJtVWLFD DOHMD OD PXHUWH GHO RWUR XQ PRPHQWR PX EUHYH GLJDPRV VHSDUD HO WLHPSR HQ TXH HO QLxR FUHH WRGDYtD D VX PDGUH DXVHQWHDTXpOHQTXHODFUHHDPXHUWD0DQLSXODUODDXVHQFLDHV DSOD]DU HVWH PRPHQWR UHWDUGDU WDQWR WLHPSR FRPR VHD SRVLEOH HO LQVWDQWHHQTXHHORWURSRGUtDFDHUGHVFDUQDGDPHQWHGHODDXVHQFLDD ODPXHUWH /DIUXVWUDFLyQWHQGUtDSRUILJXUDOD3UHVHQFLDYHRWRGRVORVGtDVDO RWUR VLQ HPEDUJR QR PH VLHQWR FROPDGR HO REMHWR HVWi DKt UHDOPHQWH SHUR FRQWLQ~D IDOWiQGRPH LPDJLQDULDPHQWH
  184. 184. /D FDVWUDFLyQWHQGUtDSRUILJXUDOD,QWHUPLWHQFLDDFHSWRGHMDUXQSRFRDO RWUR ´VLQ OORUDUµ DVXPR HO GXHOR GH OD UHODFLyQ Vp ROYLGDU
  185. 185. /D $XVHQFLD HV OD ILJXUD GH OD SULYDFLyQ D XQ WLHPSR GHVHR WHQJR QHFHVLGDG(OGHVHRVHHVWUHOODFRQWUDODQHFHVLGDGHVWiDKtHOKHFKR REVHVLYRGHOVHQWLPLHQWRDPRURVR ´(OGHVHRHVWiDKtDUGLHQWHHWHUQRSHUR'LRVHVPiVDOWRTXHpO ORV EUD]RV OHYDQWDGRV GHO 'HVHR QR DOFDQ]DQ QXQFD OD SOHQLWXG DGRUDGDµ (O GLVFXUVR GH OD $XVHQFLD HV XQ WH[WR FRQ GRV LGHRJUDPDV HVWiQ ORV EUD]RV OHYDQWDGRV GHO 'HVHR HVWiQ ORV EUD]RV H[WHQGLGRVGHOD1HFHVLGDG2VFLORYDFLORHQWUHODLPDJHQIiOLFDGHORV EUD]RVOHYDQWDGRVODLPDJHQLQIDQWLOGHORVEUD]RVH[WHQGLGRV
  186. 186. 0HLQVWDORVRORHQXQFDIpYLHQHQDVDOXGDUPHPHVLHQWRURGHDGR VROLFLWDGR KDODJDGR 3HUR HO RWUR HVWi DXVHQWH OR FRQYRFR HQ Pt PLVPR SDUD TXH PH UHWHQJD DO PDUJHQ GH HVWD FRPSODFHQFLD PXQGDQDTXH PHDFHFKD$SHORDVtDVX´YHUGDGµODYHUGDGGHOD TXHpOPHGDODVHQVDFLyQ
  187. 187. FRQWUDODKLVWHULDGHVHGXFFLyQHQODTXH VLHQWR GHVOL]DUPH +DJR UHVSRQVDEOH D OD DXVHQFLD GHO RWUR GH PL PXQGDQLGDGLQYRFRVXSURWHFFLyQVXUHJUHVRTXHHORWURDSDUH]FD TXHPHUHWLUHFRPRXQDPDGUHTXHYLHQHDEXVFDUDVXKLMRGHOEULOOR PXQGDQDO GH OD LQIDWXDFLyQ VRFLDO TXH PH UHVWLWXD ´OD LQWLPLGDG UHOLJLRVDODJUDYHGDGµGHOPXQGRDPRURVR ; PH GHFtD TXH HO DPRU OR KDEtD SURWHJLGR GH OD PXQGDQLGDG FDPDULOODV DPELFLRQHV SURPRFLRQHV WUHWDV DOLDQ]DV HVFLVLRQHV IXQFLRQHVSRGHUHVHODPRUKDEtDKHFKRGHpOXQGHVHFKRVRFLDOGH ORTXHVHUHJRFLMDED
  188. 188. 8QNRiQE~GLFRGLFHORTXHVLJXH´(OPDHVWURPDQWLHQHODFDEH]DGHO GLVFtSXOR EDMR HO DJXD PXFKR WLHPSR PXFKR SRFR D SRFR ODV EXUEXMDV VH HVSDFLDQ HQ HO ~OWLPR PRPHQWR HO PDHVWUR VDFD DO GLVFtSXOR OR UHDQLPD FXDQGR KDDV GHVHDGR OD YHUGDG FRPR KDV GHVHDGRHODLUHHQWRQFHVVDEUiVORTXHHVµ/DDXVHQFLDGHORWURPH :LQQLFRWW 5XVEURFN 66 Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  189. 189. PDQWLHQHODFDEH]DEDMRHODJXDSRFRD SRFRPHDKRJRPLDLUHVH UDULILFD HQ HVWD DVIL[LD UHFRQVWUXR PL ´YHUGDGµ SUHSDUR OR ,QWUDWDEOHGHODPRU +8*2´0XMHU¢DTXLpQOORUDV ³$ODXVHQWHµ/·DEVHQWSRHPDDOTXHSXVR P~VLFD)DXUp
  190. 190. (%FDUWD ','(527 ´,QFOLQDWXVODELRVVREUHPt TXHDOVDOLUGHPLERFD 0LDOPDVHYLHUWDHQWLµ KDQVRQGDQVOHJR€WGHODURPDQFH
  191. 191. *5,(*2'pWLHQQH 586%52. 66.RiQUHODWDGRSRU66 Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  192. 192. /DFDUWDGHDPRU $57$/DILJXUDHQIRFDODGLDOpFWLFDSDUWLFXODUGHODFDUWDGHD PRUDOD YH] YDFtD FRGLILFDGD
  193. 193. H[SUHVLYD FDUJDGD GH JDQDV GH VLJQLILFDU HO GHVHR
  194. 194. XDQGR:HUWKHUHQVXSXHVWRFRQHO(PEDMDGRU
  195. 195. HVFULEHDDUORWD VXFDUWDVLJXHHOVLJXLHQWHSODQ£4XpJR]RSHQVDUHQXVWHG0H HQFXHQWURDTXtHQXQDPELHQWHPXQGDQRVLQXVWHGPHVLHQWRPX VROR0HHQFRQWUpFRQDOJXLHQODVHxRULWDGH%
  196. 196. TXHVHOHSDUHFH FRQ TXLHQ SXHGR KDEODU GH XVWHG +DJR YRWRV SRU TXH QRV UHXQDPRV³8QDVRODLQIRUPDFLyQYDYDULDQGRDODPDQHUDGHXQ WHPDPXVLFDOSLHQVRHQXVWHG¢4XpTXLHUHGHFLU´SHQVDUHQDOJXLHQµ 4XLHUHGHFLUROYLGDUORVLQROYLGRQRKDYLGDSRVLEOH
  197. 197. GHVSHUWDUD PHQXGRGHHVHROYLGR 0XFKDVFRVDVSRUDVRFLDFLyQWHUHFXHUGDQHQPLGLVFXUVR´3HQVDU HQWLµQRTXLHUHGHFLURWUDFRVDTXHHVDPHWRQLPLD3XHVWRTXHHQVt HVH SHQVDPLHQWR HVWi YDFtR QR WH SLHQVR VLPSOHPHQWH WH KDJR DSDUHFHU HQ OD PLVPD SURSRUFLyQ HQ TXH WH ROYLGR
  198. 198. (V HVWD IRUPD HVWHULWPR
  199. 199. TXHOODPR´SHQVDPLHQWRµQRWHQJRQDGDTXHGHFLUWHVLQR TXHHVWHQDGDHVDWLDTXLHQORGLJR ´¢3RUTXpKHUHFXUULGRGHQXHYRDODHVFULWXUD 1R KDFH IDOWD TXHULGD SODQWHDU FXHVWLyQ WDQ FODUD SRUTXH HQ YHUGDG QR WHQJR QDGD TXH GHFLUWH WXV TXHULGDV PDQRV GH WRGRV PRGRVUHFLELUiQHVWDHVTXHODµ ´3HQVDUHQ+XEHUWµHVFULEHFyPLFDPHQWH HQVXDJHQGDHOQDUUDGRU GH3DOXGHVTXHHVHOOLEURGHOD1DGD
  200. 200. ´2EVHUYH ELHQ ³HVFULEH OD PDUTXHVD GH 0HUWHXLO³ TXH FXDQGR HVFULEHDDOJXLHQHVSDUDpOQRSDUDXVWHGGHEHSXHVEXVFDUPHQRV GHFLUOHORTXHSLHQVDTXHORTXHOHDJUDGDPiVµ/DPDUTXHVDQRHVWi HQDPRUDGD OR TXH HOOD SRVWXOD HV XQDFRUUHVSRQGHQFLD HV GHFLU XQD HPSUHVD WiFWLFD GHVWLQDGD D GHIHQGHU SRVLFLRQHV D DVHJXUDU FRQTXLVWDV HVWD HPSUHVD GHEH UHFRQRFHU ORV OXJDUHV ORV VXEFRQMXQWRV
  201. 201. GHO FRQMXQWR DGYHUVR HV GHFLU GHWDOODUODLPDJHQGHO RWURHQSXQWRVYDULDGRVTXHODFDUWDLQWHQWDUiWRFDUVHWUDWDSXHVGH XQD YHUGDGHUD FRUUHVSRQGHQFLD HQ HO VHQWLGR FDVL PDWHPiWLFR GHO WpUPLQR
  202. 202. 3HURODFDUWDSDUDHOHQDPRUDGRQRWLHQHYDORUWiFWLFRHV :HUWKHU )UHXG *RHWKH *LGH /LDLVRQV 'DQJHUHXVHV $ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  203. 203. SXUDPHQWH H[SUHVLYD ³HQ ULJRU DGXODGRUD SHUR OD DGXODFLyQ QR HV DTXtHQDEVROXWRLQWHUHVDGDQRHVVLQRODSDODEUDGHODGHYRFLyQ
  204. 204. ³ ORTXHHQWDEORFRQHORWURHVXQDUHODFLyQQRXQDFRUUHVSRQGHQFLDOD UHODFLyQSRQHHQFRQWDFWRGRVLPiJHQHV8VWHGHVWiHQWRGDVSDUWHV VXLPDJHQHVWRWDOHVFULEHGHGLYHUVDVPDQHUDV:HUWKHUDDUORWD RPR GHVHR OD FDUWD GH DPRU HVSHUD VX UHVSXHVWD REOLJD LPSOtFLWDPHQWHDORWURDUHVSRQGHUDIDOWDGHORFXDOVXLPDJHQVH DOWHUDVHYXHOYHRWUD(VORTXHH[SOLFDFRQDXWRULGDGHOMRYHQ)UHXG DVXQRYLD´1RTXLHURVLQHPEDUJRTXHPLVFDUWDVTXHGHQVLHPSUH VLQ UHVSXHVWD GHMDUtD GH LQPHGLDWR GH HVFULELUWH VL QR PH UHVSRQGHV3HUSHWXRVPRQyORJRVDSURSyVLWRGHXQVHUDPDGRTXH QRVRQQLUHFWLILFDGRVQLDOLPHQWDGRVSRUHOVHUDPDGRGHVHPERFDQ HQ LGHDV HUUyQHDV VREUH ODV UHODFLRQHV PXWXDV QRV YXHOYHQ H[WUDxRVXQRDORWURFXDQGRQRVHQFRQWUDPRVGHQXHYRKDOODPRV FRVDV GLIHUHQWHV D ODV TXH VLQ DVHJXUDUQRV GH HOOR KDEtDPRV LPDJLQDGRµ $TXHO TXH DFHSWDUD ODV ´LQMXVWLFLDVµ GH OD FRPXQLFDFLyQ TXH FRQWLQXDUD KDEODQGR OLJHUD PHQWH WLHUQDPHQWH VLQTXHVHOHUHVSRQGDDGTXLULUtDXQDJUDQPDHVWUtDODGHOD0DGUH
  205. 205. :(57+(5 )5(8'DVXQRYLD0DUWKD´£$KHVHKRUWHODQR%QVORZ£4XpRSRUWXQLGDG WLHQHGHSRGHUDOEHUJDUDPLELHQDPDGDµ RUUHVSRQGDQFH
  206. 206. *2(7+(FLWDGRSRU)UHXG /,$,6216'$1*(5(86(6FDUWD9 $FRQYHUVDFLyQ )5(8'RUUHVSRQGDQFH (WLPRORJtD )UHXG Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  207. 207. /DFDWiVWURIH $7É6752)( ULVLVYLROHQWDHQFXRWUDQVFXUVRHOVXMHWRDOH[SHULPHQWDU ODVLWXDFLyQDPRURVDFRPRXQDW ROODGHURGHILQLWLYRFRPRXQDWUDPSDGH ODTXHQRSRGUiMDPiVVDOLUVHGHGLFDDXQDGHVWUXFFLyQWRWDOGHVtPLVPR +D GRV UHJtPHQHV GH GHVHVSHUDFLyQ OD GH VHVSHUDFLyQ OHQWD OD UHVLJQDFLyQ DFWLYD ´7H GH DPR FRPR HV SUHFLVR DPDU HQ OD GHVHVSHUDFLyQµ
  208. 208. ODGHVHVSHUDFLyQYLROHQWDXQGtDGHVSXpVGHQR VpTXpLQFLGHQWHPHHQFLHUURHQPLKDELWDFLyQURPSRHQVROOR]RV PH OOHYD XQD ROD SRGHURVD DVIL[LDGR GH GRORU WRGR PL FXHUSR VH UHVLVWH VH UHYXHOYH YHR FRPR HQ XQ UHOiPSDJR FODUR IUtR OD GHVWUXFFLyQ D OD TXH HVWR FRQGHQDGR 1LQJXQD UHODFLyQ FRQ OD KXPLOODFLyQ LQVLGLRVD HQ VXPD FLYLOL]DGD GH ORV DPRUHV GLItFLOHV QLQJXQD UHODFLyQ FRQ HO SDVPR GHO VXMHWR DEDQGRQDGR QR PH DXWRFRPSDGH]FR(VSXURFRPRXQDFDWiVWURIH´£(VWRSHUGLGRµ ¢DXVD 1XQFD VROHPQH GH QLQJ~Q PRGR SRU GHFODUDFLyQ GH UXSWXUD OOHJD VLQ DGYHUWHQFLD D VHD SRU HO HIHFWR GH XQD LPDJHQ LQVRSRUWDEOH R SRU HO EUXVFR UHFKD]R VH[XDO OR LQIDQWLO ³YHUVH DEDQGRQDGRSRUOD0DGUH³ SDVDEUXWDOPHQWHDORJHQLWDO
  209. 209. /D FDWiVWURIH DPRURVD HVWi TXL]iV SUy[LPD GH OR TXH VH KD OODPDGR HQ HO FDPSR SVLFyWLFR XQDVLWXDFLyQ H[WUHPD TXH HV ´XQD VLWXDFLyQ YLYLGD SRU HO VXMHWR FRPR DOJR TXH GHEH GHVWUXLUOR LUUHPHGLDEOHPHQWHµ OD LPDJHQ VXUJH GH OR TXH SDVy HQ 'DFKDX ¢1R HV LQGHFHQWH FRPSDUDU OD VLWXDFLyQ GH XQ VXMHWR FRQ PDO GH DPRUHV D OD GH XQ UHFOXVR GH 'DFKDX ¢8QD GH ODV LQMXULDV PiV LQLPDJLQDEOHV GH OD +LVWRULD SXHGH UHHQFRQWUDUVH HQ XQ LQFLGHQWH I~WLOLQIDQWLOVRILVWLFDGRRVFXURRFXUULGRDXQVXMHWRFyPRGRTXH HV VyOR SUHVD GH VX ,PDJLQDULR (VWDV GRV VLWXDFLRQHV WLHQHQ VLQ HPEDUJRDOJRGHFRP~QVRQOLWHUDOPHQWHSiQLFDVVRQVLWXDFLRQHV VLQ UHPDQHQWH VLQ UHWRUQR PH KH SURHFWDGR HQ HO RWUR FRQ WDO IXHU]DTXHFXDQGRPHIDOWDQRSXHGRUHFXSHUDUPHHVWRSHUGLGR SDUD VLHPSUH %(77(/+(,0/DIRUWDOH]DYDFtDLQWURGXFFLyQS 0OOHGH /HVSLQDVVH %UXQR %HWWHOKHLP (WLPRORJtD ): Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  210. 210. (7,02/2*Ì$ ´SiQLFRµ VH UHODFLRQD FRQ HO GLRV 3DQ SHUR VH SXHGHQ HPSOHDUODVHWLPRORJtDVFRPRODVSDODEUDVVHKDFHVLHPSUH
  211. 211. ILQJLUFUHHU TXH´SiQLFRµYLHQHGHODGMHWLYRJULHJRTXHTXL HUHGHFLU´WRGRµ ): FRQYHUVDFLyQ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  212. 212. /RVFHORV (/26 ´6HQWLPLHQWR TXH QDFH HQ HO DPRU TXH HV SURGXFLGR SRU OD FUHHQFLDGHTXHODSHUVRQDDPDGDSUHILHUHDRWURµ/LWWUp
  213. 213. (OFHORVRGHODQRYHODQRHV:HUWKHUHVHOVHxRU6FKPLGWHOQRYLRGH )ULHGHULNHHOKRPEUHGHOPDOKXPRU/RVFHORVGH:HUWKHUOOHJDQD WUDYpVGHODVLPiJHQHVYHUD$OEHUWRURGHDUFRQHOEUD]RHOWDOOHGH DUORWD
  214. 214. QRGHOSHQVDPLHQWR6HWUDWDDKtHVWiXQDGHODVEHOOH]DV GHO OLEUR
  215. 215. GH XQD GLVSRVLFLyQ WUiJLFD QR SVLFROyJLFD :HUWKHU QR RGLDD$OEHUWRVLPSOHPHQWH$OEHUWRRFXSDXQDSOD]DGHVHDGDHVXQ DGYHUVDULRXQFRPSHWLGRUHQVHQWLGRSURSLR
  216. 216. QRXQHQHPLJRQRHV ´RGLRVRµ(QVXVFDUWDVD*XLOOHUPR:HUWKHUVHPXHVWUDSRFRFHORVR 6RODPHQWHFXDQGRVHGHMDODFRQILGHQFLDSDUDSDVDUDOUHODWRILQDODKt VHKDFHDJXGDDFUHODULYDOLGDGFRPRVLORVFHORVDGYLQLHUDQSRUHVH VLPSOHSDVDMHGHORDOpOGHXQGLVFXUVRLPDJLQDULRVDWXUDGRGHO RWUR
  217. 217. DXQGLVFXUVRGHO2WUR³GHOTXHHO5HODWRHVODYR]HVWDWXWDULD (O QDUUDGRU SURXVWLDQR WLHQH SRFD UHODFLyQ FRQ :HUWKHU ¢(VWi VRODPHQWHHQDPRUDGRÔQLFDPHQWHHVWiFHORVRHQpOQRKDQDGDGH ´OXQDUµ³VDOYRFXDQGRDPDDPRURVDPHQWHDOD0DGUHODDEXHOD
  218. 218. :HUWKHU HV FDSWXUDGR SRU HVWD LPDJHQ DUORWD FRUWD UHEDQDGDV GH SDQODVGLVWULEXHDVXVKHUPDQRVKHUPDQDVDUORWDHVXQSDVWHO HVH SDVWHO VH UHSDUWH D FDGD XQR VX WDMDGD QR VR HO ~QLFR³HQ QDGDVRHO~QLFRWHQJRKHUPDQRVKHUPDQDVGHERFRPSDUWLUGHER LQFOLQDUPHDQWHHOUHSDUWR¢ODVGLRVDVGHO 'HVWLQRQRVRQWDPELpQODV GLRVDV GHO 5HSDUWR ODV 3DUFDV GH ODV TXH OD ~OWLPD HV OD 0XGD OD 0XHUWH
  219. 219. $GHPiVVLQRDFHSWRODSDUWLFLyQGHOVHUDPDGRQLHJRVX SHUIHFFLyQSXHVWRTXHSHUWHQHFHDODSHUIHFFLyQGHUHSDUWLUVH0HOLWH VH UHSDUWH SRUTXH HOOD HV SHUIHFWD H +LSHULyQ VXIUH SRU HOOR ´0L WULVWH]D YHUGDGHUDPHQWH FDUHFtD GH OtPLWHV )XH SUHFLVR TXH PH DOHMDUDµ $Vt VXIUR GRV YHFHV SRU HO UHSDUWR PLVPR SRU PL LPSRWHQFLDSDUDVRSRUWDUVXQREOH]D ´XDQGRDPRVRPXH[FOXVLYRµGLFH)UHXGTXHVHWRPDUiDTXt SRUDUTXHWLSRGHODQRUPDOLGDG
  220. 220. 6HUFHORVRHVDOJRSURSLR5HFKD]DU ORVFHORV´VHUSHUIHFWRµ
  221. 221. HVSXHVWUDQVJUHGLUXQDOH=XODKDLQWHQWy VHGXFLUD-RVpHOPDULGRQRVHLQGLJQySRUHOORHVSUHFLVRGDUXQD H[SOLFDFLyQGHHVHHVFiQGDORODHVFHQDWUDQVFXUUHHQ(JLSWR(JLSWR :HUWKHU 3URXVW 7DOOHPDQW +|UGHOLQ )UHXG 'MHGLGL Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  222. 222. HVWi EDMR XQ VLJQR ]RGLDFDO TXH H[FOXH ORV FHORV *pPLQLV RQIRUPLVPR LQYHUVR QR HV PiV FHORVR VH FRQGHQDQ ODV H[FOXVLYLGDGHV VH YLYH HQWUH YDULRV HWFpWHUD ³£5HDOPHQWH³ YHU TXp SDVD UHDOPHQWH ¢ VL PH IRU]DUD D QR VHU PiV FHORVR SRU YHUJHQ]DGHVHUOR6RQIHRVVRQEXUJXHVHVORVFHORVVRQXQDIiQ LQGLJQRXQFHOR³HVHVWHFHORHOTXHQRVRWURVUHFKD]DPRV
  223. 223. RPR FHORVR VXIUR FXDWUR YHFHV SRUTXH HVWR FHORVR SRUTXH PH UHSURFKRHOHVWDUORSRUTXHWHPRTXHPLVFHORVKLHUDQDORWURSRUTXH PH GHMR VRPHWHU D XQD QDGHUtD VXIUR SRU VHU H[FOXLGR SRU VHU DJUHVLYRSRUVHUORFRSRUVHURUGLQDULR 7$//(0$17 '(6 5e$8; /XLV ;,,, ´6XV DPRUHV HUDQ H[WUDxRV DPRUHV QR WHQtDQDGDGHHQDPRUDGRPiVTXHORVF HORVµ+LVWRULHWWHV,
  224. 224. +g/'(5/,1+SpULRQVHxDODGRSRU-/%
  225. 225. )5(8'RUUHVSRQGDQFH '-(',',=XODKDORORJUD´XQSRTXLWRµ-RVpFHGH´HQODPHGLGDGHXQ DOD GH PRVTXLWRµ SDUD TXH OD OHHQGD QR SXHGD SRQHU HQ GXGD VX YLULOLGDG (7,02/2*Ì$Ç¿ÌÐÓ]pORV
  226. 226. ³ ]HORVXV³ MDWRX[SDODEUDIUDQFHVDWRPDGDGH ORVWURYDGRUHV
  227. 227. (WLPRORJtD Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/ Descargado de http://www.DescargarLibrosGratis.NET/
  228. 228. /DHWLWLD ,58165,%,5 3DUDUHGXFLUVXLQIRUWXQLRHOVXMHWRSRQHVXHVSHUDQ]DHQ XQPpWRGRGHFRQWUROTXHOHSHUPLWDFLUFXQVFULELUORVSODFHUH VTXHOHGDOD UHODFLyQ DPRURVD SRU XQD SDUWH JXDUGDU HVWRV SODFHUHV DSURYHFKDUORV SOHQDPHQWHSRUODRWUDFHUUDUODPHQWHDODVDPSOLDV]RQDVGHSUHVLYDV TXHVHSDUDQHVWRVSODFHUHV´ROYLGDUµDOVHUDPDGRIXHUDGHORVSODFHUHV TXHGD LFHUyQ GHVSXpV/HLEQL]RSXVLHURQJDXGLXPODHWLWLD*DXGLXPHV HO´SODFHUTXHHODOPDH[SHULPHQWDFXDQGRFRQVLGHUDODSRVHVLyQGH XQELHQSUHVHQWHRIXWXURFRPRDVHJXUDGDHVWDPRVHQSRVHVLyQGH HVH ELHQ FXDQGR VH HQFXHQWUD GH WDO VXHUWH HQ QXHVWUR SRGHU TXH SRGHPRVJR]DUGHpOFXDQGRTXHUHPRVµ/DHWLWLDHVXQSODFHUDOHJUH ´XQ HVWDGR HQ TXH HO SODFHU SUHGRPLQD HQ QRVRWURVµ HQ PHGLR GH RWUDVVHQVDFLRQHVDYHFHVFRQWUDGLFWRULDV

×