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# Thomson Lear ning™

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### Transcript of "Thomson Lear ning™"

1. 1. ™ chapter 4 Evaluation of Firm Performance ng ni I ar n the previous chapter, we reviewed the four basic financial statements that are Le contained in the annual report. This chapter deals with financial ratio analysis, which uses information contained in financial statements. Financial ratios are statistical yardsticks that relate two numbers generally taken from a firm’s income statement, balance sheet, or both. They enable interested parties to make relative comparisons of firm performance over time as well as compare performance across different firms. n so om Th Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 91
2. 2. 92 Part 1 • Introduction Chapter Objectives After reading this chapter, you should have an understanding of the following: 1. The usefulness of financial ratio analysis 2. How to calculate and interpret commonly used financial ratios 3. The limitations of financial ratio analysis ™ PURPOSE OF FINANCIAL RATIOS ng Financial ratios are used by management for analysis, monitoring, and planning purposes. ➢ As an analytical tool, financial ratios can assist management in identifying strengths and weaknesses in a firm. They can indicate whether a firm has ni enough cash to meet obligations; a reasonable accounts receivable collection period; an efficient inventory management policy; sufficient property, plant, and equipment; and an adequate capital structure—all of which are necessary if a firm is to achieve the goal of maximizing shareholder wealth. Financial ar analysis also can be used to assess a firm’s viability as an ongoing enterprise and to determine whether a satisfactory return is being earned for the risks taken. ➢ Financial ratios are also a useful monitoring device. On the basis of financial ra- Le tio analysis, management may uncover a problem in a certain area of the firm’s operations and institute remedial action. Through a regular review of relevant financial ratios, management can monitor whether or not the reme- dial actions are working. ➢ Financial ratios provide a very effective role in planning. In Chapter 1 we said that the objective of every firm’s managers should be to maximize shareholder n wealth. For this appropriate objective to be successful, it needs to be opera- tionalized. Financial ratios allow management to translate goals into opera- tional objectives. In other words, simply urging all employees to maximize so shareholder wealth will probably not be very effective. On the other hand, set- ting targets in terms of specific ratios, such as the average collection period or inventory turnover, will likely yield better results, because financial ratios are specific, measurable, and easy to relate to. om http: An excellent source for Financial ratio analyses are used also by persons other than financial man- agers. For example, credit managers may examine some basic financial ratios con- financial ratio analysis cerning a prospective customer when deciding whether to extend credit. Security assistance, including a free analysts and investors use financial analysis to help assess the investment worth of ratio analysis spreadsheet, is provided by the Small Busi- different securities. Bankers use the tools of financial analysis when deciding Th ness Administration at whether to grant loans. Financial ratios have been used successfully to forecast such http://www.onlinewbc. financial events as impending bankruptcy. Unions, such as the United Auto Work- gov/docs/finance/index. html ers (UAW), refer to financial ratios when negotiating collective bargaining agree- ments with employers. Finally, students and other job hunters may perform finan- cial analyses of potential employers to determine career opportunities. INTERPRETING FINANCIAL RATIOS A financial ratio is a relationship that indicates something about a firm’s activities, such as the ratio between the firm’s current assets and current liabilities or between
3. 3. Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 93 its accounts receivable and its annual sales. Financial ratios enable an analyst to make a comparison of a firm’s financial condition over time or in relation to other firms. Ratios essentially standardize various elements of financial data for differ- ences in the size of a series of financial data when making comparisons over time or between firms. For example, the total profits of IBM normally are many times those of Apple Computer, because IBM is much larger than Apple. By computing ratios, such as net profits divided by total assets, the relative performance of the two ™ companies can be assessed more accurately. Successful financial ratio analysis requires that an analyst keep in mind the fol- lowing points: ➢ Any discussion of financial ratios is likely to include only a representative sam- ng ple of possible ratios. Many other ratios can be developed to provide addi- tional insights. In some industries (such as banking), an analyst will use special ratios unique to the activities of firms in those industries. ➢ Financial ratios serve only as “flags” indicating potential areas of strength or weakness. A thorough analysis requires the examination of other data as well. ni ➢ Frequently a financial ratio must be dissected to discover its true meaning. For example, a low ratio may be caused by either a low numerator or a high de- nominator. A good financial analyst will examine both the numerator and the ar denominator before drawing any conclusions. ➢ A financial ratio is meaningful only when it is compared with some standard, such as an industry ratio trend, a ratio trend for the specific firm being ana- lyzed, or a stated management objective. ➢ When financial ratios are used to compare one firm with another, it is impor- Le tant to remember that differences in accounting techniques may result in sub- stantial differences in financial ratios. Failure to keep this in mind can lead to incorrect conclusions. Comprehension Check Questions n 1. What are financial ratios? so 2. How does management use financial ratios for analysis, planning, and monitoring? 3. Why is it important to compare ratios to industry standards or over time? m BASIC CATEGORIES OF FINANCIAL RATIOS Much as the human body is made up of different systems that are interconnected, such as the circulatory system, the nervous system, the immune system, and so on, a firm o also is made up of different systems. To evaluate the efficient functioning of different systems within the body, a physician may order specific tests. For example, your doctor Th may order a stress test to see how well your heart is functioning, or she may ask for a blood test to check your immune system. Similarly, there are different groups of ratios to evaluate different aspects of a firm’s operations. These ratio groupings include: 1. Liquidity ratios: indicate a firm’s ability to meet short-term financial obligations 2. Asset management ratios: indicate how efficiently a firm is using its assets to gen- erate sales 3. Financial leverage management ratios: indicate a firm’s capacity to meet short- and long-term debt obligations, and how risky is the firm’s financial structure
4. 4. 94 Part 1 • Introduction 4. Profitability ratios: measure how effectively a firm’s management generates profits on sales, assets, and stockholders’ investments 5. Market-based ratios: measure the financial market’s evaluation of a company’s performance It is important to keep in mind that it is not necessary to use all of these ratios in performing a ratio analysis. Selection of the ratios to be examined will depend on the particular individual’s perspective and objectives. For example, suppliers ™ and short-term creditors are likely to be most concerned with a firm’s current li- quidity and near-term cash-generating capacity. Bondholders and holders of pre- ferred stock, who have long-term claims on a firm’s earnings and assets, focus on the firm’s cash-generating ability over the long run and on the claims other in- ng vestors have on the firm’s cash flows. Common stockholders and potential investors are especially interested in measures of profitability and risk, because common stock prices are dependent on the amount and stability of a firm’s future earnings, possible appreciation in value, and dividends. Management is concerned with all aspects of financial analysis, both short term and long term, because it is responsi- ni ble for conducting the firm’s day-to-day operations and earning a competitive rate of return for risks taken. The calculation and interpretation of financial ratios is illustrated in this chap- ar ter by using the financial statements for Furniture Brands International Corpora- tion covered in Chapter 3. In interpreting the ratios for Furniture Brands we com- pare the ratios to an industry average. This is known as comparative analysis. We will also conduct a trend analysis, where ratio trends over time are analyzed. There are two ways to obtain an industry average. The first, and easier ap- Le proach, is to use an industry average calculated by a third-party source such as Stan- dard and Poor’s, Value Line, or Moody’s. The second is to construct your own in- dustry average. While useful, third-party sources of industry averages have certain limitations associated with them: 1. How the industry is defined may be different from what is preferred by the ana- lyst. For example, Value Line defines the furniture industry to include manu- n facturers of residential and commercial furniture and also includes certain sup- pliers (e.g., producers of upholstery fabric, coils and springs, etc.). As an analyst so you may want to compare Furniture Brands to companies that are engaged pri- marily in the manufacture of residential furniture rather than commercial fur- niture as the two markets are characterized by fundamental differences. Pro- ducing and marketing chairs and desks for commercial offices is very different om from producing and marketing sofas and dining sets for the residential market. The profit margins, production methods, marketing plans, and distribution mechanisms differ considerably between the two markets. Consequently the fi- nancial ratios may be different for firms engaged in these two segments of the furniture industry. 2. In the use of externally generated industry average ratios, the definition and cal- Th culation of ratios may vary. While the variations for the most part are slight, in some cases they could be significant. For example, some sources define debt ra- tio as including current liabilities and long-term liabilities; other sources define debt ratio as including only long-term debt. The analyst must make sure that the definition he or she is employing for the firm being evaluated matches that used in the computation of the industry average. For example, if the analyst calculates the debt ratio to include current liabilities and long-term debt, then the result- ing debt ratio may appear to be significantly higher than the industry average if the latter was based on long-term debt alone.
5. 5. Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 95 In view of the above limitations, we chose to construct our own furniture industry average ratios to serve as a benchmark for comparing Furniture Brands’ financial ratios. The industry financial ratios are calculated by averaging the ratios for Ethan Allen Interiors, La-Z-Boy, Bassett, Chromcraft, and Flexsteel—all firms that primar- ily manufacture residential furniture. ™ Comprehension Check Questions 1. Are all ratios important for all users of ratios? 2. What are the limitations of third-party industry average ratios? ng 3. What is the difference between comparative and trend ratio analysis? Liquidity Ratios A firm that intends to remain a viable business entity must have enough cash on ni hand to pay its bills as they come due. In other words, the firm must remain liquid. One way to determine whether this is the case is to examine the relationship be- tween a firm’s current assets and near-term obligations (or current liabilities). It is important to keep in mind that while current liabilities are ultimately discharged ar with cash, the firm need not have the entire amount of cash today. From a liquidity perspective, the firm needs to ensure that it has sufficient cash to meet current payments and that it has sufficient near-term liquid assets (e.g., accounts receivable and inventory) to meet payments for other maturing obligations as they come due in the near term. As inven- Le tory gets converted to accounts receivable and accounts receivable into cash in the normal course of business, the firm will generate enough cash to pay off current li- abilities as they come due. We consider two liquidity ratios: the current ratio and the quick ratio. Current Ratio Current ratio is defined as: n Current assets Current ratio 5 (4.1) Current liabilities so Current assets include the cash a firm already has on hand and in the bank, plus any assets that can be converted into cash within a “normal” operating period of 12 months, such as marketable securities held as short-term investments, accounts receivable, and inventories. Current liabilities include any financial obligations m expected to fall due within the next year, such as accounts payable, notes payable, the current portion of long-term debt due, other payables, and various accruals such as taxes and wages due. o Using data from Furniture Brands’ balance sheet statement shown in Chapter 3 (page 60), the current ratio is determined as: Th \$691.581 5 4.83 times \$143.118 Furniture Brands therefore has \$4.83 in current assets for every \$1 of current liabilities. The ratio is interpreted to mean that to satisfy the claims of short-term credi- tors exclusively from existing current assets, Furniture Brands must be able to con- vert each dollar of current assets into at least \$0.21 of cash (\$1.00/\$4.83 5 \$0.21). The industry average for the current ratio is 3.12 times, meaning that the average
6. 6. 96 Part 1 • Introduction firm in the industry must convert \$0.32 (\$1.00/\$3.12 5 \$0.32) of each dollar of current assets into cash to meet short-term obligations. Thus, Furniture Brands’ current ratio appears to be well above the industry average and hence less risky. However, one must be careful in making any strong judgments without under- taking a more thorough analysis. A higher current ratio is not necessarily indicative of better liquidity. For example, a higher current ratio may be due to greater inven- tory levels compared to the industry, which, in turn, could be indicative of the firm ™ having trouble moving things “off the shelf.” The financial analyst must dissect, or “go behind,” the ratio to discover why it differs from the industry average and de- termine whether a serious problem exists. Quick Ratio The quick ratio is defined as follows: ng Cash 1 Marketable securities 1 Accounts receivable (4.2) Quick ratio 5 Current liabilities This ratio, sometimes called the “acid test,” is a more stringent measure of liquidity ni than the current ratio. Sometimes the numerator of the quick ratio is defined sim- ply as the current ratio minus inventory. The quick ratio takes into account only the most liquid of current assets (defined as cash, marketable securities, and accounts receivable) and eliminates all others (including inventory and prepaid ar expenses) from consideration. By subtracting inventories from current assets, this ratio recognizes that a firm’s inventories are often one of its least liquid current assets. This is, of course, more applicable to some industries than to others. For ex- ample, if you are an apparel manufacturer, the ability to liquidate your inventory at Le fair value is highly doubtful. On the other hand, if you manufacture a commodity product such as newsprint, you may have greater confidence in the value of the in- ventory, especially if the prices are stable. Referring to the figures on Furniture Brands’ balance sheet, the firm’s quick ratio at year-end 2000 is calculated as: \$14.606 1 \$351.804 \$366.41 5 5 2.56 times n \$143.118 \$143.118 The industry average is 1.75 times. Consistent with the current ratio, Furniture so Brands’ quick ratio is above the industry average and appears to be less risky. Asset Management Ratios One objective of financial management is to determine how a firm’s resources can om be best distributed among the various asset accounts. If a proper mix of cash, re- ceivables, inventories, property, plant, and equipment can be achieved, the firm’s asset structure will be more effective in generating sales revenue. Asset management ratios indicate how much a firm has invested in a particular type of asset (or group of assets) relative to the revenue the asset is producing. By comparing asset management ratios for the various asset accounts of a firm with established Th industry norms, an analyst can determine how efficiently a firm is allocating its resources. This section discusses several types of asset management ratios, including the average collection period, the inventory turnover ratio, the fixed-asset turnover ratio, and the total asset turnover ratio. Average Collection Period The average collection period is the average number of days an account receivable remains outstanding. It usually is determined by divid- ing a firm’s year-end receivables balance by the average daily credit sales (based on a 365-day year):
7. 7. Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 97 Accounts receivable Average collection period 5 (4.3) Annual credit sales>365 Assuming all sales for Furniture Brands are for credit, the average collection pe- riod ratio at year-end 2000 can be calculated as \$351.804/(\$2,116.239/365 days) 5 \$351.804/\$5.798 per day 5 60.7 days. The industry average for this ratio is 49.4 days. Furniture Brands’ ratio is well above the industry average. This may not nec- ™ essarily be alarming. There may be legitimate reasons why the average collection period for Furniture Brands is higher than the industry average. Some reasons would be: ➢ The difference in ratios between Furniture Brands and the industry average ng could be due to differences in the credit terms offered by Furniture Brands and the industry in general. Furniture Brands, for instance, may give their cus- tomers a longer time period—say, 60 days—to pay for the merchandise pur- chased, while the industry norm may call for a shorter credit term—say, 45 days. We don’t know this for sure, since this information is not always avail- ni able from the annual reports, but it is a possible explanation. ➢ The difference may be due to differences in the customer composition. Firms in a given industry may operate in several different segments, each with their ar own collection policies. For example, Ethan Allen, one of the larger compe- titors of Furniture Brands, sells a significant portion of its output through company-owned outlets. Thus, Ethan Allen is both a manufacturer and a re- tailer, unlike Furniture Brands, which has no retail presence. Indeed, Ethan Le Allen’s average collection period is only 14.6 days, which may explain why the industry average we calculated is comparatively lower. Flexsteel, another firm in the industry, manufactures residential furniture but is also a major supplier of upholstered sofas and other furniture to the recreational vehicle market. The collection terms in that industry may be shorter than in the residential furniture market, again yielding a lower industry average. n Consequently, there are may be perfectly valid reasons why a firm may have a higher-than-average collection period. This is where additional investigation is needed. If Furniture Brands’ higher collection period does not have a sound basis, so this could indicate problems with the firm’s credit terms and their collection effort. Assuming that there is a problem with the collections effort, an analyst could con- clude that by bringing the average collection period for Furniture Brands down to the industry average of 49.4 days, the firm can release funds that are tied up in m accounts receivable. The released funds would amount to (60.7 days 2 49.4 days) 3 \$5.798 million average credit sales per day 5 \$65.52 million. The firm can more profitably employ these funds elsewhere, for example, retiring long-term debt o and/or adding to plant and equipment. Inventory Turnover Ratio The inventory turnover ratio is defined as follows: Th Cost of sales Inventory turnover 5 (4.4) Average inventory Whereas the cost of sales is usually listed on a firm’s income statement, the average inventory has to be calculated. This can be done in a number of ways. For exam- ple, if a firm has been experiencing a significant and continuing rate of growth in sales, the average inventory may be computed by adding the figures for the begin- ning and ending inventories for the year and dividing by 2. If sales are seasonal or
8. 8. 98 Part 1 • Introduction otherwise subject to wide fluctuations, however, it would be better to add the month-end inventory balances for the entire year and divide by 12. However, ob- taining month-end inventory balances is a problem, as firms do not report these in the annual reports. An alternative is to use quarterly balances from the quarterly fi- nancial statements, which most firms do provide. Some analysts calculate inventory turnover as simply the ratio of annual sales to ending inventory. Although the sales-to-inventory ratio is technically inferior and ™ gives results different from those of more commonly used ratios, it may be satis- factory if used consistently when making comparisons between one firm and the industry as a whole. However, the problem with this ratio is that it tends to differ from one firm to another, depending on policies regarding markups on the cost of sales. ng Since the furniture industry is not highly seasonal, we will use the beginning and end-of-the-year inventory balances to calculate average inventory. Note that the beginning inventory value is the same as the ending inventory balance for the preceding year. For Furniture Brands, the average inventory balance is: (\$294.454 1 ni \$285.395)/2 5 \$289.925. Dividing the cost of sales by this figure, \$1,529.874/ \$289.925, gives an inventory turnover ratio of 5.28 times. This compares with an average of 5.49 for the industry. The difference is probably not significant. A very high or a very low inventory turnover ratio relative to the industry aver- ar age may have negative implications. A low inventory turnover ratio could be indica- tive of excessive inventory balances, or that some of the inventory is slow moving or even obsolete. If a firm’s inventory turnover ratio is too high, it may mean the firm is fre- Le quently running out of certain items in stock and may be losing sales to competitors. In the 1980s Pratt and Whitney, a well-known manufacturer of jet engines, decided to cut down on inventory of finished engines, resulting in disastrous market share consequences and profitability. Because downtime is costly for airline operators, they require ready availability of engines, if one has to be replaced. Airlines using Pratt and Whitney engines started experiencing longer downtimes because of a n shortage of inventory with the jet engine maker. Consequently many of these air- lines took their business to other manufacturers, notably General Electric, who gained market share at the expense of Pratt and Whitney. so Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio The fixed asset turnover ratio is defined as follows: Sales (4.5) Fixed asset turnover 5 om Net fixed assets It indicates the extent to which a firm is utilizing existing property, plant, and equipment to generate sales. It is important to note that this ratio is especially vul- nerable to a number of factors that may influence the value of net fixed assets in the denominator. The balance sheet figures that indicate how much a firm has in- vested in property, plant, and equipment are affected by the following: Th ➢ The cost of the assets when acquired. If the firm came into existence many years ago, its cost basis would be lower than that of another firm that started operations more recently. ➢ The depreciation policies adopted by the firm. An accelerated depreciation policy compared to a straight-line depreciation policy will cause net fixed as- sets to decrease more rapidly with time. ➢ The extent to which fixed assets are leased rather than owned.
9. 9. Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 99 ➢ The choice of technology. Two firms in the same industry, producing similar products, may adopt different technologies; one firm may rely on a consider- able level of automation, while another firm may adopt a more labor-intensive manufacturing process. Also some firms may rely more heavily on subcontrac- tors to do part of the manufacturing, consequently reducing the amount of in- vestment needed in property, plant, and equipment. Because of these factors, it is possible for firms manufacturing virtually identi- ™ cal products to have significantly different fixed asset turnover ratios. Thus, the ra- tio should be used primarily for year-to-year comparisons within the same company, rather than for intercompany comparisons. Furniture Brands fixed asset turnover ratio is \$2,116.239/\$303.235 5 6.98 ng times, slightly above the industry average of 6.3 times. Total Asset Turnover Ratio The total asset turnover ratio is defined as follows: Sales Total asset turnover 5 (4.6) Total assets ni It indicates how effectively a firm uses its total resources to generate sales and is a summary measure influenced by each of the asset management ratios previously discussed. ar Furniture Brands’ total asset turnover ratio is \$2,116.239/\$1,304.838 5 1.62 times, almost identical to the industry average of 1.63. Le Comprehension Check Questions 1. What is the rationale for computing the quick ratio? 2. Is a lower average collection period more desirable than a higher one? Explain. 3. What are some problems with the fixed asset turnover ratio? n Financial Leverage Management Ratios Whenever a firm finances a portion of its assets with any type of fixed-charge fi- so nancing—such as debt, preferred stock, or leases—the firm is said to be using financial leverage. Financial leverage management ratios measure the degree to which a firm is employing financial leverage and, as such, are of interest to creditors and owners m alike. Both long- and short-term creditors are concerned with the amount of lever- age a firm employs, because it indicates the firm’s risk exposure in meeting debt service charges (that is, interest and principal repayment). A firm that is heavily fi- o nanced by debt offers creditors less protection in the event of bankruptcy. For ex- ample, if a firm’s assets are financed with 85 percent debt, the value of the assets Th can decline by only 15 percent before creditors’ funds are endangered. In contrast, if only 15 percent of a firm’s assets are debt-financed, asset values can drop by 85 percent before jeopardizing the creditors. Owners are interested in financial leverage because it influences the rate of re- turn they can expect to realize on their investment and the degree of risk involved. For example, if a firm is able to borrow funds at 9 percent and employ them at 12 percent, the owners earn the 3 percent difference and may view financial leverage favorably. On the other hand, if the firm can earn only 3 percent on the borrowed
10. 10. 100 Part 1 • Introduction funds, the 26 percent difference (3% 2 9%) will result in a lower rate of return to the owners. Either balance sheet or income statement data can be used to measure a firm’s use of financial leverage. The balance sheet approach gives a static measure of finan- cial leverage at a specific point in time and emphasizes total amounts of debt, whereas the income statement approach provides a more dynamic measure and re- lates required interest payments on debt to the firm’s ability to pay. Both approaches ™ are employed widely in practice. There are several types of financial leverage management ratios, including the debt ratio, the debt-to-equity ratio, the times interest earned ratio, and the fixed- charge coverage ratio. ng Debt Ratio The debt ratio is defined as follows: Total debt (4.7) Debt ratio 5 Total assets ni It measures the proportion of a firm’s total assets that is financed with credi- tors’ funds. As used here, the term debt encompasses all short-term liabilities and long-term liabilities. Some individuals prefer to use a narrower definition of debt and consider only interest-charging liabilities such as long-term debt or bonds, ar notes payable, and lines of credit. Bondholders and other long-term creditors are among those likely to be inter- ested in a firm’s debt ratio. They tend to prefer a low debt ratio, because it provides more protection in the event of liquidation or some other major financial problem. Le As the debt ratio increases, so do a firm’s fixed-interest charges. If the debt ratio becomes too high, the cash flows a firm generates during economic recessions may not be sufficient to meet interest payments. Thus, a firm’s ability to market new debt obligations when it needs to raise new funds is crucially affected by the size of the debt ratio and by investors’ perceptions about the risk implied by the level of the ratio. n Debt ratios are stated in terms of percentages. Furniture Brands’ debt ratio as of year-end 2000 is (\$143.118 1 \$462.000 1 \$115.815)/\$1,304.838 5 \$720.933/ \$1,304.838 5 0.55251, or about 55 percent. The numerator is the sum of all cur- so rent liabilities, long-term debt, and other long-term liabilities. The ratio is inter- preted to mean that Furniture Brands’ creditors are financing 55 percent of the firm’s total assets. Furniture Brands’ debt ratio is considerably greater than the 32 percent industry average. Evidently Furniture Brands’ management has relied om on debt to a much greater extent than does the industry on average in financing as- sets. The high leverage ratio also means that shareholders of Furniture Brands may be subject to significantly greater bankruptcy risk than other firms in the industry. Debt-to-Equity Ratio The debt-to-equity ratio is defined as follows: Th Total debt (4.8) Debt-to-equity 5 Total equity It is similar to the debt ratio and relates the amount of a firm’s debt financing to the amount of equity financing. Actually, the debt-to-equity ratio is not really a new ratio; it is simply the debt ratio in a different format. The debt-to-equity ratio also is stated as a percentage. Furniture Brands’ debt-to-equity ratio at year-end 2000 is \$720.933/\$583.905 5 1.235, or 123.5 percent. The industry average is 48 percent. In other words, the average firm in the industry raised approximately \$0.48 in lia-
11. 11. Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 101 bilities for each dollar of equity in the firm. In contrast, Furniture Brands uses \$1.24 of liabilities for every dollar of equity financing. This shows that Furniture Brands has been following a very aggressive financing policy and probably has little flexibility in terms of future borrowing capacity. From the perspective of creditors, it means that Furniture Brands is probably not a good credit risk relative to the average firm in the industry, and creditors either would not be eager to lend to Fur- niture Brands or would do so only by charging higher interest rates than for the ™ average firm in the industry. Because most interest costs are incurred on long-term borrowed funds (greater than 1 year to maturity) and because long-term borrowing places multi- year, fixed financial obligations on a firm, some analysts also consider the ratio of ng long-term debt-to-total assets, or long-term-debt-to-equity. For Furniture Brands the long- term-debt-to-total-assets ratio is 35.4 percent. The comparable industry average is 9.2 percent. The long-term-debt-to-equity ratio for Furniture Brands is 79.1 per- cent. The corresponding industry average is 14.6 percent. These figures once again confirm the aggressive financing policy of Furniture Brands. Some analysts con- ni sider all noncurrent liabilities as long-term debt, in our calculations we only con- sider liabilities identified as long-term debt. Times Interest Earned Ratio The times interest earned (TIE) ratio is defined as follows: ar Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) Times interest earned 5 (4.9) Interest charges Often referred to as simply interest coverage, this ratio employs income statement Le data to measure a firm’s use of financial leverage. It tells the analyst the extent to which the firm’s current earnings are able to meet current interest payments. The EBIT figures are used because the firm makes interest payments out of operating income, or EBIT. When the times interest earned ratio falls below 1.0, the contin- ued viability of the enterprise is threatened because the failure to make interest payments when due can lead to bankruptcy. n From Furniture Brands’ income statement we note that the company incurred interest expense of \$36.389 million in 2000. The firm’s operating earning or EBIT was \$192.614 million. In other words, Furniture Brands covers annual interest so payments 5.29 times; this figure is significantly below the industry average of 31.8 times. It is clear from the debt, debt-to-equity, and times interest earned ratios that Furniture Brands has followed an aggressive financing policy. m Fixed-Charge Coverage Ratio The fixed-charge coverage ratio is defined as follows: (EBIT) 1 lease payments Fixed-charge coverage 5 (4.10) Interest 1 lease payments 1 preferred o dividends before tax 1 before tax sinking fund Th It measures the number of times a firm is able to cover total fixed charges, which in- clude (in addition to interest payments) preferred dividends and payments re- quired under long-term lease contracts. Many corporations also are required to make sinking fund payments on bond issues; these are annual payments aimed at either retiring a portion of the bond obligation each year or providing for the ulti- mate redemption of bonds at maturity. Under most sinking fund provisions, the firm either may make these payments to the bondholders’ representative (the trustee), who determines through a lottery process which of the outstanding bonds will be retired, or deliver to the trustee the required number of bonds purchased
12. 12. 102 Part 1 • Introduction by the firm in the open market. Either way, the firm’s outstanding indebtedness is reduced. In calculating the fixed-charge coverage ratio, an analyst must consider each of the firm’s obligations on a before-tax basis. However, because sinking fund pay- ments and preferred stock dividends are not tax deductible and therefore must be paid out of after-tax earnings, a mathematical adjustment has to be made. After-tax payments must be divided by (1 2 T), where T is the marginal tax rate. This effec- ™ tively converts such payments to a before-tax basis, or one that is comparable to the EBIT. And, since lease payments are deducted in arriving at the EBIT, they must be added back into the numerator of the ratio, because the fixed charges (in the de- nominator) also include lease payments. The fixed-charge coverage ratio is a more severe measure of a firm’s ability to ng meet fixed financial obligations. It is not always easy to calculate the fixed-charge coverage ratio because information, especially on lease payments and sinking fund payments, is not always readily available from the financial statements. For Furni- ture Brands, the notes to the financial statements reveal that the firm incurred ni lease payments of \$18.514 million in 2000 and that there were no sinking fund pay- ments. From the balance sheet we know that the firm did not have any preferred shares outstanding, therefore no preferred dividends were paid out. Using these numbers, Furniture Brands’ fixed-charge coverage ratio is: (\$192.614 1 \$18.514)/ ar (\$36.389 1 \$18.514) 5 \$211.128/\$54.903 5 3.8 times. We do not have a compara- ble industry average, as the necessary information was not available in the financial statements for all five firms used in constructing the industry average. Le Profitability Ratios More than any other accounting measure, a firm’s profits demonstrate how well the firm is making investment and financing decisions. If a firm is unable to pro- vide adequate returns in the form of dividends and share price appreciation to in- vestors, it may be unable to maintain, let alone increase, its asset base. Profitability ratios measure how effectively a firm’s management is generating profits on sales, total assets, n and, most importantly, stockholders’ investment. Therefore, anyone whose economic in- terests are tied to the long-run survival of a firm will be interested in profitability ratios. so There are several types of profitability ratios, including the gross profit margin ratio, the net profit margin ratio, the return on investment ratio, and the return on stock- holders’ equity ratio. om Gross Profit Margin Ratio The gross profit margin ratio is defined as follows: Sales 2 Cost of sales (4.11) Gross profit margin 5 Sales It measures the relative profitability of a firm’s sales after the cost of sales has been deducted, thus revealing how effectively the firm’s management is making deci- Th sions regarding pricing and the control of production costs. Furniture Brands’ gross profit margin ratio is (\$2,116.239 2 \$1,529.874)/\$2,116.239 5 27.7%, which is in line with the industry average of 27.2 percent. This percentage indicates that Furniture Brands’ cost of production is consistent with the industry’s experience. Net Profit Margin Ratio The net profit margin ratio is defined as follows: Earnings after tax (EAT) (4.12) Net profit margin 5 Sales
13. 13. Chapter 4 • Evaluation of Firm Performance 103 It measures how profitable a firm’s sales are after all expenses, including taxes and interest, have been deducted. Furniture Brands’ net profit margin ratio is \$105.901/\$2,116.239 5 5.0%, which is below the industry average of 5.70 percent. Since the gross profit margin was nearly identical to the industry, the below-average net profit margin is indicative of above-average operating expenses and/or interest expenses. We noted previously that Furniture Brands relies heavily on debt financ- ing, which entails significant interest expense. The significant interest expense as- ™ sociated with the high debt ratio appears to have depressed Furniture Brands’ net profit margin relative to the industry average. Some analysts also compute an operating profit margin ratio, defined as earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) or operating earnings/sales. It measures the prof- ng itability of a firm’s operations before considering the effects of financing decisions. Because the operating profit margin is computed before considering interest charges, this ratio often is more suitable for comparing the profit performance of different firms that may utilize varying amounts of debt financing. Return on Investment (Total Assets) Ratio The return on investment ratio (ROI) ni is defined as follows: Earnings after tax (EAT) Return on investment 5 (4.13) ar Total assets It measures a firm’s net income in relation to the total asset investment. Furniture Brands’ return on investment ratio, \$105.901/\$1,304.838, is 8.1 percent, which is somewhat below the industry average of 9.4 percent and consistent with the below- Le average net profit margin for the firm. Some analysts also like to compute the ratio of EBIT to total assets (EBIT/Total Assets). This measures the operating profit rate of return for a firm. An after-tax version of this ratio is earnings before interest and after tax (EBIAT) divided by total assets. These ratios are computed before interest charges and may be more suitable when comparing the operating performance of two or more firms that are n financed differently. Another variant of the operating performance ratio is the ratio of earnings before interest, depreciation, and amortization (EBITDA)/total so assets. Many analysts prefer the EBITDA/total assets, since noncash expenses (de- preciation and amortization expense) are ignored, giving a measure of operating profits that is based more on cash flows. Return on Stockholders’ Equity Ratio The return on stockholders’ equity ratio m (ROE) is defined as follows: Earnings after tax (EAT) Return on stockholders’ equity 5 (4.14) Stockholders’ equity o It measures the rate of return that the firm earns on stockholders’ equity. Because Th only the stockholders’ equity appears in the denominator, the ratio is influenced di- rectly by the amount of debt a firm is using to finance assets. Furniture Brands’ return on stockholders’ equity ratio is \$105.901/\$583.905 5 18.1%. The comparable indus- try average is 13.7 percent. Furniture Brands’ above-average performance on return on stockholders’ equity but not on return on investments is attributable to the heavy debt load taken on by the firm. With relatively higher debt financing, the firm is able to spread its net income over a smaller base of stockholders’ equity, thereby increas- ing the return on stockholders’ equity. (In a later section we will explain the relation between return on investment and return on stockholder’s equity more completely.)