English 303 grammar 2


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English 303 grammar 2

  1. 1. Verbs: Basic Forms and Transitivity E. Siler
  2. 2. The English Verb• Every English verb has five forms that we use as the “building blocks” to form verb phrases.• Those parts are: – The simple – The –s form – The –ing form – The past tense form – The past participle form
  3. 3. ExamplesForm Walk Eat Vanish Sleepsimple Walk Eat Vanish Sleep-s form Walks Eats Vanishes Sleeps-ing form Walking Eating Vanishing SleepingPast tense form Walked Ate Vanished SleptPast participle Walked Eaten Vanished Sleptform
  4. 4. 1 Grossly Irregular VerbFORM BESimple Form Be-S form Is-ing form BeingPast Tense Form Was/Were (depending on the subject)Past Participle Form BeenOTHER FORMS (TWO OTHER PRESENT Am/Are (depending on the sujbect0FORMS)
  5. 5. Using the Five Forms• We use the five forms, sometimes with other verbs, to form VERB PHRASES.• All English verb phrases are formed from combinations of these verb forms.
  6. 6. Use #1• The Present Tense.• Requires the simple form and the –s form. PERSON Singular Plural First I have We have Second You have You have Third He/she it/ has They have
  7. 7. Use #2• The Past Tense• Requires the past tense form (NOT THE PAST PARTICIPLE). PERSON Singular Plural First I ate We ate Second You ate You ate Third He/she/it ate They ate
  8. 8. Use #3• The Progressive Tenses• Require a present or past tense form of “to be” and the –ing form of another verb. The past progressive: PERSON Singular Plural First I was doing We were doing Second You were doing You were doing Third He/she/it was They were doing doing
  9. 9. Use #4• The Perfect Tenses• Require a present or past tense form of “to have” and the past participle form (NOT THE PAST TENSE). The present perfect: Person Singular Plural First I have gone We have gone Second You have gone You have gone Third He/she/ it has gone We have gone
  10. 10. Use #5• The Perfect Progressive Tenses• Require a form of “to have” (present or past), the past participle of “to be” (been) and an –ing form of another verb. The present perfect progressive: PERSON Singular Plural First I have been We have been sleeping sleeping Second You have been You have been sleeping sleeping Third He/she/it has been They have been sleeping sleeping
  11. 11. Another Division• In addition to the five forms, all verbs can be classified another way: as either transitive or intransitive or sometimes both.• Transitive verbs are marked in the dictionary with the word “transitive” and intransitives are marked with the word “intransitive.”
  12. 12. The Difference• Transitive verbs have direct objects (I bought the food).• Intransitive do not (The food smells bad).
  13. 13. Switch Hitters• Some verbs are sometimes transitive and sometimes intransitive, depending on whether a direct object is used. – I ate dinner (transitive). – I ate quickly (intransitive).
  14. 14. Rule #1• Only verbs that are transitive or used as transitives can be made passive.• We will talk about passives later.• However, this is the important thing to remember: intransitives cannot be passive.
  15. 15. What This Rule Means• This rule means that you can NEVER, EVER have a form of the verb “to be” in front of – the past participle form or – past tense form or – simple form• of an intransitive verb.• You can NEVER say any of these sentences: – The accident was happen. – The accident was happened.
  16. 16. How to Edit• Check the dictionary.• Is the verb transitive or intransitive? If it’s both, which way are you using it?• If the verb is intransitive (or you are using it that way), what form did you use?• Did you use a form of the verb “to be” in front of it?• IF SO, YOU NEED TO FIX SOMETHING RIGHT NOW!• Start by removing the form of the verb “to be.”
  17. 17. HOW I MARK THIS• IVF (Intransitive Verb Form)
  18. 18. Examples• Landfill gas is occurred.• However, liners will be decayed.• Leachateis keep going down.• The plastic will be break.• The leachate is come to the plant.