Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool
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Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool

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Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool Document Transcript

  • Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool Curriculum Guide I. Goals and Objectives: A. Understand the purpose of a balance sheet. B. Understand how to complete a balance sheet. C. Understand how the balance sheet can be used to evaluate the business. II. Description/Highlights A. A balance sheet is a statement of the financial condition of the business at a specific point in time. It is one of the principal reports provided by a good accounting system. The balance sheet shows what is owned in a business, what is owed, and the owner’s share or net worth of the business. By comparing past balance sheets with the present balance sheet, the growth or decline of assets, loans and net worth of a business can be determined. B. The balance sheet shows the amount of funds the owner has in the business. To determine this amount, the assets owned are listed and a value is placed on them. The total value of liabilities also are listed. The difference between assets and liabilities equals net worth which represents the owner’s equity in the business. The balance sheet if often called a net worth statement. The net worth is equivalent to the value which would be left if all of the business account and debt obligations were paid in full. C. Assets may include cash on hand, bank accounts, accounts receivable, feed supplies, livestock, equipment, buildings, land other items. Although each asset may not be completely paid for, its full value is listed. The unpaid accounts notes and mortgages are listed as liabilities. D. In many farm businesses, there is no sharp distinction between farm business and nonfarm assets and liabilities of the farm family. This is particularly true where the farm and family living expenses are paid for out of the same bank account. Funds may flow back and forth from farm to nonfarm items. In this kind of a situation, the balance sheet may include both farm and nonfarm items. The relationship of assets, liabilities, and net worth is expressed as follows: Assets - Liabilities = Net Worth (Equity) OR Assets = Liabilities + Net Worth (Equity) This accounting equation is expressed in the example balance sheet. RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 1
  • E. A current asset is cash or other assets that can be quickly converted into cash in the normal business processes within one year. The value of current assets may vary greatly over time. Crops may be harvested but held for a better market. Feeder livestock may be purchased or sold, resulting in a continual cash flow of funds into the business and out again. F. Noncurrent assets are those resources that are used mainly to support farm production. Unlike current assets, they are not expected to be sold in the normal business process. These assets have a more permanent value. They are needed to produce income, but may not be easily converted to cash. They include breeding livestock, machinery and equipment, buildings, and real estate. G. Current liabilities are notes payable within a year, and include accounts payable, accrued interest and other expenses, income taxes payable, and current portion of deferred taxes. When they become due, they are usually paid from cash on hand or by creating another loan. H. Noncurrent liabilities include the noncurrent portion of notes payable; as well as land contracts and mortgages on land and buildings-improvements. Portions of the noncurrent liabilities that are due with 12 months are current liabilities because they are due in the present year of the business. I. The balance sheet has many important uses. Lending agencies use balance sheets to evaluate the financial position of most loan applicants. The balance sheet statement also can be extremely useful to the owner of the business indicating the state of business net worth. Comparison of balance sheets over time will show how much the business net worth is growing or decreasing. A balance sheet can be used by the owner of a business to support a request for borrowed funds. J. One of the most important issues in completing and using the balance sheet is the method used to value assets. The two most common are current market value and cost. Market value is the estimated amount the asset would sell for on the date of the statement less selling costs. Cost is the original cost or basis of the asset less any accumulated depreciation. In addition to affecting financial ratios derived from the balance sheet and the amount of deferred taxes, the biggest issue is the impact on farm equity. K. One of the most important issues in completing and using the balance sheet is the method used to value assets. The two most common are current market value and cost. Market value is the estimated amount the asset would sell for on the date of the statement less selling costs. Cost is the original cost or basis of the asset less any accumulated depreciation. In addition to affecting financial ratios derived from the balance sheet and the amount of deferred taxes, the biggest issue is the impact on farm equity. L. The National Farm Financial Standards Council recommends that the balance sheet should be prepared on both a market and a cost basis. The cost basis indicates the RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 2
  • amount of earned and contributed owner equity. The market value indicates the additional amount of equity that has resulted from the change is asset values due to inflation or deflation. The portion of total equity that has resulted from market value changes is the difference between the market value and cost basis owner equity. M. One of the most effective methods of evaluating the balance sheet is comparison of one year to previous years for the same business. Comparison of balance sheets between years directs attention to changes that have occurred in the relationship between assets and liabilities and the resulting growth or decline in net worth of the business. N. Comparison of the balance sheet of a farm business to balance sheet data from successful farms of a similar type may give evidence of weak or strong points in the business. O. Ratios may be used in evaluating balance sheets. A ratio is a comparison of two numbers which are expressed as a numerical ratio of one number to the other or as a percentage of one to the other. P. When different sized operations are compared, use of percentages rather that actual dollars has some advantages. This approach is called a common-size statement. Each farm is put on a “common-size” basis; that is, the various assets, liabilities, and equity are expressed as percentages within the business. III. Potential Speakers A. Extension economists B. Local lenders C. Local accounts IV. Review Questions A. What does the balance sheet show? The financial condition of the business at a specific point in time. B. What are the three major components of a balance sheet? Assets, liabilities, and net worth. C. What is the difference between market value and cost? Market value is the estimated amount the asset would sell for on the date of the statement less selling costs. Cost is the original cost or basis of the asset less any accumulated depreciation. V. For More Details Agricultural Financial Reporting and Analysis. Arnold W. Oltmans, Danny A. Klinefelter and Thomas L. Frey. Doane Agricultural Services, St. Louis, Missouri. 1992. Financial Management in Agriculture. Peter J. Barry, Paul N. Ellinger, C.B. Baker and John A. Hopkin. Interstate Publishers, Inc., Danville, Illinois. 1995. RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 3
  • Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool ! What is a Balance Sheet L A financial statement which shows the financial condition of the business at a specific time ! The Balance Sheet Relationship L Assets - Liabilities = Net Worth (Equity) ! Definitions L Assets - the value of those things owned by or owed to the business L Liabilities - the amounts owed by the business L Net Worth - the amount the owners would have left if all liabilities were paid RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 1
  • Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool ! Statement Structure L Current Assets - Assets that are cash, near cash or that will be converted into cash within one year L Noncurrent Assets - Assets used mainly to support farm production. They are not expected to be sold in the normal business process. L Current Liabilities - Liabilities payable within one year, including the current portion of noncurrent liabilities. L Noncurrent Liabilities - Liabilities payable beyond one year. RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 2
  • Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool ! Asset Valuation Methods L Market Value - The estimated amount an asset would sell for on the date of the statement less selling costs. L Cost - The original cost or basis of an asset less any accumulated depreciation. RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 3
  • Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool ! Uses of the Balance Sheet L To determine how much the business is worth L Comparisons of balance sheets over time show trends in financial strength and structure L To support loan requests L To provide information for estate planning L To help analyze the business’ ability to bear risk L To provide year end values for accrued assets and liabilities which are needed in measuring business profitability L When prepared on both a cost and market value basis, it can show how much of the change in financial position is due to reinvested earnings, (losses) and how much is due to inflation (deflation) RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 4
  • Balance Sheet - A Financial Management Tool ! Evaluation Methods L Comparisons over time L Comparisons to the other farms L Ratio Analysis L Common-size statements RM5-5.0 4-98 Page 5