Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Verbs6
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Verbs6

92

Published on

Published in: Travel, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
92
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Verbs 6: Operators and Operations Materials by Liz Siler
  • 2. Negation • Negation is an important operation that verbs can undergo. • Any verb phrase can be made negative.
  • 3. Negation: Examples • I am teaching. > I am not teaching. • He is the President. > He is not the President. • You will be given a ride. > You will not be given a ride. • He likes long boat rides. > He does not like long boat rides.
  • 4. Operators • To understand how the operation of negation works, we first must understand operators.
  • 5. Locating the Operator • An operator is a part of a verb phrase. • It serves important grammatical functions by enabling verbs to perform operations.
  • 6. Operator Examples (1) • In a verb phrase with more than one verb (e.g. with an auxiliary) the operator is the first verb on the left. – I [can understand] operators. – I [am teaching] about operators. – You [have learned] a lot of grammar in just two weeks.
  • 7. Operator Examples (2) • In a verb phrase with just one lexical verb (and no auxiliaries), in which the lexical verb is formed with a form of TO BE, the operator is the lexical verb. – Operators [are] part of the verb phrase. – I [am] an English teacher. – Once upon a time, he [was] a social worker.
  • 8. Operator Examples (3) • In a verb phrase with just one lexical verb formed with a verb other than a form of TO BE, there is no operator. • The operator is formed by adding a form of TO DO. • We will examine this in detail in a minute.
  • 9. Examples of Operators • All whales [are] mammals. (only a lexical verb, a form of BE) • The whales [are playing] in the shallows. (a verb phrase with more than one verb) • The whales [have been playing] for hours. (a verb phrase with more than one verb) • Whales [will suckle] their young for years. (a verb phrase with more than one verb) • BUT NOT: • The whales [play] in the sunlight. (only a lexical verb, not a form of BE >>>no operator)
  • 10. Functions of Operators • Operators serve important functions in making negatives and questions, which are operations.
  • 11. The Basic Negative Rule • English verb phrases are made negative by adding the word “not” AFTER the operator in the verb phrase. • If there is no operator (as in the case of a single lexical verb that is not a form of TO BE), we have to create an operator using a form of TO DO.
  • 12. Negation: With Operators • The whale was swimming along. >> The whale was not swimming along. • The whale is a blue whale.>> The whale is not a blue whale. • The whale has fed its calf. >> The whale has not fed its calf.
  • 13. Negation: Verb Phrases without Operators • The whale matures slowly. • In this case, there is no operator because there is just a single lexical verb that is not a form of BE.
  • 14. Negation: Verb phrases w/o Operators: Step 1 • AN OPERATOR MUST BE CREATED. – Create an operator by inserting a form of the verb “do” in front of the verb. – The form of “do” must be the same person, number, and tense as the lexical verb. – Example: – That marine biologist studies whales > That marine biologist does study whales .
  • 15. Negation: Verb Phrases w/o Operators: Step 2 • Check to be sure that the lexical verb is in the base form (since the person, number, tense are only carried on the first verb in the phrase). • Example: – That marine biologist does study whales. – DOES: 3rd person, singular, present tense – STUDY: base/simple form
  • 16. Negation: Verb Phrases w/o Operators: Step 3 • Add the word “not” after the newly formed operator. • Example: That marine biologist does not study whales.
  • 17. Negation: ESL Problem • The use of operators and negation is hard for ESL students. Look at these two common mistakes. What has happened in the operator/negation process? – Christopher doesn’t gets jokes. – The Palestinian people don’t are happy with the ceasefire.
  • 18. Solution • Christopher doesn’t gets jokes. – (The student has failed to make sure that the lexical verb is in the simple/base form) • The Palestinian people don’t are happy with the ceasefire. – (The student has created an operator with “do” when one isn’t needed because the sentence already had an operator – are)
  • 19. Verb Phrase: Original Definition • This is the definition we started with: – A verb phrase is a group of words that consists of a lexical verb and all its auxiliaries if there are any. If there are any adverbs between the lexical verb and the auxiliaries, they are part of the verb phrase.
  • 20. A revised definition • A verb phrase is a group of words that consists of a lexical verb and all its auxiliaries if there are any. If there are any adverbs between the lexical verb and the auxiliaries, they are part of the verb phrase. Features of the negative, including “not” and added in operators such as forms of “do”, are also part of the verb phrase. .

×