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Successful paraphrasing1

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  • 1. HOW AND WHY TO PARAPHRASEE. SILER
  • 2. DEFINITIONS• PARAPHRASE can refer to either a noun or averb.• TO PARAPHRASE means to substantiallychange the grammar and vocabulary of a textwithout changing the meaning.• A PARAPHRASE is a text that has beenchanged by someone.
  • 3. AN EXAMPLE• ORIGINAL: The Malian army, too weak to dothe job of retaking the north alone, was (andstill is) slowly reinforcing its frontier alongAzawad.• PARAPHRASE: The Malian army is not strongenough to conquer Azawad by itself. Instead,it has been strengthening the border betweenMali and Azawad.
  • 4. WHY WE PARAPHRASE• In academic culture, we value the use of one’sown words to show that a person has understoodwhat was read.• Good academic style uses lots of paraphrase andsummary --- and relatively little direct quotation.• If you are planning to ever write anything inacademic English again (either in a class or ingraduate school), you need to learn this valuableskill.
  • 5. HOW WE PARAPHRASE• Good paraphrasing is an art and a skill.• It requires patience.• But if you learn to do it, step by step, and youpractice, you will find that this skill:– improves your written English,– improves your vocabulary, and– improves your ability to understand what youread.
  • 6. The Basic Steps• 1. Change the grammar first.• 2. Change the vocabulary second.• 3. Recombine the changed grammar.• 4. Adjust until you have a full paraphrase.• 5. Cite
  • 7. An Example• The second conflict, the “Christmas War,” wasfought at the end of December, afterBurkinabe soldiers entered Malian villages toconduct a census, declaring that the villageswere in fact in Burkina Faso.
  • 8. Step 1: Grammar Breakdown• 1a. Find the verbs.• 1b. Add subjects.• 1c. Create many smaller sentences from theoriginal larger sentence.
  • 9. 1a. Locate the verbs• Was fought• Entered• To conduct• Declaring• were
  • 10. 1b. Assign a subject to each verb;change verbs to simple tenses• The Christmas War was fought• Burkinabe soldiers entered• Burkinabe soldiers planned to conduct• Burkinabe soldiers declared• The villages were.
  • 11. 1c. Create simple little sentences.• The Christmas War was fought at the end ofDecember.• Burkinabe soldiers entered Malian villages.• Burkinabe soldiers planned to conduct acensus.• Burkinabe soldiers declared something.• The villages were in Burkina Faso.
  • 12. Step 2: Change Vocabulary• Get your tools out! Use these TWO toolstogether:• http://www.thesaurus.com• http://www.ldoceonline.com
  • 13. 2a. Find synonyms for verbs first.• The Christmas War was fought at the end ofDecember. Fought at > occurred > happened• Burkinabe soldiers entered Malian villages.• Visited> went into• Burkinabe soldiers planned to conduct a census.Conduct > hold > administer• Burkinabe soldiers declared something. Declared> claimed• The villages were in Burkina Faso.
  • 14. The Thesaurus• A thesaurus is a list of words that aresomewhat like the word you are looking toreplace.• Type the word you want at the top of thethesaurus.• Let’s look at an example with the verb“conduct” as in, The soldiers planned toconduct a census.
  • 15. Example
  • 16. Choosing the Best Word• Use the dictionary to help you!• Consider the difference between two possiblethesaurus-generated synonyms: ordain andrun.
  • 17. Ordain
  • 18. RUN
  • 19. Results• The Christmas War happened at the end ofDecember• Burkinabe soldiers went into Malian villages.• Burkinabe soldiers planned to run a census.• Burkinabe soldiers claimed something.• The villages were in Burkina Faso.
  • 20. Step #3: Recombine• Recombine the small sentences that you havecreated into new sentences of no more thantwo verbs.
  • 21. Possible solutions• The Christmas War happened at the end ofDecember +• Burkinabe soldiers went into Malian villages.= When Burkinabe soldiers went into Malianvillages at the end of December, the ChristmasWar started.= The Christmas War, which happened at theend of December, started because Burkinabesoldiers went into Malian villages.
  • 22. More Solutions• Burkinabe soldiers planned to run a census.• Burkinabe soldiers claimed something.• The villages were in Burkina Faso.• = The soldiers claimed the villages were inBurkina Faso. They planned to run a censusof the villages.
  • 23. Now Compare• ORIGINAL:soldiers entered Malian villages toconduct a census, declaring that the villages werein fact in Burkina Faso.• PARAPHRASE: The Christmas War, whichhappened at the end of December, startedbecause Burkinabe soldiers went into Malianvillages. The soldiers claimed the villages were inBurkina Faso. They planned to run a census ofthe villages.
  • 24. Step 4: Adjust• Now make smaller changes to smooth out yourparaphrase. Remember that the original said thiswas the “second” conflict.• There was another conflict. The Christmas War,which happened at the end of December, startedbecause Burkinabe soldiers went into Malianvillages. The soldiers claimed those villages wereactually in Burkina Faso. Therefore, theyplanned to run a census of the villages.
  • 25. LAST STEP: CITE!• Even if you have paraphrased, you MUST cite.This is NOT optional. It is always the final step inthe paraphrase process.• There was another conflict. The Christmas War,which happened at the end of December, startedbecause Burkinabe soldiers went into Malianvillages. The soldiers claimed those villages wereactually in Burkina Faso. Therefore, theyplanned to run a census of the villages (Chilson,2013, p. 21).