Chapter 9: Making Capital Investment Decisions


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  • With each of these types of cash flows, you should ask the class the question on the previous slide so that they can start to determine if the cash flows are relevant. Sunk costs – our government provides ample examples of inappropriately including sunk costs in their capital allocation decisions. Opportunity costs – the classic example of an opportunity cost is the use of land or plant that is already owned. It is important to point out that this is not “free.” At the very least we could sell the land; consequently if we choose to use it, we cost ourselves the selling price of the asset, net of possible tax effects. A good example of a positive side effect is when you will establish a new distribution system with this project that can be used for existing or future projects. The benefit provided to those projects needs to be considered. The most common negative side effect is erosion or cannibalism, where the introduction of a new product will reduce the sales of existing, similar products. A good real-world example is McDonald’s introduction of the Arch Deluxe sandwich. Instead of generating all new sales, it primarily reduced sales of the Big Mac and the Quarter Pounder. Had it drawn in adults to eat who were accompanied by their kids who then consume a Happy Meal, then it would have had a positive side effect. It is important to consider changes in NWC. We need to remember that operating cash flow derived from the income statement assumes all sales are cash sales and that the COGS was actually paid in cash during that period. By looking at changes in NWC specifically, we can adjust for the difference in cash flow timing that results from accounting conventions. Most projects will require an increase in NWC initially as we build inventory and receivables. We do not include financing costs in the cash flows of the project. They are impounded, percentage-wise, into the discount rate. Taxes will change as the firm’s taxable income changes. Consequently, we have to consider cash flows on an after-tax basis.
  • Operating cash flow – students often have to go back to the income statement to see that the two definitions of operating cash flow are equivalent when there is no interest expense.
  • Ask the students why net fixed assets is decreasing each year. It is important that they understand this when they go to compute the net capital spending in the next slide.
  • OCF = EBIT + depreciation – taxes = 33,000 + 30,000 – 11,220 = 51,780; or OCF = NI + depreciation = 21,780 + 30,000 = 51,780 Note that in the Table in the book, the negative signs have already been carried throughout the table so that the columns can just be added. Ultimately, students seem to do better with this format even though the CFFA equation says to subtract the changes in NWC and net capital spending. Change in NWC = We have a net investment in NWC in year 0 of 20,000; we get the investment back at the end of the project when we sell our inventory, collect on our receivables, and pay off our payables. Students often forget that we get the investment back at the end. Capital Spending – remember that Net capital spending = change in net fixed assets + depreciation. So in year one NCS = (60,000 – 90,000) + 30,000 = 0; The same is true for the other years.
  • The IRR computation is by trial-and-error. Click on the excel icon to go to an embedded spreadsheet that illustrates how the pro formas and cash flows can be set-up to compute the NPV and IRR.
  • A good example of the worst case actually happening is the sinking of the Titanic. There were a lot of little things that went wrong, none of which were that important by themselves, but in combination they were deadly.
  • Click on the excel icon to go to a spreadsheet that includes both the scenario analysis and the unit sales sensitivity analysis presented in the book.
  • Chapter 9: Making Capital Investment Decisions

    1. 1. Chapter 9 Making Capital Investment Decisions
    2. 2. Key Concepts and Skills <ul><li>Understand how to determine the relevant cash flows for a proposed investment </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to analyze a project’s projected cash flows </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to evaluate an estimated NPV </li></ul>
    3. 3. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Project Cash Flows: A First Look </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental Cash Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Pro Forma Financial Statements and Project Cash Flows </li></ul><ul><li>More on Project Cash Flows </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating NPV Estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario and Other What-If Analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Additional Considerations in Capital Budgeting </li></ul>
    4. 4. Relevant Cash Flows <ul><li>The cash flows that should be included in a capital budgeting analysis are those that will only occur if the project is accepted </li></ul><ul><li>These cash flows are called incremental cash flows </li></ul><ul><li>The stand-alone principle allows us to analyze each project in isolation from the firm simply by focusing on incremental cash flows </li></ul>
    5. 5. Asking the Right Question <ul><li>You should always ask yourself “Will this cash flow change ONLY if we accept the project?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the answer is “yes,” it should be included in the analysis because it is incremental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the answer is “no”, it should not be included in the analysis because it is not affected by the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the answer is “part of it,” then we should include the part that occurs because of the project </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Common Types of Cash Flows <ul><li>Sunk costs – costs that have accrued in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity costs – costs of lost options </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive side effects – benefits to other projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative side effects – costs to other projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in net working capital </li></ul><ul><li>Financing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pro Forma Statements and Cash Flow <ul><li>Capital budgeting relies heavily on pro forma accounting statements, particularly income statements </li></ul><ul><li>Computing cash flows – refresher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Cash Flow (OCF) = EBIT + depreciation – taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OCF = Net income + depreciation when there is no interest expense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash Flow From Assets (CFFA) = OCF – net capital spending (NCS) – changes in NWC </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Table 9.1 Pro Forma Income Statement $ 21,780 Net Income 11,220 Taxes (34%) $ 33,000 EBIT 30,000 Depreciation ($90,000 / 3) 12,000 Fixed costs $ 75,000 Gross profit 125,000 Variable Costs ($2.50/unit) $200,000 Sales (50,000 units at $4.00/unit)
    9. 9. Table 9.2 Projected Capital Requirements $20,000 $50,000 $80,000 $110,000 Total Investment 0 30,000 60,000 90,000 Net Fixed Assets $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 NWC 3 2 1 0 Year
    10. 10. Table 9.5 Projected Total Cash Flows $71,780 $51,780 $51,780 -$110,00 CFFA -$90,000 Capital Spending $20,000 -$20,000 Change in NWC $51,780 $51,780 $51,780 OCF 3 2 1 0 Year
    11. 11. Making The Decision <ul><li>Now that we have the cash flows, we can apply the techniques that we learned in chapter 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the cash flows into the calculator and compute NPV and IRR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NPV = -$110,000 + 51,780/1.2 + 51,780/(1.2) 2 + 71,780/(1.2) 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPV = $10,648 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IRR = 25.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should we accept or reject the project? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Evaluating NPV Estimates <ul><li>The NPV estimates are just that – estimates </li></ul><ul><li>A positive NPV is a good start – now we need to take a closer look </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting risk – how sensitive is our NPV to changes in the cash flow estimates, the more sensitive, the greater the forecasting risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of value – why does this project create value? </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Scenario Analysis <ul><li>What happens to the NPV under different cash flows scenarios? </li></ul><ul><li>At the very least look at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best case – revenues are high and costs are low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst case – revenues are low and costs are high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of the range of possible outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best case and worst case are not necessarily probable; they can still be possible </li></ul>
    14. 14. Sensitivity Analysis <ul><li>What happens to NPV when we vary one variable at a time </li></ul><ul><li>This is a subset of scenario analysis where we are looking at the effect of specific variables on NPV </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the volatility in NPV in relation to a specific variable, the larger the forecasting risk associated with that variable and the more attention we want to pay to its estimation </li></ul>
    15. 15. New Project Example <ul><li>Consider the project discussed in the text </li></ul><ul><li>The initial cost is $200,000 and the project has a 5-year life. There is no salvage. Depreciation is straight-line, the required return is 12% and the tax rate is 34% </li></ul><ul><li>The base case NPV is $15,567 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Summary of Scenario Analysis 40.9% 159,504 99,730 59,730 Best Case -14.4% -111,719 24,490 -15,510 Worst Case 15.1% $15,567 $59,800 $19,800 Base case IRR NPV Cash Flow Net Income Scenario
    17. 17. Summary of Sensitivity Analysis 19.7% 39,357 66,400 6,500 Best case 10.3% -8,226 53,200 5,500 Worst case 15.1% 15,567 59,800 6,000 Base case IRR NPV Cash Flow Unit Sales Scenario
    18. 18. Making A Decision <ul><li>Beware “Paralysis of Analysis” </li></ul><ul><li>At some point, you have to make a decision </li></ul><ul><li>If the majority of your scenarios have positive NPVs, then you can feel reasonably comfortable about accepting the project </li></ul><ul><li>If you have a crucial variable that leads to a negative NPV with a small change in the estimates, then you may want to forgo the project </li></ul>