• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Interpreting Council Financial Statements
 

Interpreting Council Financial Statements

on

  • 617 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
617
Views on SlideShare
617
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Interpreting Council Financial Statements Interpreting Council Financial Statements Document Transcript

    • Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America
    • © 1997 Updated February 2001 Boy Scouts of America Irving, Texas 80-263
    • Table of Contents Introduction................................................................................................................................... 3 Background Information.............................................................................................................. 4 Statement of Financial Position.................................................................................................. 6 Statement of Changes in Net Assets ......................................................................................... 17 Statement of Cash Flows ........................................................................................................... 29 Statement of Functional Expenses............................................................................................ 34 Statement of Operations—Unrestricted................................................................................... 38 Financial Ratios.......................................................................................................................... 50 Appendix A: Restricted Fund Report ....................................................................................... 53 Appendix B: Reclassification Analysis Report........................................................................ 55 Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 1 Updated 2/2001
    • Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 2 Updated 2/2001
    • Introduction Background Most local Boy Scout councils produce the statements discussed in this guidebook to represent the financial standing of the council. The council then shares the statements with executive board members, major contributors including United Way organizations and foundations, and other interested parties. However, the financial statements of a not-for-profit organization differ from those of for-profit companies. These differences are created by the very nature of a not-for-profit business and the methods by which it accounts for contributions, donor-restricted gifts, gifts to endow the council’s operations and programs, deferred income from camps and activities, and other situations unique to not-for-profit operations. This guidebook will provide the reader with adequate information to interpret the Boy Scout council’s financial statements. Compliance The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) recently set new accounting standards in an attempt to make all not-for-profit reporting more uniform. However, there are still some differences between other not-for-profit organizations and the Boy Scout councils based on options allowed by the accounting industry. Nevertheless, it is important to understand that the BSA accounting system is fully compliant with recent FASB standards. It is also compliant with the audit guides and accounting principles set by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). Current For the past twenty years, the Local Council Accounting Manual has provided Resources guidance to council staffs, management, and volunteers in the area of proper accounting practices and procedures. However, the need exists to provide this concise training and communication resource to assist in successfully interpreting the council’s financial statements. How to Use This This guidebook is designed for individual study and as a training aid for classroom Guidebook groups. It can also be used as a reference guide for analyzing a current set of financial statements. It is designed to expand the knowledge of those who have a need to read the council’s financial statements. Note that your actual financial statements might not have all the line items included on the samples in this document. A line item will not be printed on the statement if there is no current-year, last-year, or budgeted figure for that item. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 3 Updated 2/2001
    • Background Information Account In the council’s financial system, as in all accounting systems, every account is Categories classified as one of five categories of accounts. Every financial transaction of the council will be recorded in one or more of these categories: Assets are items of value that the organization owns, such as cash, receivables, inventory, or land. Liabilities are the claims against the organization, such as accounts payable and loans or mortgages. Net Assets are simply the amounts remaining when the liabilities are subtracted from the assets. They represent the organization’s retained earnings or equity. Income occurs when there is an increase in assets (such as cash) or a decrease in liabilities (such as a payable) with a simultaneous increase in the net assets. Income is segregated into Support (contributions) and Revenues (earned income). Expenses occur when there is a decrease in assets (such as cash) or an increase in liabilities (such as payables) with a simultaneous decrease in the net assets. Expenses can be expressed in either natural or functional categories. Accounting The accounting system relies on the interactions within these five categories of Formulas accounts. There are two mathematical formulas that define the accounting system and allow it to function. These formulas define the relationships within the five categories. The formulas are: Assets equal Liabilities plus Net Assets Income minus Expenses equals Change In Net Assets Fund Accounting The accounting system of the Boy Scouts of America uses three funds to segregate the financial activity of the council based on the specified purpose of the activity. This comes about because donors and governing boards request that certain amounts of money be used for specific purposes. The council has the responsibility to see that the money is spent accordingly, and in order to fulfill this stewardship function, unique funds are established to account for each specified amount of money or other asset. Each fund is an accounting entity complete with its share of assets, liabilities, and net assets. Revenues that are specified as belonging to the fund increase the net assets, while expenses incurred to accomplish the stated purpose of the fund decrease the net assets. The three funds are Operating, Capital, and Endowment. Descriptions of The Operating Fund accounts for all the council’s financial activity pertaining Funds to the annual operation and delivery of the Scouting program. All accounts that do not belong in either of the other two funds are included in the Operating fund. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 4 Updated 2/2001
    • The Capital Fund accounts for all fixed assets that the council owns, the related liabilities, if any, and amounts designated or restricted for the purchase of fixed assets. Income and expenses related to fixed assets are also part of this fund. The Endowment Fund is used to account for investments designated by the board as endowment funds, or temporarily restricted by the donor to act as endowment funds, or permanently restricted by the donor as endowment funds. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 5 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position Overview The Statement of Financial Position is a snapshot in time that tells the reader the financial condition of the council as of the date specified. It is a statement that covers the entire corporation, not just one aspect of it. The Statement also is the aggregate history of the council from its beginning to the current date of measurement. Assets and liabilities are stated by fund and total of all funds. Individual assets and liabilities are listed in order of their liquidity, the most liquid listed at the top and the least liquid at the bottom. Net assets are listed by type. There are three different types, including: § Unrestricted Funds – Funds over which the executive board has total discretion. § Temporarily Restricted Funds – Funds on which the donor has placed a time or purpose restriction. The executive board has no discretion over these funds. § Permanently Restricted Funds - Funds on which the donor has placed a permanent restriction. The executive board has no discretion over these funds. This report can be printed in summary or detail format. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 6 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position SAMPLE Take Any Council Page 0001 Statement of Financial Position For the Period Ending 9/30/2000 Operating Fund Capital Fund Endowment Fund Total All Funds Assets 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 Current Assets Cash -223,471 -150,687 40,666 29,125 174,786 31,595 -8,020 -89,968 Short Term Investments 1,443 800 447 800 1,891 Accounts and Notes Receivable 129,666 131,594 129,666 131,594 Pledges Receivable 179,562 163,673 99,444 71,875 279,006 235,548 Inventories 219,468 155,527 219,468 155,527 Deferred Activity Expense 63,275 2,906 63,275 2,906 Deferred Special Events, Expens 2,317 2,596 2,317 2,596 Prepaid Expense 38,307 10,217 38,307 10,217 Total Current Assets 409,125 317,269 40,666 29,125 275,030 103,917 724,820 450,311 Land,Building, and Equipment 3,677,712 3,266,022 3,677,712 3,266,022 Long-Term Investments 6,154,960 5,846,931 6,154,960 5,846,931 Total Noncurrent Assets 3,677,712 3,266,022 6,154,960 5,846,931 9,832,672 9,112,953 Total Assets 409,125 317,269 3,718,377 3,295,147 6,429,990 5,950,848 10,557,492 9,563,264 Liabilities and Net Assets Current Liabilities Accounts Payable 35,264 68,948 3,663 -13 38,926 68,935 Accrued Expenses 6,925 6,049 6,925 6,049 Payroll Taxes Withheld 4,880 4,362 4,880 4,362 Custodial Accounts 83,089 72,045 83,089 72,045 Notes Payable 124,000 97,200 124,000 97,200 Deferred Activity Income 32,210 5,577 32,210 5,577 Deferred Camp Income 4,490 2,450 4,490 2,450 Deferred Special Events Income 78,713 -17,576 78,713 -17,576 Other Current Liabilities 10,132 7,149 1,016 11,148 7,149 Total Current Liabilities 255,702 149,004 4,678 -13 124,000 97,200 384,381 246,191 Long-Term Indebtedness 100,611 89,342 100,611 89,342 Total Noncurrent Liabilities 100,611 89,342 100,611 89,342 Total Liabilities 255,702 149,004 105,289 89,329 124,000 97,200 484,992 335,533 Net Assets Unrestricted Net Assets 154,327 169,170 3,453,125 3,046,455 2,809,217 2,833,268 6,416,670 6,048,893 Temp. Restricted Net Assets -905 -905 159,963 159,363 2,000 2,000 161,058 160,458 Perm. Restricted Net Assets 3,494,773 3,018,380 3,494,773 3,018,380 Total Net Assets 153,422 168,265 3,613,088 3,205,818 6,305,990 5,853,648 10,072,501 9,227,731 Total Liabilities and Net Assets 409,124 317,269 3,718,377 3,295,147 6,429,990 5,950,848 10,557,493 9,563,264 -- End of report -- Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 7 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position—Assets Current Assets This is the first category listed on the statement. These are council assets that are considered accessible to the council during the current fiscal year. Because these assets are sequenced in their nearness to cash, this is the first place to look for available cash or the possibility of “freeing up” cash. Cash Not only is this cash in the checking account, but it also may include cash in savings accounts, petty cash funds, and change funds. Short-Term These are current funds that have been invested in short-term vehicles like Investments certificates of deposit, and are available with little notice. Accounts Receivable These are receivables that the council has recorded; they may include grants, accrued income from investments, accrued gains (or losses), and miscellaneous receivables, such as returned checks or deposits. Pledges Receivable These are receivables from all of the fundraising campaigns that the council holds less an allowance for uncollectible pledges. This amount may include pledges yet unpaid from previous campaigns or from future campaigns. It will also include pledges receivable from United Ways, special events, grants, and other contributions as well as Friends of Scouting. Inventories This is the value, at cost, of the inventories held by the council. These may be inventories held for sale at the Council Service Center, camp trading post, product sales, food and other commissary supplies at camp, and/or donated goods and services held for resale such as auction items. lnterfund Loans These are the loans from one fund to another fund. These may include temporary loans where an item was purchased from one fund for another fund and the transfer has not been recorded yet. vRule: The “Total All Funds” column for this category must be blank or zero. If there is an amount in this column for interfund loans, then the interfund loans are out of balance. Usually this happens because only half of the transaction has been recorded, for example, funds have been borrowed from fund 1 but have not been loaned to either fund 2 or 3. Deferred Expenses These are purchases (usually supplies or contracts) for activities, camps, or special events to be held at some future time. Until the activities, camps, or special events are actually held, these purchases are assets belonging to the council. When the event is held, the purchases will become nondeferred expenses of that event. See Deferred Income in the Liabilities section. Deferred Activity These are all prepaid expenses for activities. As the activity is completed, Expenses balances are moved to the appropriate expense lines on the Statement of Operations. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 8 Updated 2/2001
    • Deferred Camp These are all prepaid expenses for camps. As the camp is completed, balances Expenses are moved to the appropriate expense lines on the Statement of Operations. Deferred Special These are all prepaid expenses for special events. As the special event is Events Expenses completed, the balances are moved to the appropriate expense lines on the Statement of Operations. Prepaid Expenses These accounts record the value of funds that have been expended to prepay future expenses. This may include insurance premiums that have been paid on an annual basis but retain value as an asset for the months remaining in the premium year. The council could cancel the insurance policy and receive the outstanding month’s premiums; therefore, these premiums are an asset of the council. Other examples of prepaid expenses are fundraising expenses, rent, taxes, maintenance or service contracts, and nonsalable inventory, such as office supplies. Total Current Assets This is the total of all asset categories listed above. Noncurrent Assets These are assets that have an extended life and include land, buildings, equipment, and long-term investments. Land, Building, and This is the value of land, buildings, and equipment recorded at either purchase Equipment price or fair market value when received less the accumulated depreciation for buildings and equipment. This means that the asset is recorded, when acquired, at a determined fair market value and, except for land, an estimate of the years of useful life is established. For example, a computer may be three years; a vehicle, five years; a building, fifty years. Each year, the value of the asset is reduced by an equal portion of its estimated life. For example, the value of a computer is reduced by one-third each year. At the end of its useful life, the asset is fully depreciated and has no recorded value as an asset of the corporation. Councils use straight-line depreciation. vRule: Councils should adopt a “Capitalization Policy” to set the value for a newly acquired asset by either, 1) giving it a life of one year or less and fully expensing it in that fiscal year, or 2) giving it a life of two years or more and capitalizing it as an asset of the corporation depreciated (expensed) over its useful lifetime. Long-Term These are the assets of the council that have been invested in long-term Investments investment vehicles or fixed assets held for resale. This includes the endowment investments of the council. Total Noncurrent This is the total of the two noncurrent items above. Assets Total Assets This is the total of both current and noncurrent assets. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 9 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position—Liabilities Current Liabilities These are those short-term claims on the council resulting from annual operations. Accounts Payable This is the amount due and payable to all suppliers and vendors. The Accounts Payable Aging Report will provide information about when these payables are due. Accrued Expenses These accounts record, as a liability, expenses incurred and unpaid, for which invoices were not received by the close of an accounting period. Because invoices were not received, the expenses can not be listed as accounts payables; however, the estimated expense should be accrued. This may include accrued insurance premiums, interest, rent, taxes, payroll, vacation pay, or professional fees. Payroll Taxes This includes all payroll taxes and benefit withholdings collected from Withheld employees but not paid. This also includes the council’s share of payroll taxes expensed but unpaid. Custodial Accounts These accounts include the amount of funds held in custody for an entity other than the council. This includes registration and Boys’ Life fees collected and unpaid to the national council and funds held on deposit for units, Order of the Arrow, and National Eagle Scout Association. These funds are held in custody and should not be expended for operating purposes. Notes Payable This is for short-term notes, such as a line of credit or cash flow loan. This should also include this year’s portion of long-term notes payable, such as mortgages. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 10 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position—Deferred Income and Noncurrent Liabilities Deferred Income These include participation fees for activities, camps, or special events that will be held at some future time. Until the activities, camps, or special events are actually held, this income is considered liability, because it is refundable to the participant if the council fails to produce the event. When the event is held, the fees become nondeferred and are income for that event. Deferred Activity These are all fees paid for participation in activities. As the activity is Income completed, the balances are moved to the appropriate income lines on the Statement of Operations. Deferred Camp These are all fees paid for participation in camps. As the camp is completed, Income the balances are moved to the appropriate income lines on the Statement of Operations. Deferred Special This is all income and direct benefit expenses for special events. As the Events Income special event is completed, the balances are moved to the appropriate income lines on the Statement of Operations. Other Current This is a collection of items that do not appropriately fit into one of the Liabilities above categories but are current liabilities. They include sales and use tax payables, funds of inactive units, unclaimed wages, garnishments and child support payments collected but unpaid, Scout bucks or gift certificates issued but unclaimed, and other current liabilities. Total Current This is the total of the current liabilities listed above. Liabilities Noncurrent Liabilities These are liabilities that extend beyond the current fiscal year. Long-Term This is the portion of long-term notes payable or mortgages that extend Indebtedness beyond this current fiscal year. This year’s portion would be found in the Notes Payable section. Other Noncurrent This is for long-term indebtedness other than notes or mortgages, such as Liabilities capital lease obligations that extend beyond the current fiscal year. Total Noncurrent The total of the noncurrent liability categories listed above. Liabilities Total Liabilities This is the total of both current and noncurrent liabilities. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 11 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position—Net Assets Net Assets These are segregated based on restrictions that have been placed on contributions or revenue by the original donor. Restrictions can not be placed on the net assets by any other entity, including the executive board, with the one rare exception of state law. Many states have adopted the Uniform Management of Institutional Funds Act (UMJFA), which allows and/or requires organizations to spend and/or retain unrestricted appreciation from permanently restricted endowment gifts. Donor restrictions that have a time or purpose limitation are called temporary restrictions. Donor restrictions that the executive board can never change are called permanent restrictions. All net assets of the council that do not carry a donor’s temporary or permanent restriction are called unrestricted. Unrestricted Net Unrestricted net assets represent the net worth of the council free of any Assets donor-imposed restrictions. In the Operating fund, this is the net worth of unrestricted operations. In the Capital fund, this is usually the value of depreciated fixed assets less any liabilities against those fixed assets and/or any unrestricted or board- designated funds available for the purpose of purchasing fixed assets. In the Endowment fund, this is usually the value of unrestricted or board- designated funds “acting as endowment” less any liabilities. These could be original gifts, appreciation, or interest/dividend income transferred back to the Endowment fund from the Operating fund. Although these funds may be unrestricted, they may be invested with a trustee using a trust agreement that does not allow the executive board to access these funds. Temporarily This represents the net worth of the council that has a donor’s restriction on Restricted Net Assets the original gift, or use of apprecia tion, or interest/dividends. The restrictions can be met by either the passage of time or the occurrence of a specific event. In the Operating fund, this is usually time-restricted contributions (FOS or United Way for next year) or purpose-restricted contributions and revenue (appreciation, interest/dividends). In the Capital fund, this is usually unexpended funds raised through a capital campaign and, therefore, restricted for the purpose of the campaign. Once the funds are used to complete the construction or to acquire the fixed assets, the funds become unrestricted investments in fixed assets. In the Endowment fund, the donor has restricted the use of the funds, and until such time as the restriction is met, the funds are to function as endowment funds. This may include original gifts, appreciation, or interest/dividends. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 12 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Financial Position—Net Assets Permanently This represents the net worth of the council that has a donor’s restriction on Restricted Net Assets the original gift and use of appreciation or interest/dividends that the executive board can never remove. In the Operating fund, this net asset is not available. Because the council has other funds in which to record endowment gifts, there is no use for this net asset in the Operating fund. In the Capital fund, this net asset is used to record fixed assets that are permanently restricted by the donor. This would be only fixed assets and not unexpended funds because those funds would be recorded in the Endowment fund. In the Endowment fund, this net asset represents the true endowment of the council, those funds permanently restricted by the donor as endowment funds. This may include original gifts and appreciation or interest/dividends that carry a specific donor restriction. Total Net Assets This is the total of the unrestricted, temporarily restricted, and permanently restricted net assets and represents the total net worth of the council as defined by the mathematical formula: Total Assets less Total Liabilities equals Total Net Assets. Total Liabilities and This is the sum of total liabilities and total net assets. Net Assets vRule: The Statement of Financial Position is sometimes called a Balance Sheet. The reason is that the two lines, Total Assets and Total Liabilities and Net Assets , must always be equal or balance each other. If the two lines are not the same, then the statement is out of balance. (Rounding computations may cause the lines to be off by one or two dollars, which is not enough to declare the statement out of balance.) Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 13 Updated 2/2001
    • Liquidity Ratio—Unrestricted Operating Fund Liquidity Ratio (30-Day Demand) ØNote: The liquidity ratio may or may not be included in a Statement of Financial Position. National Formula This line represents the nationally suggested ratio of cash assets to thirty-day or less demand liabilities. National Standard in This line figures the cash items using the suggested ratio and the council’s Dollars actual thirty-day or less demand liabilities. Council in Dollars This line figures the cash assets using the actual thirty-day or less demand liabilities. Council Cash Ratio This line figures the council’s actual ratio for cash assets to within thirty days. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 14 Updated 2/2001
    • Analysis of the Statement of Financial Position Is Your Statement Remember that this statement is a presentation of the mathematical equation in Balance? Total Assets equals Total Liabilities plus Net Assets. Therefore, the Total Assets line must equal the Total Liabilities and Net Assets line. If these two lines do not show the same number in each column, then your statement is out of balance. ØNote: Because of the way the numbers are summarized for the statement, there may be a difference of a couple dollars due to rounding. This does not mean that you are out of balance. lnterfund Loans An interfund loan is a loan of money from one fund to a second fund. In order to appropriately record an interfund loan, the fund that borrowed the money will have a negative asset equal to the loan amount and the fund that loaned the money will have a positive asset of the same amount. The net result in the Total All Funds column must always be zero (or a blank space). A quick check of the Total All Funds column will tell you if your interfund loans are in balance. Is it blank? Negative Numbers Except for the Interfund Loan line, there should be no negative numbers in the Assets and Liabilities sections. A negative asset is by definition a liability and a negative liability is an asset. If one or more of the funds of the council is financially bankrupt, there may be a negative number in the Unrestricted Net Assets line. This of course should be a major concern to the council. The only time a negative number would appear in the Temporarily Restricted Net Asset line is when losses have been recorded for a restricted investment; otherwise both the Temporarily and Permanently Restricted Net Asset lines should always be positive numbers. Cash and Short- A quick review of lines 1 and 2 on the statement will give you an idea of the Term Investments availability of cash and short-term investments. Ask these questions: Is there enough cash? Is there too much cash in the checking account? Does the cash amount exceed the FDIC insurance level? Should some of the cash in the checking account be moved to short-term investments for a better return on the money? Is the cash appropriately distributed among the funds? Are there enough short-term investments? Should some of the investments be moved to the checking account? Are there short-term investments that should be moved to long-term investments? Review Current Do the amounts in the Current Assets categories and the Current Liabilities Assets and Current categories make sense, and can you explain what they are? Liabilities If you have questions as to what makes up a particular amount, print a Detailed Statement of Financial Position for the fund in question. It will list each account included in the summary statement line. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 15 Updated 2/2001
    • Use of Correct Land, building, and equipment items should all be in the Capital fund (fund Funds 2) along with any associated long-term indebtedness on the assets. Long-term investments should usually be in the Endowment fund (fund 3). Review the Net Unrestricted net assets can be in any and all three funds. These amounts are Assets available to the board to be transferred between funds as the executive board designates. This requires board action and is recorded in the minutes of the executive board meeting. ØNote: Even though there are unrestricted net assets in the Endowment fund, they may not be available for transfer, because they have been placed in a trust that the executive board cannot access. Temporarily restricted net assets can also be found in any or all three funds. If it is unclear why these amounts are restricted, the council can print a Restricted Funds Report for one or all funds. This detailed report is printed by cost center for temporarily restricted net assets. (An example of this report is in Appendix A.) Permanently restricted net assets should never be in the Operating fund (fund 1), and rarely in the capital fund (fund 2). In fund 2, permanent restrictions on fixed assets are usually land assets that cannot be sold. The Endowment fund (fund 3) represents the council’s “true” endowment with donor restricted as part of the endowment gift. Compare This Year Compare each line amount with the amount from last year at the same time. with Last Year If they differ significantly, determine the reason for the difference. For example, if inventory has increased by $14,788 or 27 percent, ask why. Has the council done something different this year that would explain the increase? Liquidity Ratio The liquidity ratio at the bottom of the Statement of Financial Position indicates the council’s ability to pay current on-demand obligations when they are due. To determine the liquidity ratio for the Operating fund, take the liquid assets (Cash and Short-Term Investments) and subtract the on-demand liabilities (Accounts Payable, Accrued Expenses, Payroll Taxes Withheld, and Custodial Accounts); then divide the result by those same on-demand liabilities. The national standard or recommended point to achieve is .33. The national average for 1999 was .37. If your council’s ratio is too high, you may be able to make better use of your available cash. Perhaps you should consider longer term investing. Your council’s ratio may be too low and as the number decreases, there is a greater need to decide which vendors to pay each month. A figure less than zero means there are not enough liquid assets to cover short-term liabilities. Consider withdrawing long-term investments or securing a cash flow loan from the bank. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 16 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Changes in Net Assets Overview This statement (often called Statement of Activities) is designed to show the reader the total income and expense for all funds and for all fund restrictions. It is an accurate representation of what the total corporation has accomplished for the specified period. In addition to showing income and expense, it also shows the type of income, with unrestricted, temporarily restricted, and permanently restricted contributions, and net assets that flow from those contributions. The report shows comparative data by year and by fund. The comparison is with the same month, one year earlier, from the specified date of the statement. The second purpose of the report is to show what changes in net assets have occurred and the source of that change since the beginning of the year being measured. The report shows the net assets as of the beginning of the year and any changes to net assets, as well as transfers, that have occurred during the period being measured. Ending net assets on this report are the same net assets reported on the Statement of Financial Position. The increase or decrease of net assets for all funds is the beginning point for the Statement of Cash Flows. This report can be printed in natural expense order or functional expense order. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 17 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Changes in Net Assets Sample Take Any Council Page 0001 Statement of Changes in Net Assets For the Period Ending 9/30/2000 Functional Presentation Changes in Unrestricted Net Assets Operating Fund Capital Fund Endowment Fund Total All Funds Support and Revenue 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 Friends of Scouting - Gross 716,965 691,675 716,965 691,675 Less Provision for Uncollectible -45,502 -23,246 -45,502 -23,246 Net Friends of Scouting 671,463 668,429 671,463 668,429 Special Events - Gross 33,705 66,375 33,705 66,375 Less Cost of Direct Benefit -7,759 -4,082 -7,759 -4,082 Net Special Events 25,945 62,293 25,945 62,293 Foundations and Trusts 9,322 9,322 Total Direct Support 706,730 730,722 706,730 730,722 Indirect Support United Ways 73,037 70,206 73,037 70,206 Total Indirect Support 73,037 70,206 73,037 70,206 Revenue Sale of Supplies - Gross 533,399 494,984 533,399 494,984 Less Cost of Goods Sold -387,707 -362,511 -387,707 -362,511 Net Sale of Supplies 145,693 132,473 145,693 132,473 Product Sales - Gross 7,570 7,510 7,570 7,510 Less Cost of Goods Sold -209 -209 Net Product Sales 7,570 7,301 7,570 7,301 Investment Income 280,214 196,525 86,850 109,789 -262,689 -223,392 104,375 82,923 Gain or Loss on Investments 19,279 228,402 19,279 228,402 Camping Revenue 595,183 609,070 60 595,183 609,130 Activity Revenue 164,352 160,786 164,352 160,786 Other Revenue 22,390 28,176 46,680 43,686 69,071 71,862 Total Revenue 1,215,402 1,134,331 133,530 153,475 -243,410 5,070 1,105,522 1,292,876 Net Assets Released Frm Restrictions Reclass Friends of Scouting 17,569 14,716 17,569 14,716 Reclass Capital Campaign 7,550 7,550 Reclass Foundations 50,000 50,000 Reclass Other Direct 9,196 9,196 Reclass United Way 50 50 Total Reclassification of Net Assets 26,765 64,766 7,550 34,315 64,766 Total Support and Revenue 2,021,935 2,000,025 141,080 153,475 -243,410 5,070 1,919,605 2,158,570 Expenses Program Services 1,650,971 1,562,065 157,690 131,159 4,896 4,577 1,813,557 1,697,802 Support Services Management and General 80,420 81,632 4,875 4,300 282 263 85,577 86,195 Fundraising 140,601 126,464 9,751 8,599 564 527 150,916 135,590 Total Supporting Services 221,020 208,096 14,626 12,899 847 790 236,493 221,784 Charter and National Service Fee 20,876 18,247 20,876 18,247 Total Expenses 1,892,867 1,788,408 172,316 144,058 5,742 5,367 2,070,925 1,937,833 Inc (Dec) in Unrestricted Net Assets 129,068 211,618 -31,236 9,417 -249,152 -297 -151,320 220,737 Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 18 Updated 2/2001
    • Sample Take Any Council Page 0002 Statement of Changes in Net Assets For the Period Ending 9/30/2000 Functional Presentation Changes in Temporarily Restricted Net Assets Direct Support Capital Campaign 600 600 Total Direct Support 600 600 Indirect Support Total Indirect Support Revenue Total Revenue Net Assets Released Frm Restrictions Reclass Friends of Scouting -17,569 -14,716 -17,569 -14,716 Reclass Capital Campaign -7,550 -7,550 Reclass Foundations -50,000 -50,000 Reclass Other Direct -9,196 -9,196 Reclass United Way -50 -50 Total Reclassification of Net Assets -26,765 -64,766 -7,550 -34,315 -64,766 Total Support and Revenue -26,765 -64,766 -6,950 -33,715 -64,766 Inc (Dec) in Temp. Res. Net Assets -26,765 -64,766 -6,950 -33,715 -64,766 Changes in Permanently Restricted Net Assets Direct Support Legacies and Bequests 18,028 18,028 Foundations and Trusts 59 59 Other Direct Support 220,521 134,034 220,521 134,034 Total Direct Support 220,580 152,062 220,580 152,062 Indirect Support Total Indirect Support Revenue Total Revenue Net Assets Released Frm Restrictions Total Reclassification of Net Assets Total Support and Revenue 220,580 152,062 220,580 152,062 Inc (Dec) in Perm. Res. Net Assets 220,580 152,062 220,580 152,062 Inc (Dec) in Total Net Assets 102,303 146,852 -38,186 9,417 -28,572 151,765 35,545 308,033 Net Assets, Beg. of Year Unrestricted Net Assets 25,260 -42,447 3,484,361 3,038,819 3,058,370 2,833,565 6,567,990 5,829,936 Temporarily Restricted Net Assets 25,860 66,776 166,913 159,363 2,000 2,000 194,772 228,138 Permanently Restricted Net Assets 3,274,193 2,866,318 3,274,193 2,866,318 Total Net Assets, Beg. of Year 51,119 24,328 3,651,274 3,198,181 6,334,563 5,701,883 10,036,956 8,924,392 Adjustments to Net Assets Unrestricted Adjustments -1,780 -1,780 Temporarily Restricted Adjustments -2,914 -2,914 Permanently Restricted Adjustments Total Adjustments to Net Assets -2,914 -1,780 -4,694 Net Assets, End of Period Unrestricted Net Assets 154,328 169,171 3,453,125 3,046,456 2,809,218 2,833,268 6,416,670 6,048,894 Temporarily Restricted Net Assets -905 -905 159,963 159,363 2,000 2,000 161,057 160,458 Permanently Restricted Net Assets 3,494,773 3,018,380 3,494,773 3,018,380 Total Net Assets, End of Period 153,422 168,266 3,613,088 3,205,818 6,305,991 5,853,648 10,072,501 9,227,732 -- End of report -- Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 19 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Changes in Net Assets--Unrestricted Transactions Friends of Scouting Total unrestricted contributions to the Friends of Scouting campaign (gross pledges). Provision for Total amount of Friends of Scouting pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Friends of Gross unrestricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. This includes Scouting Friends of Scouting prior year and direct-mail contributions. Project Sales Total unrestricted contributions to Project Sales Campaign (gross pledges). This includes project sales for a prior year. Provision for Total amount of Project Sales pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Project Sales Gross unrestricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Capital Campaign Total unrestricted contributions (Gross Pledges). Provision for Total amount of Capital Campaign pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Capital Gross unrestricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Campaign Special Fundraising Total unrestricted contributions to Special Fundraising Events (Gross Pledges) Events Provision for Total amount of Special Fundraising Event pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Special Fundraising Gross unrestricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Event Legacies & Total amount of unrestricted legacies and bequest pledges (Gross Pledges). Bequest Foundations and Total amount of unrestricted foundations and trusts pledges (Gross Pledges). Trusts Other Direct Total amount of unrestricted other direct support pledges (Gross Pledges). Support Total Direct Total of Friends of Scouting, project sales, capital campaign, special fundraising Support events, foundations and trusts, and other direct support. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 20 Updated 2/2001
    • Associated Total amount of unrestricted associated organizations pledges (Gross Pledges). Organizations United Ways Total unrestricted contributions from United Ways (Gross Pledges). Provision for Total amount of United Way pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net United Ways Gross unrestricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Other Indirect Total amount of other indirect support pledges (Gross Pledges). Support Fees and Grants Total amount of fees and grants from government agencies (Gross Revenues). from Government Agencies Total Indirect Total of associated organizations, United Ways, other indirect support, and fees Support and grants from government agencies. Sales of Supplies Total sales from in house store shop. Cost of Goods Sold Cost of items sold. Net Sale of Total sales minus cost of goods sold. Supplies Product Sales The gross amount of products sold. Cost of Goods Sold Cost of product being sold. Commissions Paid Amount of money earned by units in selling the products. to Units Net Product Sales Total sales minus cost of goods sold and commissions paid to units. Investment Income Total investment earnings by all funds for unrestricted purposes. Gain or Loss on Unrestricted gains or losses on invested funds for all funds. Investments Camping Revenue Gross camp fees minus cost of goods sold in the trading post operation. Activity Revenue Gross activity fees minus commissions paid to units and cost of goods sold in the trading post operation. Other Revenue Gross revenue from other sources. Total Revenue Total unrestricted revenue from sales of supplies, product sales, investment income, gain or loss on investments, camping revenues, activity revenue and other revenue. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 21 Updated 2/2001
    • Reclass Friends of Dollars released from restrictions contributed to Friends of Scouting. Scouting Reclass Project Dollars released from restrictions contributed to project sales. Sales Reclass Capital Dollars released from restrictions contributed to capital campaign. Campaign Reclass Special Dollars released from restrictions contributed to special fundraising events. Fundraising Events Reclass Dollars released from restrictions contributed by foundations and trusts. Foundations and Trusts Reclass Other Dollars released from restrictions contributed to other direct revenue. Direct Revenue Reclass United Dollars released from restrictions contributed by United Ways. Ways Reclass Other Dollars released from restrictions contributed to other indirect contributions. Indirect Contributions Reclass Fees and Dollars released from restrictions contributed by fees and government grants. Government Grants Reclass Realized Dollars released from restrictions for realized appreciation. Appreciation Reclass Donor Dollars released from restrictions for donor designated United Way Designated United contributions. Way Contributions Total Total reclassifications released from restrictions. Reclassifications of Net Assets Total Support and Total of direct support, indirect support, revenue and reclassifications released Revenue from restrictions. Program Services Total expenses that are related to providing program services to the council. Management Total expenses that are related to management of the council. Services Fundraising Total expenses that are related to raising money for the council. Total Support Total of management and fundraising expenses. Services Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 22 Updated 2/2001
    • Charter and Total of charter and national service fees paid to date. National Service Fee Total Expenses Total of program services, management services, fundraising expenses and charter and national service fee. Increase (Decrease) Difference between total support and revenue and total expenses. in Unrestricted Net Assets Statement of Changes in Net Assets—Temporarily Restricted Transactions Friends of Scouting Total temporarily restricted contributions to Friends of Scouting campaign (gross pledges). This includes Friends of Scouting prior year and direct-mail contributions. Provision for Total amount of Friends of Scouting pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Friends of Gross temporarily restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Scouting Project Sales Total temporarily restricted contributions to project sales campaign (gross pledges). This includes Project Sales for a prior year. Provision for Total amount of project sales pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Project Sales Gross temporarily restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Capital Campaign Total temporarily restricted contributions (Gross Pledges). Provision for Total amount of capital campaign pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Capital Gross temporarily restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Campaign Special Fundraising Total temporarily restricted contributions from special fundraising events (Gross Events Pledges). Provision for Total amount of special fundraising event pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 23 Updated 2/2001
    • Net Special Gross temporarily restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Fundraising Events Legacies & Total amount of temporarily restricted legacies and bequest pledges (gross Bequest pledges). Foundations and Total amount of temporarily restricted foundations and trusts pledges (gross Trusts pledges). Other Direct Total amount of temporarily restricted other direct support pledges (gross Support pledges). Total Direct Total of temporarily restricted Friends of Scouting, project sales, capital Support campaign, special fundraising events, foundations and trusts and other direct support. United Ways Total temporarily restricted contributions from United Ways (gross pledges). Provision for Total amount of United Way pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net United Ways Gross temporarily restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Other Indirect Total amount of temporarily restricted other indirect support pledges (gross Support pledges). Fees and Grants Total amount of temporarily restricted fees and grants from government from Government agencies (gross revenues). Agencies Total Indirect Total of temporarily restricted United Ways, other indirect support, and fees and Support grants from government agencies. Reclass Friends of Dollars contributed to Friends of Scouting, received with restrictions and now Scouting released from restrictions. Reclass Project Dollars contributed to project sales, received with restrictions and now released Sales from restrictions Reclass Capital Dollars contributed to Capital Campaign, received with restrictions and now Campaign released from restrictions. Reclass Special Dollars contributed to special fundraising events, received with restrictions and Fundraising Events now released from restrictions. Reclass Foun- Dollars contributed to foundations and trusts, received with restrictions and now dations and Trusts released from restrictions. Reclass Other Dollars contributed to other direct revenue, received with restrictions and now Direct Revenue released from restrictions Reclass United Dollars contributed to United Ways, received with restrictions and now released Ways from restrictions. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 24 Updated 2/2001
    • Reclass Other Dollars contributed to other indirect contributions, received with restrictions and Indirect now released from restrictions. Contributions Reclass Fees and Dollars contributed to fees and government grants, received with restrictions and Government Grants now released from restrictions. Reclass Realized Dollars for realized appreciation, received with restrictions and now released Appreciation from restrictions. Reclass Donor Dollars for donor designated United Way contributions, received with Designated United restrictions and now released from restrictions. Way Contributions Total Total temporarily restricted net assets released from restrictions. Reclassifications of Net Assets Total Support and Total of temporarily restric ted contributions received, temporarily restricted Revenue revenue received and temporarily restricted net assets released from restrictions. Statement of Changes in Net Assets—Permanently Restricted Transactions Capital Campaign Total permanently restricted contributions (Gross Pledges). Special Fundraising Total permanently restricted contributions from special fundraising events Events (Gross Pledges). Provision for Total amount of special fundraising event pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Special Gross permanently restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible. Fundraising Events Legacies & Total amount of permanently restricted legacies and bequest pledges (Gross Bequest Pledges). Provision for Total amount of legacies and bequest pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Legacies & Gross permanently restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible Bequests Foundations and Total amount of permanently restricted foundations and trusts pledges (Gross Trusts Pledges). Other Direct Total amount of permanently restricted other direct support pledges (Gross Support Pledges). Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 25 Updated 2/2001
    • Provision for Total amount of other direct support not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net Other Direct Gross permanently restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible Support James E West Total amount of permanently restricted James E West Fellowship contributions (Gross Pledges). Provision for Total amount of James E West Fellowship pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net James E West Gross permanently restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible 1910 Society Total of permanently restricted 1910 Society contributions (Gross Pledges). Provision for Total amount of 1910 Society pledges not expected to be collected. Uncollectible Pledges Net 1910 Society Gross permanently restricted pledges minus provision for uncollectible Total Direct The total of all direct support contributions. Support Other Indirect The total amount of permanently restricted other indirect income. Income Total Indirect The total of all permanently restricted indirect support contributions. Support Investment Income The total investment income permanently restricted. Investment Income The total royalties permanently restricted. – Royalties Gain or Loss on The total permanently restricted gains or losses. Investment Total Unrealized The total permanently restricted unrealized gains or losses. Gains or Losses Total all Revenues The total of all revenues that are permanently restricted. – Perm. Restric ted Reclass Perm. The total of net assets released from restriction. Restricted Net Assets Reclass Perm. Total of appreciation released from restriction. Restricted Appreciation Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 26 Updated 2/2001
    • Total Reclass Total of all net assets either released or having a change in restriction. Total Support and Total of contributions, direct and indirect, revenue and reclassification of net Revenue assets released from restriction. Total Total increase or decrease of permanently restricted net assets. Statement of Changes in Net Assets—Beginning and Ending Balances Total Increase or This is the sum total of changes to unrestricted, temporarily and permanently Decrease of Total restricted net assets. Net Assets Unrestric ted Net Total of unrestricted net assets at the beginning of the fiscal year for each fund Assets and total for all funds. Temporarily Total of temporarily restricted net assets at the beginning of the fiscal year for Restricted Net each fund and total for all funds. Assets Permanently Total of permanently restricted net assets at the beginning of the fiscal year for Restricted Net each fund and total for all funds. Assets Total Net Assets, Total of unrestricted, temporarily and permanently restricted net assets at the Beginning of Year beginning of the fiscal year. Transfers Permanent movement of assets between funds. (All assets are counted as unrestricted transactions.) Adjustments to Net These are adjustments to net assets for: Assets § all unrestricted net assets. § all temporarily restricted net assets. § all permanently restricted net assets. Total Adjustments This is the total of unrestricted, temporarily and permanently restricted to Net Assets adjustments to net assets. Unrestricted Net Total of unrestricted net assets at the end of the fiscal period for each fund and Assets total for all funds. Temporarily Total of temporarily restricted net assets at the end of the fiscal period for each Restricted Net fund and total for all funds. Assets Permanently Total of permanently restricted net assets at the end of the fiscal period for each Restricted Net fund and total for all funds. Assets Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 27 Updated 2/2001
    • Analysis of the Statement of Changes in Net Assets Analysis To understand this report, the reader needs to identify four separate sections of the report. • Net Assets—These are at the bottom of the report. This section shows the balance that existed at the beginning of the year and the balance at the end of the year. The next three sections are an explanation of why these changes have occurred. • Unrestricted Transactions—All income, expense, and reclassification of net assets that are unrestricted are shown on this part of the statement. • Temporarily Restricted Transactions—These are income and reclassification of net assets that are temporarily restricted. • Permanently Restricted Transactions—These are income and reclassification of net assets that are permanently restricted. Unrestricted The income is stated along with reclassifications. Expenses may be stated as Transactions natural items (salary, benefits, payroll taxes, etc.) or as functional expense (program, management, and fundraising). By definition, unrestricted funds are the only ones that contain expenses. Temporarily Income is divided between contribution income and revenue and reclassification Restricted of net assets. There are no expenses. See the explanation above. Transactions Permanently Income is divided between contribution income and revenue and reclassification Restricted of net assets. There are no expenses. Transactions Increase/ This is the total of all three sections and the beginning point for the Statement of Decrease in Total Cash Flows. Net Assets Beginning and Beginning is the amount of net assets at the start of the fiscal period. Two other Ending Net Assets items appear between the beginning net assets and ending net assets. These items are transfers between funds and adjustments to net assets. These three items together will make up the ending net asset balance. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 28 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Cash Flows Overview The Statement of Cash Flows is designed to show the reader the effect of all transactions on cash. The beginning point for this statement is the net increase (decrease) in net assets as shown on the Statement of Change in Net Assets. The statement is divided into three sections: effects on operations, effects on investment decisions, and effects on borrowing decisions. The report shows each effect as it relates to the Operating, Capital, and Endowment funds and total of all funds. At the bottom of the report are the beginning balances for the cash accounts and the current balance of the cash accounts. The sections leading up to these two balances are an explanation of how these changes in cash flow have occurred. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 29 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Cash Flows Sample Take Any Council Page 0001 Statement of Cash Flows For the Period Ending 9/30/2000 Operating Fund Capital Fund Endowment Fund Total All Funds 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 2000 1999 Cash flow from operations Inc (Dec) Total Net Assets 102,302 146,851 -38,186 9,417 -28,572 151,765 35,545 308,034 Adjustments to Net Assets to reconcile Cash Flows Accounts Receivable -118,043 -101,381 7,487 -118,043 -93,894 Pledge Receivable -143,382 -83,396 -19,815 -44,450 -163,197 -127,846 Inventory -70,467 -12,401 -70,467 -12,401 Deferred Expense - Activities -63,275 -2,906 -63,275 -2,906 Deferred Expense - Camps Deferred Expense - Special Events -2,317 -2,596 -2,317 -2,596 Prepaid Expense 3,139 17,561 3,139 17,561 Accounts Payable -63,378 -2,070 295 -3,194 -9,061 -63,082 -14,325 Accrued Expense -24,075 -29,530 -3,470 -27,545 -29,530 Payroll Taxes 2,060 1,889 2,059 1,889 Custodial Accounts -130,330 -144,726 -130,330 -144,726 Deferred Income - Activities 24,088 565 24,088 565 Deferred Income - Camp 1,090 1,875 1,090 1,875 Deferred Income - Special Events 78,713 -17,576 78,713 -17,576 Deferred Income - Other Other Current Liabilities 7,008 6,582 7,007 6,582 Net Asset Adjustments -2,283 -1,780 -4,063 Deferred Status Change 272 271 Total Adjustments -499,169 -370,121 -3,175 2,513 -19,815 -53,511 -522,160 -421,119 Net Cash Flows from Operations -396,867 -223,270 -41,361 11,930 -48,387 98,254 -486,615 -113,085 Cash Flows from Investing Activities Investments - Fixed Assets 30,995 -9,395 30,995 -9,394 Short-Term Investment Purchases -12 -1,232 -3,489 -67,399 -3,501 -68,631 Short-Term Investment Sales 1,517 2,002 5,261 72,598 6,778 74,600 Long-Term Investment Purchases -576,176 -792,438 -576,176 -792,438 Long-Term Investment Sales 368,415 313,955 368,415 313,955 Net Cash Flows from Investments 1,505 770 30,995 -9,395 -205,989 -473,284 -173,489 -481,90 Cash Flows from Borrowing Interfund Loans Short-Term Notes Borrowing 140,000 194,400 140,000 194,400 Short-Term Notes Payments -16,000 -97,200 -16,000 -97,200 Long-Term Notes Borrowing 55,109 33,563 55,109 33,563 Long-Term Notes Payments -31,206 -34,020 -31,206 -34,020 Net Cash Flows from Borrowing 23,903 -457 124,000 97,200 147,903 96,743 Net Increase (Dec) in Cash Flows -395,362 -222,500 13,537 2,078 -130,376 -277,830 -512,201 -498,250 Cash at the beg. of the year 171,893 72,445 27,128 27,047 305,164 309,425 504,184 408,916 Cash at the end of the period -223,469 -150,055 40,665 29,125 174,788 31,595 -8,017 -89,333 -- End of report -- Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 30 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Cash Flows Increase/Decrease This figure is taken from the Statement of Changes in Net Assets. This is the in Total Net Assets beginning point for this report. Adjustments to Net These are accrual transactions that have occurred from January 1 until the Assets to reconcile specified date. Transactions that have an accrual basis are backed out to measure Cash Flows their influence on cash. Accounts Increase or decrease in accounts receivable since the first of January. Receivable Pledge Receivable Increase or decrease in pledge receivables since the first of January. Inventory Increase or decrease in inventory since the first of January. Deferred Expense, Increase or decrease in deferred activities expense since the first of January. Activities Deferred Expense, Increase or decrease in deferred camp expense since the first of January. Camps Deferred Expense, Increase or decrease in special fundraising events expense since the first of Special Events January. Prepaid Expense Increase or decrease in prepaid expense since the first of January. Accounts Payable Increase or decrease in accounts payable since the first of January. Accrued Expense Increase or decrease in accrued expense since the first of January. Payroll Taxes Increase or decrease in payroll taxes since the first of January. Custodial Accounts Increase or decrease in custodial accounts since the first of January. Deferred Income, Increase or decrease in deferred activities income since the first of January. Activities Deferred Income, Increase or decrease in deferred camp income since the first of January. Camp Deferred Income, Increase or decrease in special fundraising events income since the first of Special Events January. Deferred Income, Increase or decrease in other deferred income since the first of January. Other Other Current Increase or decrease in other current liabilities since the first of January. Liabilities Net Asset Increase or decrease in net asset adjustments since the first of January. Adjustments Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 31 Updated 2/2001
    • Transfers Increase or decrease in transfers since the first of January. Deferred Status Increase or decrease in changes that come from modification of the cost center Change status since the first of January. Total Adjustments The sum of the transactions from Accounts Receivable through Deferred Status Change. Net Cash Flows The net of increase/decrease in total net assets minus total adjustments. from Operations Cash Flows from This section shows all changes that have occurred in cash flow as a result of the Investing Activities councils investing activities. Investments, Fixed Increase or decrease in fixed assets since the first of January. Assets Short-Term Increase or decrease in short-term investment purchases since the first of January. Investment Purchases Short-Term Increase or decrease in short-term investment sales since the first of January. Investment Sales Long-Term Increase or decrease in long-term investment purchases since the first of January. Investment Purchases Long-Term Increase or decrease in long-term investment sales since the first of January. Investment Sales Net Cash Flows Total of all investment-related changes to cash flow. from Investing Cash Flows from All changes that have occurred in cash flow as a result of the councils borrowing Borrowing activities. Interfund Loans Increase or decrease in interfund loans since the first of January. Short-Term Notes Increase or decrease in short-term notes borrowing since the first of January. Borrowing Short-Term Notes Increase or decrease in short-term notes payments since the first of January. Payments Long-Term Notes Increase or decrease in long-term notes borrowing since the first of January. Borrowing Long-Term Notes Increase or decrease in long-term notes payments since the first of January. Payments Net Cash Flows Total of all borrowing transactions that have affected cash flow since the first of from Borrowing January. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 32 Updated 2/2001
    • Net Total of the net cash flows from operations, investments, and borrowing. Increase/Decrease in Cash Flows Cash at the Cash position for each fund at the beginning of the fiscal year. Beginning of the Year Cash at the End of Current cash position for each fund based on a specified date. Period Analysis of Statement of Cash Flows Net Cash Flows Look at this line on your statement. This is the amount of cash that has been from Operations consumed or created in excess. At any point in the fiscal year, this will tell you why cash flow has been affected by operations. Net Cash Flows This is the amount of cash consumed or generated by changes in investment from Investments policy or practice since the first of January. Net Cash Flows from This line tells you the net amount of cash consumed or generated by borrowing or Borrowing repaying loans. Cash at the This is the amount of cash shown on the Statement of Financial Position as of Beginning of the January 1 of the years shown. Year Cash at the End of This is the amount available now and should match the figure on the Statement of the Period Financial Position for the current month being measured. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 33 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Functional Expenses Overview This report is one of four required reports for audits. It shows the reader the amount of the council’s resources that are devoted to program, management and fund-raising. This report shows the results of expenses from the Operating, Capital, and Endowment funds. It represents the total effort during the period being measured by functional classification. The report may be printed with unallocated expenses in a separate column or as a functional report that splits unallocated expenses into program, management, and fund- raising expenses using specified percentages. These percentages should derive from a properly conducted time study of the professional staff’s time. The study should be representative of all four quarters of the year and should be repeated at least every three years. The report does the math for the functional presentation showing the percentages of expense spent on program, management, and fund-raising. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 34 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Functional Expenses Sample Take Any Council Page 0001 Statement of Functional Expenses Thru Accounting Period 9 Ending 9/30/2000 Funds 1 Thru 3 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -------- Supporting Services -------- Program Management Fundraising Support Unallocated Total Expenses Expenses Service & General Services Expenses 2000 1999 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Employee Compensation Salaries 677,393 33,650 67,301 100,951 778,344 734,741 Employee Benefits 77,116 4,275 8,550 12,824 89,941 85,264 Payroll Taxes 64,166 2,823 5,645 8,468 72,634 68,750 Employee Related Expenses 4,051 238 477 715 4,765 15,954 Total Employee Compensation 822,727 40,986 81,972 122,958 945,685 904,709 Other Expenses Professional Fees 31,272 1,528 10,545 12,073 43,345 28,332 Supplies 321,241 1,590 5,857 7,446 328,688 321,745 Telephone 14,871 555 1,111 1,666 16,537 16,396 Postage and Shipping 30,153 771 6,461 7,232 37,385 38,857 Occupancy 120,246 16,024 1,355 17,379 137,625 134,486 Rent and Maintenance of Equipment 10,899 11,439 114 11,553 22,452 24,700 Printing and Publications 46,932 1,864 10,588 12,453 59,385 29,207 Travel 104,820 3,469 6,939 10,408 115,228 100,718 Conferences and Meetings 19,685 854 4,338 5,192 24,877 19,832 Specific Asst. to Individuals 6,294 54 107 161 6,455 1,504 Recognition Awards 50,773 353 9,098 9,450 60,224 60,799 Interest Expense 6,668 392 785 1,177 7,845 5,853 Insurance 63,675 520 1,041 1,561 65,236 82,647 Other Expenses 12,391 703 1,652 2,355 14,745 13,964 Total Other Expenses 839,921 40,115 59,991 100,105 940,026 879,038 Expenses Before Depreciation 1,662,647 81,101 141,963 223,064 1,885,711 1,783,747 Depreciation of Buildings/Equipment 150,909 4,476 8,953 13,429 164,339 135,839 Total Functional Expense 1,813,557 85,577 150,916 236,493 2,050,049 1,919,586 Functional Expense Percentages* 88.47% 4.17% 7.36% 100.00% Unallocated Dollars Split by Time Study Using the Following Percentages Program 85.00% Management and General 5.00% Fundraising 10.00% *Percentage Figures After Combining the Allocated and Unallocated Dollars - End of report – Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 35 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Functional Expenses Salaries Professional, clerical, ranger, and summer camp staff. Employee Benefits The council’s share of all insurance plans. Payroll Taxes The council’s share of FICA and workers’ compensation. Professional Fees Auditor, legal, and data processing fees. Supplies Office, program, fundraising, and camp supplies, including camp food. Telephone All expenses related to phone calls. Postage and Shipping Mailing and shipping expenses. Occupancy Rent, insurance, janitorial, repairs, utilities, and property maintenance. Rent & Maintenance of Equipment rental expenses and service contracts on office and computer Equipment equipment. Printing and Publications Both subscriptions to periodicals and outside printing. Travel Leased and owned auto expense, meals, travel, rentals, and fares. Conferences and Both local and national conferences and meetings. Meetings Specific Assistance to Camperships and other assistance. Individuals Recognition Awards Awards for both youth and adult. Interest Expense Interest on long-term and short-term loans. Insurance Non-property insurance only. Other Expenses Advertising, bank charges, licenses, and discounts. Total Other Expenses This is the total of other expenses, including professional fees through insurance. Expenses Before Total of all depreciation recorded this year. Depreciation Depreciation of Buildings Amount of depreciation for buildings and equipment. and Equipment Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 36 Updated 2/2001
    • Functional vs. Natural The next three fields on the sample report indicate the functional format. The natural format would not have these fields. Instead, it shows expenses in the Support Services column, which is a combination of program and service and management and general. Total Functional Expense Total of all expenses for the year divided by program services. Functional Expense The percentage of functional expenses allocated to program and service, Percentages management and general, and fundraising. Unallocated Dollars Split Percentages that the user supplies to split all unallocated expenses (99 usage by Time Study code); this amount is added to existing functional allocations. Analysis of Statement of Functional Expense Analysis This report can be printed in two different formats. The first format shows unallocated (99 usage code) expenses as a column by itself. The second is the functional presentation with unallocated expenses added to the Program, Management, and Fundraising columns. These amounts are determined by time studies conducted by the professional staff. This report can be run as often as the council wishes. It will do the math for you. Functional Expense This is the percentage of all expenses devoted to program, management, or Percentage fundraising. This is usually what the public wants to know. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 37 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Operations—Unrestricted Overview This statement shows the budget plan for operations for the period being measured. It compares the monthly and yearly plan against actual results for both the month and the year to date. You can also run the report as a comparison to the previous period. It is divided into several sections, including direct support, indirect support, revenue, reclassification, and expense. Direct support includes contributions from individuals and organizations given directly to the council. Indirect support includes contributions from individuals and organizations through a third party. Revenue is money earned by the council through investment decisions or activities in support of the program. Reclassifications are contributions that were restricted by a donor, and the restriction placed by the donor has been satisfied. Expenses are monies paid for services or materials received. Increase or (decrease) in net assets includes direct support, indirect support, revenue, and reclassifications minus expenses. Transfers, when included on the statement, represent the permanent movement of assets from one fund to another fund. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 38 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Operations—Unrestricted Sample Take Any Council Page 0001 Standard Statement of Operations - Unrestricted Thru Accounting Period 9 Ending 9/30/2000 Operating Fund Fund #1 Description ---------- Current Period -------- ----------- Year to Date ------------ Current Yr. Budget Actual Variance Budget Actual Variance Budget Support and Revenue Direct Support Friends of Scouting - Gross 16,463 13,276 -3,187 753,710 716,965 -36,745 824,655 Less Provision for Uncollectible -337 -577 -240 -40,921 -45,502 -4,581 -42,224 Net Friends of Scouting 16,126 12,699 -3,427 712,789 671,463 -41,326 782,431 Special Events - Gross 35,000 33,705 -1,295 342,070 Less Cost of Direct Benefit -10,000 -7,759 2,241 -192,070 Net Special Events 25,000 25,945 945 150,000 Foundations and Trusts 9,322 9,322 150,000 Total Direct Support 16,126 12,699 -3,427 737,789 706,730 -31,059 1,082,431 Indirect Support United Ways 11,223 7,188 -4,035 64,820 73,037 8,217 95,000 Total Indirect Support 11,223 7,188 -4,035 64,820 73,037 8,217 95,000 Revenue Sale of Supplies - Gross 56,043 71,857 15,814 363,576 533,399 169,823 501,592 Less Cost of Goods Sold -35,097 -49,367 -14,270 -238,689 -387,707 -149,018 -326,592 Net Sale of Supplies 20,946 22,490 1,544 124,887 145,693 20,806 175,000 Product Sales - Gross 3,886 -3,886 7,772 7,570 -202 353,280 Less Cost of Goods Sold -233,280 Net Product Sales 3,886 -3,886 7,772 7,570 -202 120,000 Investment Income 131,860 139,056 7,196 263,720 280,214 16,494 280,000 Camping Revenue 633,444 595,183 -38,261 633,444 595,183 -38,261 650,000 Activity Revenue 6,410 12,598 6,188 164,592 164,352 -240 185,000 Other Revenue 34,367 22,390 -11,977 35,000 Total Revenue 796,546 769,327 -27,219 1,228,782 1,215,402 -13,380 1,445,000 Net Assets Released From Restrictions Reclass Friends of Scouting 17,569 17,569 17,569 Reclass Project Sales Reclass Capital Campaign Reclass Special Events Reclass Legacies and Bequests Reclass Foundations Reclass Other Direct 9,196 9,196 9,196 9,196 Reclass United Way Reclass Other Indirect Reclass Government Fees and Grants Reclass Revenue Reclass Realized Appreciation Reclass United Way Donor Designated Total Reclassification of Net Assets 9,196 9,196 17,569 26,765 9,196 17,569 Total Support and Revenue 823,895 798,410 -25,485 2,048,960 2,021,935 -27,025 2,640,000 Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 39 Updated 2/2001
    • Sample Take Any Council Page 0002 Standard Statement of Operations - Unrestricted Thru Accounting Period 9 Ending 9/30/2000 Operating Fund Fund #1 Description ---------- Current Period -------- ----------- Year to Date ------------ Current Yr. Budget Actual Variance Budget Actual Variance Budget Expenses Employee Compensation Salaries 209,296 183,976 -25,320 891,945 778,344 -113,601 1,153,226 Employee Benefits 14,370 13,580 -790 97,644 89,941 -7,703 126,157 Payroll Taxes 22,324 21,627 -697 74,032 72,634 -1,398 97,617 Employee Related Expenses 2,079 1,043 -1,036 20,691 4,765 -15,926 30,000 Total Employee Compensation 248,069 220,227 -27,842 1,084,312 945,685 -138,627 1,407,000 Other Expenses Professional Fees 6,938 8,856 1,918 30,749 43,345 12,596 35,000 Supplies 224,536 232,463 7,927 329,971 328,688 -1,283 380,000 Telephone 6,497 8,682 2,185 21,671 16,537 -5,134 30,000 Postage and Shipping 4,840 7,222 2,382 33,147 37,385 4,238 52,000 Occupancy 36,843 85,888 49,045 137,691 137,338 -353 160,000 Rental and Maintenance of Equipment 1,199 5,036 3,837 24,248 22,452 -1,796 35,000 Printing and Publications 7,815 13,626 5,811 29,589 59,385 29,796 50,000 Travel 27,395 38,885 11,490 116,105 115,228 -877 160,000 Conferences and Meetings 4,256 7,280 3,024 17,927 24,877 6,950 30,000 Specific Asst. to Individuals 3,283 3,283 6,455 6,455 67,000 Recognition Awards 27,356 24,940 -2,416 55,681 60,224 4,543 70,000 Interest Expense 1,074 36 -1,038 1,879 154 -1,725 2,000 Insurance 60,303 24,402 -35,901 89,554 65,236 -24,318 107,000 Other Expense 551 879 328 7,291 9,003 1,712 30,000 Charter and National Service Fees 2,049 2,308 259 18,557 20,876 2,319 25,000 Total Other Expenses 411,652 463,786 52,134 914,060 947,182 33,122 1,233,000 Total Expenses 659,721 684,013 24,292 1,998,372 1,892,867 -105,505 2,640,00 Inc (Dec) in Unrestricted Net Assets 164,174 114,397 -49,777 50,588 129,068 78,480 Unrestricted Net Assets, Beg. of Year 25,260 Unrestricted Net Assets, End of Period 154,327 -- End of report -- Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 40 Updated 2/2001
    • Key Factors to Consider Timeliness Review financial information as soon as possible after the end of a month or year. If your accounting system is not providing timely information, you have lost much of your ability to effectively read and act on the information presented in the reports. Many councils close their books each month by the third working day of the next month. The twelfth period requires more time to close; it should be closed by the tenth working day of the new year. Bottom Line In business, the most accurate measure of successful performance is the bottom line or net profit. The bigger this number, the better business has been. In a not-for-profit organization, this is not necessarily true. A small bottom line figure may mean that the organization is successfully utilizing its income resources to deliver the maximum possible programs. Or, a larger amount may mean that the council is successfully building its reserves. Actual to Budget A more accurate reading of the organization’s health can be found in comparing the Comparison actual to the budget figures. This indicates the extent to which the council engages in realistic planning and/or adequate financial control. Prior Period If significant fluctuations are found in the budget comparison, they must be Comparison understood. A comparison with the prior period will show if the expenditures are greater or less than those in the previous year. This indicates whether the council is better or worse off and/or gives possible trends. Financial Ratios Although financial ratios can tell us a great deal about a council’s financial state, they must be understood in the context of all the factors affecting a council. It is important to • Know the ratios and the BSA standard and/or average. • Understand what the ratios are telling us. • Track them over time to become aware of factors that are affecting the council’s performance. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 41 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Operations—Direct Support Support and This is the first category listed on the statement. Income in not-for-profit Revenue organizations like the Boy Scouts is divided into two distinct parts: • Support, which consists of contributions from outside of the organization. • Revenue, which consists of funds raised by the organization in the course of delivering the program or conducting normal operations. Support is segregated even further into direct support (contributions that come directly to the organization), and indirect support (contributions that come through another entity acting as an agent, such as the United Way or the government). Friends of Limited to the Operating fund of the council. The value on this line is the total of Scouting all unrestricted pledges to the FOS campaign less a provision for uncollectible pledges. Even though a council may call its campaign for Friends of Scouting by another name (Campaign for Character), the bylaws of the Boy Scouts of America recognize this contribution for Friends of Scouting. Project Sales Involves taking part of the council program, translating it to a project, and selling it to someone. This unrestricted amount will also be net of any provision for uncollectible pledges. Special Events – Events that raise money by realizing income in excess of direct benefits provided to Net of Direct participants (catering expense, green fees, etc.) and the incidental cost of the event Benefit Costs (printing, postage). The cost of the direct benefits to participants is a reduction in the contribution from those participants; therefore, this line will show unrestricted gross revenues from special events less the cost of direct benefits provided to participants. Legacies and Gifts made through wills after the death of the donor. All bequests that come to the Bequests council without a donor-specified restriction would be recorded in this unrestricted section. The executive board may designate the fund(s) to receive this contribution, but it will always be an unrestricted contribution if it has no donor-specified restriction. Foundations and Contributions from foundations or trusts that are unrestricted. Because most grants Trusts from foundations or trusts are for a specific purpose, they would carry a donor restriction and be recorded as temporarily restricted contributions until the restriction is met. If the restriction is met during the same fiscal year when the contribution is received, it would be recorded in this category. Other Direct Other unrestricted contributions not recorded in a category above. Support Total Direct Total of the unrestricted direct support categories listed above. Support Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 42 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Operations—Indirect Support Indirect This includes contributions received through another entity or agency. Support United Ways Unrestricted contributions received this year from all United Ways and other federated fundraising organizations. Associated Unrestricted contributions received through associated organizations, such as the Organizations Order of the Arrow or the national office. Other Indirect Other unrestricted indirect contributions received this year that do not fit one of the above categories. Unassociated Unrestricted contributions received this year from independent nonfederated Organizations campaigns for multiple agency support, such as large industrial plants or organizations within a trade union that support a charity. Fees from Unrestricted fees and grants received from government agencies. Most government Government fees and grants will be temporarily restricted for a specific purpose and would be Agencies recorded as temporarily restricted contributions until the restriction is met. Total Indirect Total of the indirect support categories listed above. Support Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 43 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Operations—Revenue Revenue Revenue is an income source that is generated by the council through program delivery or council operations. Sales of Supplies The gross receipts from the sale of inventory items from the Service Center’s Less Cost of Sales Trading Post/Scout Shop less the cost of the inventory items sold. Product Sales The gross receipts from the sale of a product to the general public, such as popcorn, Less Commission less the commissions paid to units and the cost of the product. The commission and Cost of Goods paid to the units is not considered council money and, therefore, for accounting Sold purposes, is netted against the gross receipts instead of being recorded as a paid expense. Investment Unrestricted income and dividend receipts from investments in any of the three Income funds. This may include income from an interest-bearing checking account, from short-term investments in any fund, or from long-term investments usually held in the Endowment fund. Gain or Loss on Unrestricted gain (or loss if a negative number) from investment transactions such Investment as long-term investments. This may include the gain (loss) from foreign exchange transactions for councils who deal in foreign money. Camping Revenue The gross receipts from the operation of camping programs. This will include a wide variety of revenue, such as fees, rentals, vending machine sales, government subsidies of food, trading post sales, and sale of meals. Activity Revenue The gross receipts from activities conducted by the council. This will include revenues such as fees, concessions, transportation fees, ticket sales, trading post and vending machine sales, and government subsidies. Other Revenue Unrestricted other revenue that does not appropriately apply to one of the categories listed above. Such receipts include advertising income, income from rent, gain (loss) on the sale of fixed assets, and insurance rebates. Total Revenue Total unrestricted revenue of the council during this fiscal year and the total of the categories listed above. Reclassified Net All donor-restricted contributions or revenue recorded in a prior fiscal year and Assets released from restrictions during this fiscal year. Because the donor-restricted contributions or revenue were recorded as income in a prior fiscal year, it is not allowable to record them again as an unrestricted contribution or revenue. They can be recorded as income only once. This accounting process, however, allows the funds reclassified as unrestricted to be netted against expenses to balance the unrestricted operations of the council. Total Support and Total of all unrestricted support, revenue, and reclassification categories listed Revenues above. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 44 Updated 2/2001
    • Statement of Operations Expenses—Employee Compensation Salaries Professional, clerical, ranger, and summer camp staff. Employee Benefits The council’s share of all insurance plans. Payroll Taxes The council’s share of FICA and workers’ compensation. Employee Related Employment and moving expenses. Expenses Total Employee Total of salaries through employee-related expenses. Compensation Expenses—Other Expenses Professional Fees Auditor, legal, and data processing fees. Supplies Office, program, fundraising, and camp supplies, including camp food. Telephone All expenses related to phone calls. Postage and Mailing and shipping expenses. Shipping Occupancy Rent, insurance, janitorial, repairs, utilities, and property maintenance. Rent & Equipment rental expenses and service contracts on office and computer Maintenance of equipment. Equipment Printing and Both subscriptions to periodicals and outside printing. Publications Travel Leased and owned auto expense, meals, travel, rentals, and fares. Conferences and Both local and national conferences and meetings. Meetings Specific Assistance Camperships and other assistance. to Individuals Recognition Awards for both youth and adult. Awards Interest Expense Interest on long-term and short-term loans. Insurance Non-property insurance only. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 45 Updated 2/2001
    • Other Expenses Advertising, bank charges, licenses, and discounts. Charter and Fees for charter renewal applications for each council and the annual fee paid for National Service regional and national programs and services. Fees Total Other Total of professional fees through charter and national service fees. Expenses Total Expenses This is the total of lines salaries through charter and national service fees. Inc (Dec) in Increase or decrease of income over expenses. Unrestricted Net Assets Unrestricted Net The net worth of the council that is free from any donor-imposed restrictions at the Assets, Beginning beginning of the year. of Year Transfers Assets that are moved to or from another fund with the intention that they will reside there for the long term. Transfers require action by the board and, at the end of the year, will be folded into unrestricted net assets. Unrestricted Net This line should equal Unrestricted Net Assets, Operating Fund, on the Statement Assets, End of of Financial Position. Period Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 46 Updated 2/2001
    • Analysis of the Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) Overview Understanding the Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) is sometimes reduced to a single question: What’s our bottom line? There is a great deal you can learn from reading the statement. How is the The statement has seven columns. The first three from the le ft report the current Statement month’s activities. The next three columns report the activities from the beginning Designed? of the fiscal year until the end of the current month. The last column always shows the annual budget. The statement can be printed in two different formats: The Standard Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) uses the three columns for both current month and year-to-date to show budget, actual, and variance between budget and actual figures. The Comparative Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) uses the three columns for both current month and year-to-date to show budget, actual, and last-year comparative figures. What’s the Remember that this statement is a representation of the mathematical equation Bottom Line? Income less Expenses equals Change in Net Assets. The change in net assets is the bottom line. It may be referred to as profit or loss, surplus or deficit, or increase or decrease in net assets. In essence, it asks, Are we operating the council in a financially sound fashion, or are we operating beyond our ability to fund our expenses? Are There Any This statement is designed to have all positive numbers. There are certain Negative situations, however, that will create a negative number. You should examine each Numbers? negative number to understand what caused the situation. For example, product sales for the month of December may have had gross receipts, but an invoice for the popcorn was greater than the receipts. The net result is a negative income from product sales for the month. What Is Contributions and interest income that have a time or purpose restriction placed on Reclassification of them by the donor are recorded as temporarily restricted when received. If the Net Assets? restriction is not met by the end of that fiscal year, the restricted contribution and interest income is processed at year end and moved to temporarily restricted net assets. Once the restriction has been met, the funds can be used to offset expenses. This creates a proble m, however, because these funds have already been recorded and counted as income once and cannot be recorded as income a second time. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 47 Updated 2/2001
    • Therefore, the accounting industry invented a new category that is specifically not income, but can be recognized on the Statement of Operations. This new category is called Reclassification of Net Assets. The Reclassification of Net Assets appears on the Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) as a total of all reclassified contributions and/or revenues. It is, therefore, confusing as to what the number actually means. To help councils through the reclassification maze, there is an analysis report that you can print to accompany the Summary Statement of Operations (Unrestricted). The Reclassification Analysis Report is formatted with the same seven columns for month and year-to-date information. It details the type of contribution or revenue reclassified and the combined total of current and reclassified contributions and revenues. (See Appendix B for an example of the Recla ssification Analysis Report.) Transfers To and A transfer is when an asset (usually cash) is permanently moved from one fund to From Other another. This requires executive board action. Funds A transfer does not affect the bottom line (surplus or deficit) of the council’s annual operations, because it is a movement within the net asset category. Note the location of the transfer information on the statement, which is below the Inc (Dec) in Unrestricted Net Assets. Budgeting: The The key to a meaningful Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) is building the Key to Success most accurate budget possible. The budget is the council’s road map to a successful financial year. Without this detailed road map, management is left with no direction to guide the council through the year. Unlike for-profit corporations, not-for-profit corporations use an expense-driven budget. The idea is that the council determines the programs it will deliver by developing a strategic plan, the cost to deliver those programs (the expense side of the budget), and the needed funding sources to meet the expenses (the income side of the budget). Once the annual budget is developed, it is necessary to break it into its monthly components. Some budget items, such as United Way allocations or salary expenses are best segregated into twelve equal monthly parts. However, other budget items, such as Friends of Scouting or conference and meeting expenses, require a spread that more closely mirrors their actual occurrence. Changing the Unlike for-profits, which consider their budgets etched in stone, the budget for a Budget not-for-profit should be considered an flexible tool. If it is truly a road map and the council makes a major deviation from the course, then it makes sense to incorporate some course corrections in the budget. For example, if the golf tournament is moved from April to June, adjust the budget to reflect this timing issue. If you receive a grant, not in the budget, to hire a new unit-serving executive, adjust the budget to refle ct this deviation. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 48 Updated 2/2001
    • Once the council has established an accurate budget, the Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) can tell us how well we are actually doing compared to the budget. Compare each line’s actual amount with the budgeted amount. If significant fluctuations are found in the comparison, determine the reason for the variance. Is it timing? Is it an accumulated affect? Is it a deviation from the road map? If you have questions as to what makes up a particular line amount, the council can print a Detailed Statement of Operations (Unrestricted), and it will list each account included in the summary statement line. Financial Ratios Much like the financial ratio discussed in the Statement of Financial Position Provide Insight segment, there are meaningful ratios that can be determined by using the Statement of Operations (Unrestricted) or a combination of the two statements. The following chapter details some of these ratios. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 49 Updated 2/2001
    • Financial Ratios Financial Ratios Although financial ratios can tell us a great deal about a council’s financial health, they Provide Insight must be understood in the context of all the factors affecting a council. It is important to • Know the ratios and the BSA standard and/or average. • Understand what the ratios are telling us. • Track them over time to become aware of factors that are affecting the council’s performance. The following pages provide information on financial ratios used by the BSA. Each ratio description tells what the ratio indicates, the BSA current national standard, as well as the actual average of all councils, and what it means if the ratio is too high or too low. ØNote: In the equation section, SFP stands for Statement of Financial Position and SO stands for Statement of Operations. Interpreting Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 50 Updated 2/2001
    • The Ratio Equation National National If Too High If Too Low Standard Average Liquidity Ratio Liquid Assets (Cash and Short- .33 .37 If the ratio is too high, As the number decreases, there Term Investments) minus on- some will think that you is a greater need to decide demand liabilities (Accounts can make better use of which vendors to pay each The ability to pay current on- Payable, Accrued Expenses, your available cash. month. A figure less than zero demand obligations when Payroll Taxes Withheld, and Perhaps longer-term means there are not enough they are due. Custodial Accounts) divided by investing should be short-term assets to convert on-demand liabilities. considered. short-term liabilities. SFP Debt to Assets Ratio This represents the extent to The short-term and long-term 8 .09 The council may not be Normally a desirable situation. which council operations are indebtedness divided by the total attracting enough support In special circumstances, it (no debt) financed by borrowed assets. and may be paying may represent lost resources. excessive interest. opportunities. SFP Excess Revenue to Total Expenses Whether the council is living Increase or decrease in .05 .018 Council may look too rich Council may be in financial within its means and Unrestricted Net Assets divided and may not be difficulty or not providing for maximizing its program by the total of expenses in fund maximizing its services. reserve funds (especially if services 1. there are continuing deficits.) SO Investment Income to Total Income Extent to which council Investment Income divided by .10 .053 Council may not be Council’s endowment funding is supported by the Total Income. diversified enough in its development may be endowment funding sources or may be insufficient to provide SO overlooking additional stability. sources. Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 51 Updated 2/2001
    • The Ratio Equation National National If Too High If Too Low Standard Average Investment Yield Effectiveness of investment Investment Income divided by See note * See note * Organization may be Organization is not getting as management and degree of the amount invested assuming an unreasonable much income as it should. risk assumed degree of risk. SO Ratio of Program Expenses to Total Expenses Extent to which resources Total Program Expenses on the Normally a desirable Overhead may be excessive. directly benefit community Statement of Functional situation. The Combined Federal Expenses divided by Total Campaigns require .75 or Expenses higher. Ratio of Development Expenses to Contributions Efficiency in raising money Total Fundraising Expenses as Fundraising methods may Normally a desirable situation, found on the Statement of not be effective, costs may however, organization may not Functional Expenses divided by be excessive, or be as aggressive in seeking the total Indirect Support as organization may be heavy support as it could be. found on the Statement of into planned giving. Operations Inventory Turnover Efficiency in keeping Year-end cost of goods sold 3 The council is in a very Council is not making inventory down while divided by the year-end attractive position. Some effective use of its inventory. maximizing profits inventory councils are as high as 4 The inventory is too high in and 5. comparison to sales. * Would vary depending on the economy at the time. For a benchmark, use Standard and Poor’s 500 Unmanaged Yield Ratio and/or Lehman Government/Corporate Bond Index. Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 52 Updated 2/2001
    • Appendix A: Restricted Fund Report Overview This report is a management report designed to help council administration track the receipt and expenses of temporarily restricted funds. The report is based on cost centers that track a project or program that uses temporarily restricted funds. The report is divided into two sections. The left-hand portion shows the resources at the beginning of the period being measured, any additional contributions, reclassific ations that have occurred, and ending balances. The right-hand section shows the unrestricted funds related to this cost center and what has happened. The principle of this report is that resources that a donor contributed with restrictions are now unrestricted to the extent that money has been spent to fulfill that restriction. Therefore, the report shows total expenses and the amount of money “released” from restriction by reclassification transactions. A major advantage of this report is its ability to track restricted funds, provide information for further reclassification, and show the current balance of each restricted amount designation by cost center. Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of 53 Update
    • Restricted Fund Report Sample Date:10/18/2000 Time:14:21:33 Take Any Council Page 0001 Restricted Fund Report For the period ending 8/31/2000 Fund: Capital Fund ----------------Temporarily Restricted---------------- -------------Unrestricted--------------- Description Beginning Plus Minus Equals Balance Current YTD Current YTD Current YTD Current YTD Current YTD Expense Current Restricted Reclass Ending Unrestricted Reclass Year Revenue Revenue Balance Revenue Revenue ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 034 Building Maintain-Council Cent 13,970.50 160 Wolf-Dinning Hall-F2 Campaign 7,550.00 600.00 7,550.00 600.00 7,550.00 300 LINDBLAD-SALE OF NON CAMP PROP 19,349.83 309 Camp Lindblad 80.00 80.00 310 Camp Berryessa 20,500.00 20,500.00 311 Camp Herms 9,600.25 9,600.25 316 Camp Silverado 36,125.00 36,125.00 319 Camp Nejedly 6,387.80 6,387.80 384 WOLFEBORO-NATURE LODGE 11,000.00 11,000.00 Total for Cost Centers 91,243.05 600.00 7,550.00 84,293.05 7,550.00 33,320.33 -- End of report -- Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 54 Updated 2/2001
    • Appendix B: Reclassification Analysis Report Overview This report is designed to communicate the effects of reclassification on the Statement of Operations. According to accounting rules, income can be counted only once. When reclassification occurs, it must be reported on a separate line than the normal contribution line. Sometimes this can be confusing to the reader. The reclassification analysis adds the reclassified contribution income to the existing contribution income so you can see the combined effect of both income sources. Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of 55 Update
    • Reclassification Analysis Report Sample Take Any Council Page 0001 Reclassification Analysis Report for the Comparative Statement of Operations-Unrestricted Thru Accounting Period 8 Ending 8/31/2000 Operating Fund #1 Part 1 - This report provides an analysis, by original, restricted contribution category, of the restricted net assets which have been reclassified as unrestricted and reported on the accompanying Statement of Operations - Unrestricted. Description ----------Current Period -------- ----------- Year to Date ------------ Current Yr. Budget Actual Variance Budget Actual Variance Budget Reclassified Net Assets Direct Support Friends of Scouting 17,569 17,569 17,569 Project Sales Spec Events-Net of Direct Benefit Cost Legacies & Bequests Foundations & Trusts Other Direct Support Indirect Support United Ways Other Indirect Fees From Government Agencies Revenue Investment Income Gain (Loss) on Investment Total Reclassified Net Assets 17,569 17,569 17,569 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Part 2 - This report provides a "combined net effect" analysis, by Contribution and Revenue types, of current and reclassified sources. This report is for informational purposes only. Description ----------Current Period -------- ----------- Year to Date ------------ Current Yr. Budget Actual Variance Budget Actual Variance Budget Direct Support Friends of Scouting 11,201 16,650 5,449 714,232 676,333 -37,899 800,000 Project Sales Spec Events-Net of Direct Benefit Cost 25,000 25,945 945 150,000 Legacies & Bequests Foundations & Trusts 9,322 9,322 150,000 Other Direct Support Indirect Support United Ways 2,165 16,371 14,206 53,597 65,850 12,253 95,000 Other Indirect Fees From Government Agencies Revenue Investment Income 147 147 131,860 141,158 9,298 280,000 Gain (Loss) on Investment -- End of report -- Interpreting Council Financial Statements Boy Scouts of America 56 Updated 2/2001