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    • Business Reference Beth Kaylor -- Faculty Development -- October 31, 2008
    • Public, private or non-profit
      • Private is less than 300 shareholders
      • The majority of companies are private – about 98%
      • To quotes Forbes : “Private means private!”
      • No reporting requirements
      • Little information is available
      • If a public company chooses to “go private” the old filings will remain available through the SEC
    • What can you find for private?
      • Hoover's Handbook of Private Companies
        • Reference HG4057 .A286213
      • Databases
        • BSP
        • ABI
        • Mergent
      • Local business journals
      • Secretary of State (required filing)
    • Non-profit organizations
      • More of an industry than a category of “company.”
      • Very little information available about the financial operations
      • Don’t have required government filings
        • Chairman of the Board letter
        • Description of the charity, causes, actions, accomplishments, etc. of the organization
        • Directors and Officers
        • Financial statement
          • CPA Opinion letter, Income statement, Balance sheet, footnotes
    • Databases?
      • Databases
    • SIC and NAICS
      • SIC
        • Standard Industrial Classification
        • Last updated in 1987
        • New technologies do not fit
      • NAICS
        • North American Industrial Classification
        • Same number across countries – last four change
    • SIC and NAICS
      • Hierarchy
      • Where to find them
      • Easy? Mergent or BSP
      • Census Bureau webpage C
      • Manual -Ready Ref  HF1042 .N67  2007
      • Conversion – Census Bureau C
        • No search for SIC and NAICS 2007 – have to use 2002
        • Ohio Labor Market Crosswalk O
    • Resources for Financial Ratios
      • 3 main sources for industry ratios
      • Shelved together in Reference
      • Each gets their information from different sources
      • Numbers will be different but can be used together to get a complete picture of the industry
      • Grouped by product code
    • RMA Annual Statement Studies
      • Reference HF5681.B2 R6 
      • Contains composite financial data on manufacturing, wholesaling, retailing, service, and contracting lines of business.
      • comparative data
      • Comes directly from the financial statements of small and medium-size business customers of RMA’s member institutions
    • Industry Norms and Key Business Ratios
      • Reference HF5681.R25 I53
      • Dun and Bradstreet
      • Line of Credit business reporting
      •   Helps one understand the true performance of a company, by benchmarking it against its industry peers
      • 14 key business ratios cover all critical areas of business performance—solvency, efficiency and profitability
    • Almanac of Business and Industrial Financial Ratios
      • Reference HF5681.R25 T68 
      • Provides financial ratios for companies in various asset ranges by SIC code
      • Data reported are based on aggregate numbers from IRS records.
    • Other Ratio Sources
      • Mergent
      • Business Source Premier
      • Lexis-Nexis Academic
    • Ratios? What do they mean?
      • Liquidity ratios
        • Most commonly used
        • Show the ability of the organization to quickly generate cash
      • Current Ratio – current assets/current liabilities
      • Quick Ratio – same as above but subtracts inventory from current assets
      • How well can an organization meet its short-term obigations
    • Ratios? What do they mean?
      • Efficiency Ratios
      • determine how efficiently a business uses its assets, and where there's room for improvement
      • Inventory turnover, asset turnover etc…
    • Ratios? What do they mean?
      • Profitability Ratios
      • assess the profitability of a business and changes in its profit performance
      • These ratios are probably the most important indicators of a business's financial success.
        • Gross profit margin
        • Net profit margin
        • ROA – return on assets
        • ROE – return on equity
    • Ratios? What do they mean?
      • Solvency Ratios
      • designed to help one measure the degree of financial risk that a business faces
      • "Financial risk," in this context, means the extent to which the organization has debt obligations that must be met, regardless of cash flow.
      • assess the level of debt and decide whether this level is appropriate for the company
        • Debt to Equity
        • Debt to Assets
        • Coverage of Fixed Costs
        • Interest Coverage
    • Company Analysis
      • Public or private?
      • Start with Mergent and then BSP
      • Corporate affiliations
      • Value Line
      • Lexis-Nexis
      • Send them to me
    • Industry Survey
      • Standard and Poor’s NetAdvantage
        • Or print Industry Surveys
        • Reference HC106.6 .S74  
      • IBIS World
      • Business Source Premier
      • ABI
      • Statistical Universe
      • Send them to me
    • Business Plans
      • What is a business plan?
      • Why write one?
      • Many resources in Reference and General Collection
      • SBA Small Business Planner - SBA
      • My Own Business M
      • SCORE S
    • Corporate Affiliations
      • Lexis-Nexis Corporate Affiliations
        • Who owns whom
        • HG4057 .A219 
        • 2006 v.1-8; Current 1 year in Ready Reference, previous 1 year in Reference, and earlier volumes in the General Collection
        • Most recent is 2008
    • SBBI Databook
      • Stock Bonds Bills and Inflation Yearbook
        • REF HG 4501 .S7949 2007
        • History of the returns on the capital markets in the US 1926-2006
        • Includes
          • Large and small company stocks
          • Long term corporate and government bonds
          • Intermediate term government bonds
          • US T-bills
          • Consumer Price Index
    • Questions?