Balance Sheet: Assets 1999 1998 Cash 85,632 7,282 AR 878,000 632,160 Inventories 1,716,480 1,287,360 Total CA 2,680,112 1,926,802 Gross FA 1,197,160 1,202,950 Less: Deprec. 380,120 263,160 Net FA 817,040 939,790 Total assets 3,497,152 2,866,592
Liabilities and Equity 1999 1998 Accounts payable 436,800 524,160 Notes payable 600,000 720,000 Accruals 408,000 489,600 Total CL 1,444,800 1,733,760 Long-term debt 500,000 1,000,000 Common stock 1,680,936 460,000 Retained earnings (128,584) (327,168) Total equity 1,552,352 132,832 Total L & E 3,497,152 2,866,592
(523,936) Statement of Cash Flows (1998) OPERATING ACTIVITIES Net income (519,936) Add (Sources of cash): Depreciation 116,960 Increase in A/P 378,560 Increase in accruals 353,600 Subtract (Uses of cash): Increase in A/R (280,960) Increase in inventories ( 572,160 ) Net cash provided by ops.
L-T INVESTING ACTIVITIES Investment in fixed assets (711,950) FINANCING ACTIVITIES Increase in notes payable 520,000 Increase in long-term debt 676,568 Payment of cash dividends (11,000) Net cash from financing 1,185,568 NET CHANGE IN CASH (50,318) Plus: Cash at beginning of year 57,600 Cash at end of year 7,282
<ul><li>Net cash from operations = -$523,936, mainly because of negative NI. </li></ul><ul><li>The firm borrowed $1,185,568 to meet its cash requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Even after borrowing, the cash account fell by $50,318. </li></ul>What can you conclude about the company’s financial condition from its statement of CFs?
Ratio Analysis <ul><li>Why are financial ratios useful? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardized numbers, facilitate comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to highlight strengths and weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing a company’s financial ratios with those of a set of benchmark companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives a way for the company to assess its performance </li></ul></ul>
Calculation of Ratios <ul><li>The Impact of Leverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect on ratios? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any ratio involving income (profitability ratios) will be impact by a company’s leverage choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes comparisons difficult </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference between two identical companies that use different leverage? </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Liquidity: Can we make required payments as they fall due? </li></ul><ul><li>Asset management: Do we have the right amount of assets for the level of sales? </li></ul>What are the five major categories of ratios, and what questions do they answer? (More…)
<ul><li>Debt management: Do we have the right mix of debt and equity? </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability: Do sales prices exceed unit costs, and are sales high enough as reflected in PM, ROE, and ROA? </li></ul><ul><li>Market value: Do investors like what they see as reflected in P/E and M/B ratios? </li></ul>
Calculate the current and quick ratios for 1999. CR 99 = = = 1.85x . QR 99 = = = 0.67x . CA CL $2,680 $1,445 $2,680 - $1,716 $1,445 CA - Inv. CL
Comments on CR and QR <ul><li>Expected to improve but still below the industry average. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidity position is weak. </li></ul>1999 1998 1997 Ind. CR 1.85x 1.1x 2.3x 2.7x QR 0.67x 0.4x 0.8x 1.0x
What is the inventory turnover ratio vs. the industry average? Inv. turnover = = = 4.10x. Sales Inventories $7,036 $1,716 1999 1998 1997 Ind. Inv. T. 4.1x 4.5x 4.8x 6.1x
<ul><li>Inventory turnover is below industry average. </li></ul><ul><li>Might have old inventory, or its control might be poor. </li></ul><ul><li>No improvement is currently forecasted. </li></ul>Comments on Inventory Turnover
Receivables Average sales per day DSO is the average number of days after making a sale before receiving cash. DSO = = = = 45.5. Receivables Sales/365 $878 $7,036/365
Appraisal of DSO <ul><li>Collects too slowly, and is getting worse. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor credit policy. </li></ul>1999 1998 1997 Ind. DSO 45.5 39.0 36.8 32.0
F.A. and T.A. turnover vs. industry average Fixed assets turnover Sales Net fixed assets = = = 8.61x. $7,036 $817 Total assets turnover Sales Total assets = = = 2.01x. $7,036 $3,497
<ul><li>FA turnover projected to exceed industry average. Good. </li></ul><ul><li>TA turnover not up to industry average. Caused by excessive current assets (A/R and Inv.) </li></ul>1999 1998 1997 Ind. FA TO 8.6x 6.2x 10.0x 7.0x TA TO 2.0x 2.0x 2.3x 2.6x
Calculate the debt and TIE ratios. Total debt Total assets Debt ratio = = = 55.6%. $1,445 + $500 $3,497 EBIT Int. expense TIE = = = 5.8x. $510.6 $88
Too much debt, but projected to improve. How do the debt management ratios compare with industry averages? 1999 1998 1997 Ind. D/A 55.6% 95.4% 54.8% 50.0% TIE 5.8x -3.9x 3.3x 6.2x
Profit margin vs. industry average? Very bad in 1998, but projected to exceed industry average in 1999. Looking good. 1999 1998 1997 Ind. P.M. 3.6% -8.9% 2.6% 3.5% P.M. = = = 3.6%. NI Sales $253.6 $7,036
BEP = = = 14.6%. BEP vs. Industry Average? EBIT Total assets $510.6 $3,497
<ul><li>BEP removes effect of taxes and financial leverage. Useful for comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>Projected to be below average. </li></ul><ul><li>Room for improvement. </li></ul>1999 1998 1997 Ind. BEP 14.6% -24.1% 14.2% 19.1%
ROA = = = 7.3%. Return on Assets Net income Total assets $253.6 $3,497
1999 1998 1997 Ind. ROA 7.3% -18.1% 6.0% 9.1% ROE 16.3% -391.4% 13.3% 18.2% Both below average but improving. ROE = = = 16.3%. Net income Common equity $253.6 $1,552
Calculate and appraise the P/E and M/B ratios. Price = $12.17. EPS = = = $1.01. P/E = = = 12x. NI Shares out. $253.6 250 Price per share EPS $12.17 $1.01
Com. equity Shares out. BVPS = = = $6.21. $1,552 250 Mkt. price per share Book value per share M/B = = = 1.96x. $12.17 $6.21
<ul><li>P/E: How much investors will pay for $1 of earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>M/B: How much paid for $1 of BV. </li></ul>1999 1998 1997 Ind. P/E 12.0x -0.4x 9.7x 14.2x M/B 1.96x 1.7x 1.3x 2.4x
The Du Pont system focuses on: <ul><li>Expense control (P.M.) </li></ul><ul><li>Asset utilization (TATO) </li></ul><ul><li>Debt utilization (Eq. Mult.) </li></ul>It shows how these factors combine to determine the ROE.
The Du Pont Equations: <ul><li>ROA = PM * TATO = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(NI/Sales)*(Sales/TA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROE = ROA * Equity Multiplier = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(NI/TA)*(TA/Common Equity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROE = PM*TATO*EM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ROE = (NI/Sales)*(Sales/TA)*(TA/CE) </li></ul></ul>
( )( )( ) = ROE x x = ROE. Profit margin TA turnover Equity multiplier NI Sales Sales TA TA CE 1997 2.6% x 2.3 x 2.2 = 13.2% 1998 -8.9% x 2.0 x 21.6 = -391.4% 1999 3.6% x 2.0 x 2.3 = 16.3% Ind. 3.5% x 2.6 x 2.0 = 18.2%
Simplified Data A/R 878 Debt 1,945 Other CA 1,802 Equity 1,552 Net FA 817 Total assets $3,497 L&E $3,497 Q. How would reducing DSO to 32 days affect the company? Sales $7,035,600 day 365 = = $19,276.
Effect of reducing DSO from 45.5 days to 32 days: Old A/R = 19,276 x 45.5 = 878,000 New A/R = 19,276 x 32.0 = 616,832 Cash freed up: 261,168 Initially shows up as additional cash.
New Balance Sheet What could be done with the new cash? Effect on stock price and risk? Added cash $ 261 Debt $1,945 A/R 617 Equity 1,552 Other CA 1,802 Net FA 817 Total assets $3,497 Total L&E $3,497
Examples <ul><li>If a firm has a total debt ratio of .5, what is its equity multiplier? </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li>Austin Co. has a debt ratio of 0.5, a total assets turnover ratio of .25, and a profit margin of 10%. The Board of Directors is unhappy with the current return on equity, and they think it could be doubled. This could be accomplished by (1) increasing the profit margin to 12%, and (2) increasing debt utilization. Total assets turnover will not change. What new debt ratio, along with the new 12% profit margin, would be required to double the ROE? </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li>Cost Cos. net income was $120 and had interest paid of $50. Assuming the corporate tax rate is 40%, what was Cost Cos. times interest earned ratio? </li></ul>
Examples <ul><li>Kansas Office Supply had $24,000,000 in sales last year. The company's net income was $400,000. Its total asset turnover was 6.0. The company's ROE was 15%. The company is financed entirely with debt and common equity. What is the company's debt ratio? </li></ul>
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