2011 expo-passive house-designing-lowenergy buildings

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Passive House
Designing Low Energy Buildings
A presentation by Katrin Klingenberg, Executive Director Passive House Institute US | PHIUS
www.passivehouse.us

Keynote address at the Columbus Green Building Forum's 2011 Green Building EXPO

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2011 expo-passive house-designing-lowenergy buildings

  1. 1. Passive House Designing Low Energy BuildingsPassive House Institute US | PHIUSKatrin Klingenberg, Executive Directorwww.passivehouse.uswww.PHAUS.org © 2011 PHIUS
  2. 2. 1 Passive House Enclosure Principle © 2011 PHIUS
  3. 3. Why Passive House?Optimize the House… … to the Heating System
  4. 4. Worldwide Energy Resources and Consumption:Reference: Shell-Study (till 2005), Scenario with high efficiency and regenerative usage of energy 1800 energy-efficiency 1600 new geo-/ozean. power 1400 solar windpower 1200 waterpower new biomass 1000 trad. Biomass 800 nuclear gas 600 oil coal 400 200Etajoule 0 1890 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2010 2030 2050 2070 2090
  5. 5. Standards & Rating Comparison k
  6. 6. The 2030 Challenge brought forward by Architect Ed Mazria:
  7. 7. Passive House Comfort Principle 64°F 68°F Yes !6°F min 64° surface temp = Comfort F © 2011 PHIUS
  8. 8. Calculation of the interior surface temperature of a wall assembly: Θsi = Θi – U * Rsi * (Θi – Θe) Θsi Interior surface temperature Θi Room temperature Θe Outside temperature U U-value of the wall assembly Rsi Interior surface film coefficient © 2011 PHIUS
  9. 9. Climate Specific Recommendations Passive House SI Units IP 1 Heat Load: ≤10 W/m2 ≤ 1 W/ft2 Cooling Load: ≤ 8 W/m2 ≤ 0.8 W/ft2 2 Envelope Insulation: Very Cold/humid Minneapolis, MN U≤0.08 W/m2K R≥71 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- Cold Chicago, IL U≤0.094 W/m2K R≥60 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- Mixed/humid Ashville, NC U≤0.16 W/m2K R≥35 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- Mixed/dry Las Vegas, NV U≤0.14 W/m2K R≥40 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- Marine Seattle, WA U≤0.13 W/m2K R≥44 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- Hot/humid Houston, TX U≤0.14 W/m2K R≥40 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- Hot/dry Phoenix, AZ U≤0.14 W/m2K R≥40 hr-ft2-°F/Btu hr- 3 Thermal Bridge Free Construction: Linear Thermal Transmittance Ψ≤0.01 W/mK W/mK Ψ≤0.006 Btu/hr-ft-°F Btu/hr-ft- 4 High Performance Windows installed: Overall Thermal Transmittance (Very Cold) U≤0.6 W/m2K U≤0.11 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Btu/hr- Overall Thermal Transmittance (Cold/Mixed) U≤0.85 W/m2K U≤0.15 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Btu/hr- Overall Thermal Transmittance (Hot) U≤1.55 W/m2K U≤0.27 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Btu/hr- Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Mixed/Cold) g-value≥50% SHGC≥50% Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Hot) g-value ≤ 30% SHGC ≤ 30% 5 Heat Recovery Ventilation: Net Efficiency η≥80% η≥80% Electric Consumption of motor ≤0.45 Wh/m3 ≤0.76 W/cfm © 2011 PHIUS
  10. 10. Continuous Insulation –Dimensioned to maintain Passive House surface temperatures: Passive House Solution: Thermal-bridge free and with the appropriate amount of insulation depending on design temperature! Minimum surface temperature with furniture placement: 58 °F © 2011 PHIUS
  11. 11. Current New Construction Passive House Standard Energy Metrics (discounted interior conditioned floor area - TFA) Annual Heating Energy Demand ≤4.75 kBtu/ft2 yr or 15 kWh/m2a Annual Cooling Energy Demand ≤4.75 kBtu/ft2 yr or 15 kWh/m2a Annual Total Primary Energy ≤38 kBtu/ft2 yr [11.1 kWh/ft2 yr] or 120 kWh/m2a Demand Air Leakage @ 50 Pa ≤0.6 ACH50 © 2011 PHIUS
  12. 12. Current New Construction Passive House Standard adjusted Energy Metrics (exterior building dimensions as customary in US) Annual Heating Energy Demand ≤3.325 kBtu/ft2 yr or 0.97 kWh/ft2 yr Annual Cooling Energy Demand ≤3.325 kBtu/ft2 yr or 0.97 kWh/ft2 yr Annual Total Primary Energy ≤7.77 kWh/ft2 yr Demand Air Leakage @ 50 Pa ≤0.6 ACH50 © 2011 PHIUS
  13. 13. 2 Cold Climate Passive House Frame © 2011 PHIUS
  14. 14. Stanton Residence – 2009, Urbana IL – e-co lab © 2011 PHIUS
  15. 15. Ecological wall construction for a cold climate: © 2011 PHIUS
  16. 16. © 2011 PHIUS
  17. 17. © 2011 PHIUS
  18. 18. © 2011 PHIUS
  19. 19. © 2011 PHIUS
  20. 20. The highly efficient Window Profile © 2011 PHIUS
  21. 21. High Performance Glazing for minimized transmission losses- Passive House window requirements for cold climates (triple-pane, argon filled, low-e on the right) © 2011 PHIUS
  22. 22. © 2011 PHIUS
  23. 23. Optiwin window sections © 2011 PHIUS
  24. 24. EnersignWindow © 2011 PHIUS
  25. 25. Curtain Wall Uframe = 0.8 W/(m²K)www.optiwin.net/mueller-en?set_language=en Uframe = 0.7 W/(m²K) www.raico.de
  26. 26. Thermotech Window Section © 2011 PHIUS
  27. 27. © 2011 PHIUS
  28. 28. © 2011 PHIUS
  29. 29. © 2011 PHIUS
  30. 30. © 2011 PHIUS
  31. 31. Larsen Trusses rated for New and Retrofit applications- © 2011 PHIUS
  32. 32. © 2011 PHIUS
  33. 33. © 2011 PHIUS
  34. 34. © 2011 PHIUS
  35. 35. © 2011 PHIUS
  36. 36. © 2011 PHIUS
  37. 37. Affordable Dublin House – 2010, Urbana Illinois – e-co lab © 2011 PHIUS
  38. 38. 3 Cold Climate Passive House Foam and Frame Enclosure © 2011 PHIUS
  39. 39. Framed Walls with exterior Foam © 2011 PHIUS
  40. 40. © 2011 PHIUS
  41. 41. 2010 Konkol Home, Konkol Project Wisconsin – Architect Tim Eian © 2011 PHIUS
  42. 42. © 2011 PHIUS
  43. 43. Thermal Imaging of the Envelope to detect flawsThermal bridge detectionAirtightness leaksgaps in insulation © 2011 PHIUS
  44. 44. © 2011 PHIUS
  45. 45. The Hudson Passive Project: NY State - Architect Dennis Wedlick Graphite enhanced EPS SIP Panels Airtightness result Holds record: 0.14 ACH50 © 2011 PHIUS
  46. 46. 4 Passive House Enclosure Marine Climate © 2011 PHIUS
  47. 47. CPPP East End Project – 2010, Seattle, WA – Builder Dan Whitmore © 2011 PHIUS
  48. 48. Modified Larsen Truss Solution © 2011 PHIUS
  49. 49. Rain Screen Facade © 2011 PHIUS
  50. 50. Marine Climate: Courtland Place PH 2010 – Dan Whitmore
  51. 51. Marine Climate Zone 4: Builder Blake Bilyeu – 2010, Salem, OR © 2011 PHIUS
  52. 52. © 2011 PHIUS
  53. 53. © 2011 PHIUS
  54. 54. © 2011 PHIUS
  55. 55. O’Neil Residence 2010, Sonoma CA – Architect Jarrod Denton 1st fully certified Retrofit Project in the US! © 2011 PHIUS
  56. 56. 5 Passive House Enclosure Mixed Humid Climates © 2011 PHIUS
  57. 57. Studio 804 Kansas City – 2010, MO © 2011 PHIUS
  58. 58. Kenmore Rd Project, Chapel Hill NC – 2010 – Builder Chris Senior © 2011 PHIUS
  59. 59. © 2011 PHIUS
  60. 60. 6 Passive House Enclosure Mixed Dry Climates © 2011 PHIUS
  61. 61. Breezeway House – 2009, Salt Lake City, Utah – Architect Dave Brach © 2011 PHIUS
  62. 62. 7 Passive House Enclosure Hot Humid Climate © 2011 PHIUS
  63. 63. 204 Whit – 2010, Lafayette, LA – Corey Saft © 2011 PHIUS
  64. 64. © 2011 PHIUS
  65. 65. © 2011 PHIUS
  66. 66. 8 Cost Optimization- Passive House Mechanicals © 2011 PHIUS
  67. 67. Climate Specific Recommendations Passive House SI Units IP 1 Heat Load: ≤10 W/m2 ≤ 1 W/ft2 Cooling Load: ≤ 8 W/m2 ≤ 0.8 W/ft2 2 Envelope Insulation: Very Cold/humid Minneapolis, MN U≤0.08 W/m2K R≥71 hr-ft2-°F/Btu Cold Chicago, IL U≤0.094 W/m2K R≥60 hr-ft2-°F/Btu Mixed/humid Ashville, NC U≤0.16 W/m2K R≥35 hr-ft2-°F/Btu Mixed/dry Las Vegas, NV U≤0.14 W/m2K R≥40 hr-ft2-°F/Btu Marine Seattle, WA U≤0.13 W/m2K R≥44 hr-ft2-°F/Btu Hot/humid Houston, TX U≤0.14 W/m2K R≥40 hr-ft2-°F/Btu Hot/dry Phoenix, AZ U≤0.14 W/m2K R≥40 hr-ft2-°F/Btu 3 Thermal Bridge Free Construction: Linear Thermal Transmittance Ψ≤0.01 W/mK Ψ≤0.006 Btu/hr-ft-°F 4 High Performance Windows installed: Overall Thermal Transmittance (Very Cold) U≤0.6 W/m2K U≤0.11 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Overall Thermal Transmittance (Cold/Mixed) U≤0.85 W/m2K U≤0.15 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Overall Thermal Transmittance (Hot) U≤1.55 W/m2K U≤0.27 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Mixed/Cold) g-value≥50% SHGC≥50% Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (Hot) g-value ≤ 30% SHGC ≤ 30% 5 Heat Recovery Ventilation: Net Efficiency η≥80% η≥80% Electric Consumption of motor ≤0.45 Wh/m3 Wh/m ≤0.76 W/cfm W/cfm © 2011 PHIUS
  68. 68. Components of the Minimized Mechanical System: •ERV/HRV with integrated air-to-water heat exchange coil and/or air-to-air Heat Pump for heating/cooling •Insulated Hot Water Tank w/ solar thermal collectors for DHW (Image: Passivhaus Institut) © 2011 PHIUS
  69. 69. Heating, cooling and dehumidification:Mini-Split Air-to-Air Heat Pump(Images:www.quietside.com/) © 2011 PHIUS
  70. 70. The Ultimate Air Recoup Aerator (Stirling Technologies): •95% Efficiency •Air flow: 70-210 cubic feet/minute (cfm) •Motor: General Electric ECM brushless motors •Electrical Rating: 120/240 volts, AC, 60/50 Hz, 5/2.8 Amps •Average electrical consumption: •210 cfm (360m3/h) — 200W •60cfm —34 W •Dimensions: 25" H x 19" W x 25" D (63.5 cm x 48.25 cm x 63.5 cm) •Unit Weight: 72 lbs. •Shipping Weight: 80 lbs. •Mounting: Operates in vertical or horizontal position. •Connects to 6" galvanized or flex ducts. © 2011 PHIUS
  71. 71. Closed Ground Loop Heat Exchanger for DefrostPassive cooling/dehumidification forHot/humid climates pre recovery © 2011 PHIUS
  72. 72. Heat Pump and Resistance Heat Electricity Use compared to Room Temperature Uniformity (+/-2oF from T Stat) and Indoor and Outdoor Temperature (5) Fairview II House Urbana, IL Percent of Nov 2009 - Jan 2011 Month 1000 100 Uniform Resistance 950 Heat 900 90 Electricity Heat Pump 850 Electricity 800 80 Temperature 750 at Thermostat 700 70 Percentage of month all rooms within +/- 2 °F 650Energy Usage +/ 600 60 of temperature at thermostat 550(kWh) 500 50 Temperature (°F) 450 400 40 AND 350 300 30 250 200 20 ercentage 150 100 10 50 0 0 Feb-10 Mar-10 Sep-10 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Nov-10 Dec-10 Jan-11 Aug-10 Month © 2011 PHIUS
  73. 73. Fairview II – Heat Pump Consumption and Conditioning Distribution, Aug 2010: (Image Source: IBACOS) © 2011 PHIUS
  74. 74. Indoor Air Quality Airtight House Versus Typical (Image Source: Mark Adams) © 2011 PHIUS
  75. 75. 9 Balancing the Investment of Enclosure, Mechanicals, Renewables © 2011 PHIUS
  76. 76. Note: Costs are for central Europe (Germany)(Source: IEA Information Paper: Energy Efficiency requirements in Building Codes, Author Jens Laustsen) © 2011 PHIUS
  77. 77. © 2011 PHIUS
  78. 78. Cost Benefit of the Stanton House- © 2011 PHIUS
  79. 79. Cost Benefit of the Stanton House with Renewables- © 2011 PHIUS
  80. 80. 10 Certified Passive House Projects – going beyond © 2011 PHIUS
  81. 81. Freeman Home in Maine: 2010 Laura Briggs and Jonathan Knowles © 2011 PHIUS
  82. 82. Solar Decathlon 2nd Place 2009, DC & IL University of Illinois © 2011 PHIUS
  83. 83. GO Logic Home – 2010, Maine: Alan Gibson and Matthew Omalia © 2011 PHIUS
  84. 84. 2010 Konkol Home, Wisconsin – Tim Eian © 2011 PHIUS
  85. 85. 21 appartements with Pellet-Heating + Solar ThermalArchitect: Manfred Brausem, Cologne
  86. 86. Frankfurt approx. 300 Unit Development City View
  87. 87. Vienna EUROGATE Project: City Development 1700 Apartments/Schools,Project: Albert Wimmer ZT-GmbH Photo courtesy of Guenter Lang, IG Passivhaus Austria
  88. 88. Heidelberg, Germany: Gymnasium
  89. 89. Montessori School, Germany
  90. 90. Frankfurt, Germany: Kindergarden
  91. 91. Frankfurt, Germany: High School
  92. 92. St. Poelten, Austria: Office Building Photos courtesy of Guenter Lang, IG Passivhaus Austria
  93. 93. Greifenburg, Austria: Office Building, Architect: architekten ronacher Photos courtesy of Guenter Lang, IG Passivhaus Austria
  94. 94. Austria: Office Building Drexel&Weiss
  95. 95. Wels, Austria: Convention Center, AT4 Architekten Photo courtesy of Guenter Lang, IG Passivhaus Austria
  96. 96. Linz, Austria: Office tower
  97. 97. Mark your Calendar: 6th Annual North American Passive House Conference: October 28/292011 Passive HouseWashington, DC Metro Institute USArea, Silver Spring, MD www.passivehouse.us © 2011 PHIUS
  98. 98. Certified Passive House Consultants Program NaCPHCPassive House Institute US | PHIUS Katrin Klingenberg, Executive Director www.passivehouse.us www.PHAUS.org © 2011 PHIUS
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