Chapter 2


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Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Introduction to Financial Statement Analysis
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>2.1 The Disclosure of Financial Information </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 The Balance Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 The Income Statement </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 The Statement of Cash Flows </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Other Financial Statement Information </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 Accounting Manipulation </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List the four major financial statements required by the SEC for publicly traded firms, define each of the four statements, and explain why each of these financial statements is valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the difference between book value of stockholders’ equity and market value of stockholders’ equity; explain why the two numbers are almost never the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Compute the following measures, and describe their usefulness in assessing firm performance: the debt-equity ratio, the enterprise value, earnings per share, operating margin, net profit margin, accounts receivable days, accounts payable days, inventory days, interest coverage ratio, return on equity, return on assets, price-earnings ratio, and market-to-book ratio. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives (cont'd) <ul><li>Describe the importance of ensuring that valuation ratios are consistent with one another in terms of the inclusion of debt in the numerator and the denominator. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between cash flow, as reported on the statement of cash flows, and accrual-based income, as reported on the income statement; discuss the importance of cash flows to investors, relative to accrual-based income. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of the notes to the financial statements. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the financial scandals described in the text, along with the new legislation designed to reduce that type of fraud. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2.1 Disclosure of Financial Information <ul><li>Financial Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm-issued accounting reports with past performance information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filed with the SEC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10Q </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 2.1 Disclosure of Financial Information (cont'd) <ul><li>Preparation of Financial Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral third party that checks a firm’s financial statements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2.1 Disclosure of Financial Information (cont'd) <ul><li>Types of Financial Statements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance Sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of Cash Flows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of Stockholders’ Equity </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 2.2 Balance Sheet <ul><li>A snapshot in time of the firm’s financial position </li></ul><ul><li>The Balance Sheet Identity: </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What the company owns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What the company owes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stockholder’s Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between the value of the firm’s assets and liabilities </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Assets: Cash or expected to be turned into cash in the next year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketable Securities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts Receivable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inventories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Current Assets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-paid expenses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net Property, Plant, & Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book Value </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depreciation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goodwill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amortization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Long-Term Assets </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Table 2.1
  13. 13. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Liabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Liabilities: Due to be paid within the next year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts Payable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notes Payable/Short-Term Debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other Current Liabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes Payable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wages Payable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Liabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Liabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-Term Debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Leases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deferred Taxes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Table 2.1 (cont'd)
  16. 16. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Net Working Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Assets – Current Liabilities </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Book Value of Equity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Book Value of Assets – Book Value of Liabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could possibly be negative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Value of Equity (Market Capitalization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market Price per Share Number of Shares Outstanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be negative </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Example 2.1
  19. 19. Example 2.1 (cont'd)
  20. 20. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Balance Sheet Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquidation Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value of the firm if all assets were sold and liabilities paid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market-to-Book Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Value Stocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low M/B ratios </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth stocks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High M/B ratios </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Balance Sheet Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debt-Equity Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures a firm’s leverage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using Book Value versus Market Value </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterprise Value </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Example 2.2
  23. 23. Example 2.2 (cont'd)
  24. 24. 2.2 Balance Sheet (cont'd) <ul><li>Other Balance Sheet Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current Assets / Current Liabilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Current Assets – Inventories) / Current Liabilities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. 2.3 Income Statement <ul><li>Total Sales/Revenues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost of Sales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gross Profit </li></ul>
  26. 26. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Gross Profit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating Expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R&D </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depreciation & Amortization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating Income </li></ul>
  27. 27. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Operating Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plus/minus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Income/Other Expenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) </li></ul>
  28. 28. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plus/minus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interest Income/Interest Expense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-Tax Income </li></ul>
  29. 29. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Pre-Tax Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>equals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Net Income </li></ul>
  30. 30. Table 2.2
  31. 31. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Earnings per Share </li></ul><ul><li>Stock Options </li></ul><ul><li>Convertible Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Dilution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diluted EPS </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Income Statement Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profitability Ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Margin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net Profit Margin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Income Statement Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Capital Days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts Receivable Days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EBITDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflects the cash a firm has earned from its operations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Income Statement Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage Ratios/Interest Coverage Ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EBIT / Interest Expense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Income / Interest Expense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EBITDA / Interest Expense </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. 2.3 Income Statement (cont'd) <ul><li>Income Statement Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment Returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net Income / Total Assets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation Ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P/E Ratio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Example 2.3
  37. 37. Example 2.3 (cont'd)
  38. 38. 2.4 Statement of Cash Flows <ul><li>Net Income typically does NOT equal the amount of Cash the firm has earned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Cash Expenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depreciation and Amortization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses of Cash not on the Income Statement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investment in Property, Plant, and Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 39. 2.4 Statement of Cash Flows (cont'd) <ul><li>Three Sections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financing Activities </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. 2.4 Statement of Cash Flows (cont'd) <ul><li>Operating Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusts net income by all non-cash items related to operating activities and changes in net working capital </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. 2.4 Statement of Cash Flows (cont'd) <ul><li>Investing Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital Expenditures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying or Selling Marketable Securities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financing Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Borrowings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment of Dividends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retained Earnings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Example 2.4
  43. 44. Example 2.4 (cont'd)
  44. 45. 2.5 Other Financial Statement Information <ul><li>Management Discussion and Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-Balance Sheet Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statement of Stockholders’ Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Notes to the Financial Statements </li></ul>
  45. 46. Example 2.5
  46. 47. Example 2.5 (cont'd)
  47. 48. 2.6 Accounting Manipulation <ul><li>Enron </li></ul><ul><li>WorldCom </li></ul><ul><li>Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) </li></ul>
  48. 49. Questions?
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