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Does culture affect the diagnosis of schezoprenia.pp


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  • 1. By: Elizamar Davis Literature Review
  • 2. Schizophrenia is characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech, with disorganized or catatonic behavior (APA 2000)
  • 3. Cultural perspective can have an influence on the diagnosis of schizophrenia
  • 4. Socio-cultural context moderates the relationship between families’ expressed emotions (EE) and clinical outcomes in schizophrenia. Research examines how culture might shape the way family factors relate to schizophrenia. (Aguilera et al 2010)
    • Expressed emotions (EE) is a qualitative measure of the 'amount' of emotion displayed, typically within the family setting and usually by a family member or care takers about the patient.
  • 5. Clinical outcomes can vary depending on the socio-cultural context. With the nuances of culture as they relate to family factors and the cultural adaptation of available treatment regimens.
  • 6. Barnard (2011) reviews how self-compassion relates to cultural differences and how those differences affect the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia.
  • 7. Self-compassion entails:
    • Being kind and understanding toward oneself in times of pain or failure
    • Perceiving one’s own suffering as part of a larger human experience
    • Holding painful feeling and thoughts in mindful awareness.
    • Reviews how self-compassion relates to cultural differences.
    • The study found that there was a significant increase in accepting without judgment with better comprehension and mindfulness of general mental health concerns
  • 8. Therapeutic healing practices flourish throughout the world amid diverse cultures.
    • Benish (2011) found that psychotherapy treatment in accordance with client values, contexts, and worldviews, is more adaptive, empowering to the client, and amenable to intervention.
  • 9. Schizophrenia informs about culture because it affects in a central way the integrated functioning of personal self-structures responsible for the production, regulation and interpretation of cultural behavior.
    • Fabrega (1989) studied schizophrenia and the expectations about self and human subjectivity. Which encompasses such things as self-concepts, self-awareness, self-functioning, and self-career.
  • 10. Genetic understanding of human diversity and the problematic social consequences.
    • Haslam (2011), theory that essentialist thinking can deepen social divides, making differences appear larger than anticipated. This places the social effects on processes that implicate cultural and social attitudes
  • 11. Knapp et al (2010) studied religious affiliation and it associations with mental health, social well-being, and functioning.
    • This study looked at ethical standards surrounding respect for patient autonomy and their culture of origin
  • 12. Schmidt (2000), studied cross-cultural analysis of schizophrenia and how they present a positive self-image and their relationship within cultural constraints.
    • Where patients show signs of normalcy that attempts to build better social impressions.
  • 13. Weisman (1997) reviewed the cross-cultural effects between developing and industrialized countries.
    • Cultural factors and its impact on express emotion
    • Ethnicity impact on cultural and social understanding of mental illness
  • 14. Conclusion: A common thread was the exploration of how those afflicted with schizophrenia are affected in ways related to personal self-structures, care, and compassion. How socio-cultural context, the nuances', and role of cultures relate clinical outcomes in schizophrenia diagnosis.
  • 15.
  • 16. Reference
    • Aguilera, A., López, S. R., Breitborde, N. J. K., Kopelowicz, A., & Zarate, R. (2010). Expressed emotion and sociocultural moderation in the course of schizophrenia. The Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119 (4), 875-885. doi:10.1037/a0020908
    • Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2011). Self-compassion: Conceptualizations, correlates, & interventions. Review of General Psychology, 15 (4), 289-303. doi:10.1037/a0025754
    • Benish, S. G., Quintana, S., & Wampold, B. E. (2011). Culturally adapted psychotherapy and the legitimacy of myth: A direct-comparison meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58 (3), 279-289. doi:10.1037/a0023626
    • Fabrega, H. (1989). The self and schizophrenia: A cultural perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 15 (2), 277-290. Retrieved from
    • Haslam, N. (2011). Genetic essentialism, neuroessentialism, and stigma: Commentary on dar-nimrod and heine (2011). Psychological Bulletin, 137 (5), 819-824. doi:10.1037/a0022386
    • Knapp, S., Lemoncelli, J., & VandeCreek, L. (2010). Ethical responses when patients religious beliefs appear to harm their well-being. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41 (5), 405- 412. doi:10.1037/a0021037
    • Schmidt, K. L., Johnson, F. Y. A., & Allen, J. S. (2000). Cross-cultural analysis of eventfulness in the lives of people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26 (4), 825-834. Retrieved from
    • Weisman, A. G. (1997). Understanding cross-cultural prognostic variability for schizophrenia. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 3 (1), 23-35. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.3.1.23