Business Research for "Non-Business" Librarians

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  • 1. Business Research for “Non-Business” Librarians SLA Conference – Nashville June 9, 2004 Helen Katz Manager Research & Information Services Ontario Ministry of Finance
  • 2. Outline
    • Business and Management Topics
    • People
    • Industry Codes
    • Companies
    • Industries
  • 3. Business and Management Topics
    • Terminology
    • Sources
  • 4. Terminology
    • Dictionaries
    • Google – define function (still need to evaluate sources)
    • Example:
    • Define: initial public offering
  • 5. Sources of Management Information
    • ABI/Inform Proquest – Dialog, Factiva, Lexis, Firstsearch
    • Business and Management Practices - Dialog
    • Business Periodicals Index (Wilson Business Abstracts) – Firstsearch, Dialog
    • Canadian Business and Current Affairs (CBCA) – Dialog, FPInfomart
    •  
  • 6. Proquest - ABI/Inform Classification Codes
    • 9110 Company specific
    • 9120 Product specific
    • 9150 Guidelines
    • 9160 Biographical
    • 9510 Multinational companies
    • 9520 Small business
    • 9540 Nonprofit institutions
  • 7. People
    • Biographical sources
    • Regulatory filings
    • News & magazine articles
  • 8. People
    • Company officers
    • Directors
  • 9. People Sources
    • Company web sites
    • Marquis Who’s Who - Dialog
    • Standard & Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors, and Executives – Dialog, Lexis
    • 10-K, Proxy statement
    • News articles from business periodicals, national or local newspapers – Dialog, Lexis, Factiva
  • 10.  
  • 11. Industry Codes
    • NAICS – North American Industrial Classification System
    • http://www.census.gov/epcd/naics02/
    • http://www.statcan.ca/english/Subjects/Standard/naics/2002/naics02-index.htm
    • SIC – Standard Industrial Classification
  • 12. Other Industry Codes
    • Product Codes
    • Trade Codes
      • International Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) is used for classification of foreign trade
  • 13. Companies
    • Public or Private
    • Large Companies
    • Financial Information
    • Regulatory Filings
  • 14. Basic Company Information
    • Company address
    • Officers and directors
    • Background/history
    • Financial
    • Investment/stock
    • Corporate families
    • Bankers/Accountants/Lawyers
  • 15. Basic Company Sources
    • D & B Million Dollar Directory: America’s Leading Public & Private Companies - Dialog
    • D & B America’s Corporate Families - Dialog
    • D & B Principal International Businesses - Dialog
    • D & B Canadian Key Business Directory - Dialog
    • Standard & Poor’s Register of Corporations, Directors, and Executives – Dialog, Lexis
    • Private company reports – Lexis
    • Specialized directories – by geography or industry
    •  
  • 16. Companies
    • Private company does not sell securities (shares) to the public
      • State registration
    • Public company sells securities to the public
      • Has greater disclosure responsibilities
  • 17. Companies in the U.S.
    • 5,657,774 U.S. firms (2001 Statistics of U.S. Businesses from County Business Patterns)
    • 2,750 companies listed on New York Stock Exchange (2004)
    • 3,300 companies listed on NASDAQ
    • 10,000 public companies on Mergent
  • 18.  
  • 19. Large Companies
    • Fortune 1000
    • Forbes 2000: The World’s Leading Companies
    • Financial Post 500
    • Canadian Business Investor 500
    • ROB Top 1000 (Globe & Mail)
  • 20. Fiscal Year
    • Full year of operation
    • Date to end the year is set for financial purposes
    • Often December 31
      • for retail – January 31 (or 52 weeks ending early January)
  • 21. Financial Statements
    • Six components:
    • Auditor’s Report
    • Earnings Statement
    • Balance Sheet
    • Retained Earnings
    • Statement of Changes in Financial Position
    • Notes to Financial Statements
  • 22. Auditor’s Report
    • Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
      • U.S., Canadian, International
    • Opinion of auditor
  • 23.  
  • 24. Earnings Statement
    • Income Statement, Statement of Revenue & Expense, Profit Statement, Results of Operations
    • Operating Income – earned from operations of company
    • Other Income – investment income
    • Money earned & spent over the course of the fiscal year
  • 25. Earnings Statement
    • Revenue from Sale of Goods
    • Expenses incurred from Sale of Goods
    • Operating Income
    • Non-operating Income
    • Income before Taxes
    • Income Taxes
    • Net Income
  • 26.  
  • 27. Balance Sheet
    • Three parts:
    • Assets
    • Liabilities
    • Shareholders’ Equity
    • Snapshot at the end of the fiscal year
  • 28. Assets
    • What is owned by a company
    • Cash & investments
    • Inventories
    • Property (land & buildings)
    • Equipment
    • What is owing to the company
    • Accounts receivable
  • 29. Liabilities
    • What a company owes
    • Payments
    • Loans
    • Bonds
    • Definition of Current Assets and Current
    • Liabilities
  • 30. Shareholders’ Equity
    • Shareholders’ ownership or investment in company
    • Capital stock
    • Earnings retained (Cumulative retained profit)
    • Difference between value of capital stock and market capitalization
  • 31.  
  • 32. Retained Earnings
    • Link between Earnings Statement & Balance Sheet
    • Cumulative profit
    • Also known as Consolidated Statement of Shareholders’ Investment
  • 33. Retained Earnings
    • Retained Earnings, Beginning of Period
    • Net Earnings for the Period
    • Dividends Declared
    • Retained Earnings, End of Period
  • 34.  
  • 35. Statement of Changes in Financial Position
    • Cash flow statement
    • Shows how cash is generated & spent
    • Certain items are on financial statement as a cost, but there is no money spent
  • 36. Statement of Changes in Financial Position
    • Operations
    • Investment
    • Financing
    • Increase (Decrease) in Cash
    • Cash, at Beginning of Period
    • Cash, at End of Period
  • 37.  
  • 38. Notes to Financial Statements
    • Integral part of financial statements
    • Explanation and details of information found in financial statements
    • Guides to Reading Financial Statements
    • (note that these are all pre-Sarbanes-Oxley)
    • www. prars .com/ ibm / ibmframe .html
    • http://instruction.bus. wisc . edu / corecourses /..%5Cmcarpenter/readings/ financereport . pdf
  • 39.  
  • 40.  
  • 41. Annual Report/ 10-K
    • Management Discussion & Analysis
    • Auditor’s Report
    • Financial Statements
    • Notes to Financial Statements
    • 10 Year Summary (usually)
    • Promotional/additional material in annual report
  • 42. Quarterly Report
    • Unaudited financial statements
    • Comparison to previous quarter and to same quarter previous year
    • Interim management discussion & analysis
    • Proforma financial statements
    • EBITDA (Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization)
  • 43. Proxy Statement
    • Announcement of annual general meeting
    • Selection of board of directors, auditors
    • Provides details of executive compensation
    • Lists major shareholders (over 5% in U.S.; over 10% in Canada)
  • 44.     1000 Nicollet Mall Minneapolis, Minnesota 55403         PROXY STATEMENT ANNUAL MEETING OF SHAREHOLDERS May 19, 2004                   The Board of Directors of Target Corporation solicits the enclosed proxy for the Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held at The Children's Theatre, 2400 Third Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota, on Wednesday, May 19, 2004, at 9:30 a.m., Central Daylight Time, and for any adjournment thereof. GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE MEETING AND VOTING   What is the purpose of the Annual Meeting?            At our Annual Meeting, shareholders will act upon the matters described in the accompanying notice of meeting, including the election of five directors, appointment of the Corporation's independent auditors and approval of the Target Corporation Long-Term Incentive Plan. In addition, our management will report on the performance of the Corporation during fiscal 2003 and respond to questions from shareholders. Who may vote?            We have one class of voting shares outstanding. Only shareholders of record of our Common Stock at the close of business on the record date, March 22, 2004, are entitled to receive notice of the Annual Meeting and to vote the shares of Common Stock that they held on the record date, at the meeting, or any postponement or adjournment of the meeting. As of the record date for the Annual Meeting, each share of Common Stock had one vote on each matter to be voted upon.
  • 45. Insider Trading
    • Rules and regulations for directors and officers of companies regarding the sale or purchase of company stock
  • 46. Disclosure
    • Prompt disclosure of material information
      • Definition of material
    • Move to plain language
    • Fair Disclosure (FD) regulation
    • Sarbanes-Oxley Legislation
      • Executive certification of disclosure
      • Shortening of reporting deadlines
  • 47. Common U.S. Filing Documents
    • 10-K – annual filing document
    • 10-Q - quarterly filing document
    • 8-K - change in material status
    • 14- - proxy statement
    • S- - registration statement
    • 13-D - securities ownership statement
  • 48.  
  • 49.  
  • 50. Financial Ratios
    • Mathematical function representing relationship of one number to another
    • Used to evaluate company financial statements
  • 51. Financial Ratios
    • Types of ratios:
    • Liquidity
    • Profitability
    • Efficiency
    • Debt
    • Value
  • 52.  
  • 53. Debt Ratios
    • Measures how well a company can deal with its debt obligations
    • Examples:
      • Debt/Equity Ratio
      • Interest Coverage Ratio
  • 54.
    • Debt/Equity Ratio
    • Measures debt outstanding to the monies invested in & earned by the company
    • Leverage ratio - the extent to which the company is financed by debt
    • Interest Coverage
    • Measures how much the company earns in relation to the interest it must pay
  • 55.  
  • 56. Value Ratios
    • Measures the worth to investors of a company’s shares or the return on owning them
    • Examples:
      • Earnings per Share
      • Price-Earnings Ratio (PE Ratio)
  • 57.
    • Earnings per Share
    • profit per share
    • Price-Earnings Ratio
    • comparison of market price to EPS
    • higher P/E ratio normally means company is viewed more favourably by investors
  • 58. FINANCIAL SOURCES
    • www.sec. gov
    • Hoovers – www.hoovers.com – also on Lexis
    • Mergent - Dialog
    • Standard and Poor’s - Dialog, Lexis
    • EdgarPlus – Dialog, Lexis
    • Cancorp financials (Canadian) – Dialog, Lexis
    • www. sedar .com (Canadian)
    • Extel (British) – Dialog, Lexis
  • 59.  
  • 60. Life Cycle of Business Information
    • Press release
    • Wire service
    • Daily news
    • Newsletter
    • Weekly
    • Monthly
    • Ojala, Marydee. (1996). “The life cyle of business information.” Database , June/July, p. 79-81.
  • 61. Industries
    • Government Statistics
    • Associations
    • Investment Sources
    • News and Magazine Articles
  • 62. Industry Search Strategy
    • 1. Government sources - be creative
      • • C ensus Bureau, Commerce department, Statistics Canada, Strategis, Energy department
    • 2. Industry overviews in trade journals
    • 3 . Trade associations
    • 4 . Specialized reports on the industry (either ongoing or special)
    • 5 . Articles in the press or in periodicals (databases)
    • 6 . Consultants, accounting firms
    • 7 . Competitors
    • 8 . Experts
  • 63. Issues
    • Specificity of data
      • that is, is the data available at the
    • detail you need
    • Currency of source
    • Currency of data
  • 64. Industry Sources
    • Mergent Industry Reports
    • Standard and Poor’s Industry Reports
    • Hoover’s Industry Snapshots (data comes from Plunkett Research) – Lexis
    • Business & Industry database – Dialog
    • Tablebase (database) – Dialog
    • Investext – Dialog, Lexis
    • Gale Group PROMT – Dialog
    • Gale Group Trade & Industry - Dialog
  • 65. S&P Industry Survey Contents
    • Current Environment
    • Industry Profile
    • Industry Trends
    • How the Industry Operates
    • Key Industry Ratios & Statistics
    • How to Analyze a …. Industry
    • Glossary
    • Industry References
    • Comparative Company Analysis
  • 66.  
  • 67.  
  • 68.  
  • 69.  
  • 70.  
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74. General Sources
    • Encyclopedia of Business Information Resources. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. Annual.
    •  
    • Moss, Rita W. (2004). Strauss’s Handbook of Business Information: A Guide for Librarians, Students and Researchers . 2 nd ed. Westport, CT.: Libraries Unlimited.
    •  
    • Weaver, Maggie. (2001). The Canadian B2B Research Sourcebook: Your Essential Guide . Ottawa: Canadian Library Association.
    •  
  • 75.
    • Helen Katz
    • Manager
    • Research and Information Services
    • Ontario Ministry of Finance
    • [email_address]