Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 6 Consumer Decision Making with NOTES
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 6 Consumer Decision Making with NOTES

343
views

Published on


0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
343
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Consumers’ product and service preferences are constantly changing.
  • Notes:
    Understanding consumer behavior can help marketing managers adapt the marketing mix to influence consumer purchasing decisions. For example, if a manager knows through research that gas mileage is the most important attribute for a certain target market, the manufacturer can redesign the product, and create the appropriate marketing mix, to meet that criterion.
  • Notes:
    The consumer decision-making process represents a general five-step process that moves the consumer from recognition of a need to the evaluation of a purchase decision. It is a guideline for studying how consumers make decisions.
    Note that consumer decisions may not proceed in order through all the processes, and in fact, may end at any time without a purchase decision.
  • •The consumer decision-making process begins with need recognition, when stimuli trigger awareness of an unfulfilled want.
    •If additional information is required to make a purchase decision, the consumer may engage in an internal or external information search.
    • The consumer then evaluates the alternatives using the additional information and establishes purchase guidelines. Finally, a purchase decision is made.
  • Notes:
    The first stage in the decision-making process is need recognition.
  • On November 26, 2011, a woman turned herself in to police after allegedly pepper spraying a crowd of shoppers at a Los Angeles, California, Walmart. According to reports, the woman doused shoppers as they frantically reached for limited numbers of discounted Xbox 360s during an early morning Black Friday sale the day before. Deal-hunter Juan Castro witnessed the event, telling reporters, “I don't know if she felt threatened or she felt she had to do that to get what she wanted,” though a police statement indicated that the woman’s actions didn’t appear to be in self-defense. Ten people were treated for exposure to the caustic compound, and many nearby shoppers at the Los Angeles store—including Castro—suffered moderate irritation.
    Black Friday—the day immediately following Thanksgiving—has become something of holiday in its own right for retailers (some of whom offer their best bargains of the year) and consumers (some of whom camp out for days at stores’ front doors) alike. Violent incidents were reported in at least seven states during the 2011 Black Friday sales, most occurring at or near Walmart stores. Similar incidents have occurred in previous years—in 2008, a Walmart employee was trampled by a crowd of shoppers as he and other workers unlocked a New York Walmart’s front doors at 5 a.m. While Juan Castro’s injuries were minor, the pepper spray event altered his view on Black Friday: “I tried to get away as quickly as possible because I didn't think it was worth it. No deal is worth that.”
  • Notes:
    A marketing manager’s objective is to get consumers to recognize an imbalance between their present status and their preferred state. Advertising and sales promotion often provide this stimulus.
    Discussion/Team Activity
    List products and services that have been purchased recently. Indicate the types of internal and/or external stimuli that influenced the decision.
  • Notes:
    Marketers create new products and services by observing trends in the marketplace, and can create wants on the part of the consumer.
    Consumers recognize unfilled wants in various ways, in particular, in the ways shown on this slide.
  • Notes:
    An internal information search is the process of recalling information in memory. This includes prior experience or prior knowledge about a product.
    An external information search relies on information in the outside environment. This includes personal and public references, advertisements, and publicity.
    External information may be obtained from non-marketing controlled sources and/or marketing controlled sources. Nonmarketing controlled sources include personal experience, personal sources, and public sources such as Underwriters Laboratories. Marketing-controlled information is biased toward a specific product because it originates with marketers promoting that product. These sources include mass-media advertising, sales promotion, salespeople, product labels and packaging, and the Internet.
  • Notes:
    The extent to which an individual conducts an external source depends on such factors as the perceived risk of purchasing a product, knowledge, prior experience, and level of interest in the good or service. The external search is also influenced by the consumer’s confidence in her decision-making ability. If a consumer has prior experience, he/she will spend less time searching.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Discuss information searches conducted for products or services recently evaluated or purchased. Characterize this discussion based on the factors described on this slide.
  • Notes:
    The information search should yield a group of brands, or evoked set, which are the consumer’s preferred alternatives. From this set, consumers will further evaluate the alternatives and make a choice.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Describe the evoked set derived from information searches previously conducted. What were the characteristics that made these products the preferred alternatives?
  • Notes:
    Once the evoked set is constructed, the consumer is ready to make a decision.
    One way to make a choice is to pick product attributes that are important to him/her, then exclude all products in the set that do not have that attribute.
    Another way to narrow the number of choices is to use cutoffs, or minimum or maximum levels of an attribute that an alternative must have. Many times, price is an important cutoff attribute.
    The goal of the marketing manager is to determine which attributes have the most influence on a consumer’s choice, and design a marketing mix that stresses those attributes to the consumer.
    A single attribute, such as price, may not always explain a consumer’s evaluation of products. Attributes that the marketer may consider important are not always important to the consumer.
    Brand names, such as Johnson & Johnson, have a significant impact over the choice of products.
  • Notes:
    Following the evaluation of alternatives, the consumer decides which product to buy or decides not to buy at all.
    Ultimately, the consumer must specifically decide:
    Whether to buy
    When to buy
    What to buy (product type and brand)
    Where to buy (type of retailer, specific retailer, online or in store)
    How to pay
  • Notes:
    Once a purchase decision is made, the next step in the process is the evaluation of the product after purchase. Consumers expect certain outcomes from the purchase, and how well these expectations are met determines the level of customer satisfaction.
    Price influences the level of expectations for a product or service.
    When people feel inconsistency between their values or opinions and their behavior, they feel an inner tension called cognitive dissonance. In purchase decisions, this is also called “buyer’s remorse.” Marketers try to reduce any lingering doubt.
    For example: Why do people who have been repeatedly warned that cigarettes are bad for their health continue to smoke? Because smokers "know" one thing and "feel" another—that's cognitive dissonance at work.
  • Once a purchase decision is made, the next step in the process is the evaluation of the product after purchase. Consumers expect certain outcomes from the purchase, and how well these expectations are met determines the level of customer satisfaction. Price influences the level of expectations for a product or service.
    When people feel inconsistency between their values or opinions and their behavior, they feel an inner tension called cognitive dissonance. In purchase decisions, this is also called “buyer’s remorse.” 75 percent of consumers say they had a bad experience in the last year with a product purchased. Marketing managers can help reduce cognitive dissonance through effective communication with consumers, such as follow-up notes, advertising, and guarantees.Marketing managers can help reduce dissonance through effective communication with purchasers. For example, a customer service manager may slip a note inside the package congratulating the buyer on making a wise decision.
    Postpurchase letters sent by manufacturers and dissonance-reducing statements in instruction booklets may help customers feel at ease with their purchase. Advertising that displays the product’s superiority over competing brands or guarantees can also help relieve the possible dissonance of someone who has already bought the product. Apple’s Genius Bar and customer service will ease cognitive dissonance for purchasers of an iPad because they know that the company is there to support them.
  • Notes:
    Consumer buying decisions fall along a continuum of three broad categories: routine response behavior, limited decision making, and extensive decision making.
    Routine response behavior: Frequently purchased, low-cost goods and services, with low involvement on search and decisions by consumers before making the purchase. Consumers buy first and evaluate later.
    Limited decision making: Consumer has previous product experience but is unfamiliar with the current brands available. A moderate effort is spent searching for information or in considering alternatives.
    Extensive decision making: Applies to unfamiliar, expensive products, or an infrequently bought item. The most complex type of consumer buying decisions, and is associated with high involvement on the part of the consumer.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Name products that fall into each of the decision making descriptions, and describe the decision making process for each.
  • Notes:
    1. Exhibit 6.2 illustrates the continuum of consumer buying decisions.
  • The level of involvement in the purchase depends on the following factors:
    Previous experience: When consumers have had previous experience with a product or repeat trials, the level of involvement typically decreases and quick choices are made.
    Interest: Involvement is directly related to consumer interests, such as cars, motorcycles, or electronics.
    Perceived risk of negative consequences: As the risk increases, so does the consumer level of involvement. Risks include financial risks, social risks, and psychological risk.
    Situation: The circumstances of a purchase may transform a low-involvement decision into a high-involvement one. For example, a low-priced brand of wine may be purchased routinely, but a high-involvement decision might be required for purchasing a more prestigious wine for a special occasion.
    Social visibility: Involvement increases as the social visibility of a product increases. These products that make a statement about the user may include cars, jewelry, furniture, and clothing.
  • Product involvement means that a product category has high personal relevance.
    • Situational involvement means that the circumstances of a purchase may temporarily transform a low-involvement decision into a high-involvement one.
    • Shopping involvement represents the personal relevance of the process of shopping. Modern shoppers tend to browse less and make fewer impulse buys because they shop on a mission.
    • Enduring involvement represents an ongoing interest in some product or activity. The consumer is always searching for opportunities to consume the product or participate in the activity.
    • Emotional involvement represents how emotional a consumer gets during some specific consumption activity.
  • For high involvement products, a good ad gives consumers the information they need for making the purchase decision, as well as specifying the benefits and advantages of owning the product.
    For low-involvement purchases, customers may not recognize their wants until they are in the store. In-store promotion and package design are important tools for catching the customer’s attention. Good displays can help explain a product’s purpose and create recognition of a want.
  • Notes:
    The consumer decision-making process is strongly influenced by cultural, social, individual, and psychological factors.
    Exhibit 6.3 summarizes these influences.
  • Notes:
    1. This list contains the defining components of culture. Push students to think about American cultural elements for each category.
    The most defining element of a culture is its values. A value is an enduring belief shared by a society that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct
    Language -- General Motors discovered too late that Nova (the name of an economical car) literally means “doesn’t go” in Spanish; Coors encouraged its English-speaking customers to “Turn it loose,” but the phrase in Spanish means “Suffer from diarrhea.”
  • Notes:
    Culture is:
    Pervasive: Cultural values influence individual life, yet most are completely unaware of its presence. What people eat, how they dress, and what language they speak are all cultural dimensions.
    Functional: By establishing expectations, culture gives order to society, such as laws.
    Learned: Culture is not genetic. Instead, consumers must learn what is acceptable from family and friends.
    Dynamic: It adapts to changing needs and an evolving environment. The rapid growth of technology has accelerated the rate of cultural change.
  • Notes:
    The most defining element of a culture is its values.
    People with similar value systems tend to react alike to prices and other marketing-related inducements.
    Values also correspond to consumption patterns.
  • Notes
    In the United States alone, countless subcultures can be identified, and many are concentrated geographically.
  • Notes:
    One view of contemporary U.S. status structure is shown in Exhibit 6.4.
  • Notes:
    Marketers are interested in social class for the reasons of determining which medium to use for advertising, and for determining where best to distribute their products.
    Because many lower-income consumers are still struggling to recover from job loss, retailers such as Walmart are selling smaller packages of items because customers do not have enough cash to buy more standard-size products. Apparel stores that target the middle class are raising prices by only pennies for fear of driving away customers.
  • Notes:
    Consumers interact socially with reference groups, opinion leaders, and family members to obtain product information and decision approval.
  • Notes:
    Reference groups are characterized as either direct or indirect.
    Direct reference groups may be primary or secondary. Primary membership groups include all groups with which people interact regularly in an informal way, such as family, friends, and coworkers. People associate with secondary membership groups less consistently and more formally. This includes clubs, professional groups, and religious groups.
    Indirect reference groups include aspirational reference groups, such as organizations that a person would like to join. On the other hand, a nonaspirational reference group is one that someone wants to avoid being identified with.
  • Notes:
    For marketers, reference groups have three implications, as stated on this slide.
    Understanding the effect of reference groups on a product is important for marketers in tracking the product life cycle.
  • Notes:
    Opinion leaders are often the first to try new products. Technology companies have found that teenagers, because of their willingness to experiment, are key opinion leaders for the success of new technologies.
    Opinion leadership is a casual, face-to-face phenomenon. Locating opinion leaders can be a challenge. Marketers may try to create opinion leaders, such as cheerleaders or civic leaders.
    On a national level, companies sometimes use prominent public figures, such as movie stars, sports figures, and celebrities to promote products.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Name examples of opinion leaders, and the promoted products/services, in each of the categories shown on this slide.
  • Notes:
    The family is the most important social institution for many consumers, influencing values, attitudes, and buying behavior.
    Purchase decisions vary significantly among family members, who assume a variety of roles in the purchase process.
    Initiators are the ones who suggest or initiate the purchase process. Influencers are those members whose opinions are valued.Decision makers actually makes the decision to buy or not to buy.The purchaser is the one who exchanges money for the product. The consumer is the one who uses the product.
    Children can have great influence over the purchase decision.
  • Notes:
    A person’s buying decisions are also influenced by unique personal characteristics, such as gender; age and life cycle stage; and personality, self-concept, and lifestyle.
    The physiological differences in men and women result in the need for different products. Trends in gender marketing are influenced by the changing roles of men and women.
    The age and family life cycle can have a significant impact on consumer behavior. Consumer tastes in clothes, food, cars, and recreation are often age related. Related to age is the family life cycle, an orderly series of stages through which consumers’ attitudes and behavior evolve through maturity, experience, and changing income and status.
    Personality is a broad concept combining psychological makeup and environmental forces. Self-concept combines the ideal self-image and the real self-image. Consumers seldom buy products that jeopardize their self-image. A lifestyle is a mode of living as identified by a person’s activities, interests, and opinions.
  • Notes:
    The psychological influences are the factors consumers use to interact with their world. They are the tools used to recognize feelings, gather and analyze information, formulate thoughts and opinions, and take action.
  • Notes:
    People cannot perceive every stimulus in their environment. They use selective exposure, along with the closely related concepts of selective distortion and retention to decide which stimuli to notice and which to ignore.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Discuss examples representing each of the described perception states.
  • Notes:
    Marketers must recognize the importance of cues or signals in a consumers perception of products.
    Marketing managers first identify the important attributes such as those listed on this slide, then design signals to communicate these attributes to consumers.
  • Notes:
    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: A method of classifying human needs and motivations into five categories in ascending order of importance. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, shown in Exhibit 6.6 and here, arranges needs in ascending order of importance.
    By studying motivation, marketers can analyze the major forces influencing consumers’ purchase decisions. When a product is purchased a need is usually fulfilled. These needs become motives when aroused sufficiently. Motives are the driving forces that cause a person to take action to satisfy those needs.
  • Online:
    Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI))
    The CSPI regularly campaigns to change consumers’ beliefs about products it perceives as dangerous or harmful. What products are of interest to the CSPI at present? How should companies respond if their products become targets of the CSPI?
    www.cspinet.org
    Notes:
    Almost all consumer behavior results from learning, the process that creates changes in behavior through experience and practice.
    There are two types of learning: experiential and conceptual.
    Reinforcement and repetition boost learning. This is a key strategy in promotional campaigns because it can lead to increased learning. Generally, to enhance learning, advertising messages should be spread over time rather than clustered together.
  • Notes:
    Beliefs and attitudes are closely linked to values.
    If a product is meeting its profit goals, positive attitudes toward the product need to be reinforced. If the brand is not succeeding, the marketing manager must work to change the consumers’ attitudes toward it.
    Changes in attitudes can be accomplished in three ways:* Changing beliefs about the brand’s attributes* Changing the relative importance of these beliefs* Adding new beliefs
  • Transcript

    • 1. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.1 Lamb, Hair, McDaniel Chapter 6 ConsumerConsumer DecisionDecision MakingMaking 2012-2013
    • 2. Explain why marketing managers should understand consumer behavior Analyze the components of the consumer decision- making process Explain the consumer’s postpurchase evaluation process Identify the types of consumer buying decisions and discuss the significance of consumer involvement © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2 1 2 3 4
    • 3. Identify and understand the cultural factors that affect consumer buying decisions Identify and understand the social factors that affect consumer buying decisions Identify and understand the individual factors that affect consumer buying decisions Identify and understand the psychological factors that affect consumer buying decisions © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3 5 6 7 8
    • 4. Explain why marketing managers should understand consumer behavior The Importance of Understanding Consumer Behavior © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.4 1
    • 5. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5 Understanding ConsumerUnderstanding Consumer BehaviorBehavior Consumer behavior Consumer behavior consumers make purchase decisions consumers make purchase decisions consumers use and dispose of product consumers use and dispose of product = HOW 1
    • 6. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
    • 7. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
    • 8. Analyze the components of the consumer decision- making process © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.8 The ConsumerThe Consumer Decision-Making ProcessDecision-Making Process 2
    • 9. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9 ConsumerConsumer Decision-Making ProcessDecision-Making Process 2
    • 10. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10 Exhibit 6.1Exhibit 6.1 Consumer Decision-Making ProcessConsumer Decision-Making Process 2
    • 11. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11 Need RecognitionNeed Recognition Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states. Need recognition is the first stage in the decision- making process 2
    • 12. When “Need” Turns to GreedWhen “Need” Turns to Greed • In 2011, a woman allegedly pepper sprayed a crowd of shoppers reaching for discounted Xbox 360s. • Black Friday: • Retailers offer their best bargains of the year • Consumers camp out for days at stores’ front doors • Violent incidents were reported in at least seven states during the 2011 Black Friday sales, most occurring at or near Walmart stores. Michael Martinez, “Woman Surrenders in Black Friday Pepper Spray Incident,” CNN, November 26, 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11- 26/us/us_california-pepper-spray-suspect_1_pepper-spray-woman-surrenders-video-game?_s=PM:US (Accessed May 3, 2012). © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.12
    • 13. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13 Need Recognition Marketing helps consumers recognize an imbalance between present status and preferred state. Present Status Present Status Preferred State Preferred State InternalStimuli External Stimuli 2
    • 14. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14 StimulusStimulus Any unit of input affecting one or more of the five senses: •sight •smell •taste •touch •hearing 2
    • 15. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15 Recognition ofRecognition of Unfulfilled WantsUnfulfilled Wants • When a current product isn’t performing properly • When the consumer is running out of a product • When another product seems superior to the one currently used 2
    • 16. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16 Information SearchInformation Search Internal Information Search • Recall information in memory External Information search • Seek information in outside environment • Nonmarketing controlled • Marketing controlled 2
    • 17. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17 External Information SearchesExternal Information Searches Need MoreNeed More InformationInformation More Risk Less knowledge Less product experience High level of interest Lack of confidence Less Risk More knowledge More product experience Low level of interest Confidence in decision Need LessNeed Less InformationInformation 2
    • 18. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18 Evoked SetEvoked Set 2
    • 19. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 Evaluation of Alternatives and Purchase Evoked SetEvoked Set Purchase!Purchase! Analyze product attributes Analyze product attributes Rank attributes by importance Rank attributes by importance Use cutoff criteriaUse cutoff criteria 2
    • 20. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 PurchasePurchase To buy or not to buy... Determines whichDetermines which Attributes are mostAttributes are most in influencing ain influencing a consumer’s choiceconsumer’s choice 2
    • 21. Explain the consumer’s postpurchase evaluation process © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.21 Postpurchase BehaviorPostpurchase Behavior 3
    • 22. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22 Cognitive DissonanceCognitive Dissonance Inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions. 3
    • 23. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
    • 24. Identify the types of consumer buying decisions and discuss the significance of consumer involvement © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.24 Types of Consumer Buying DecisionsTypes of Consumer Buying Decisions and Consumer Involvementand Consumer Involvement 4
    • 25. More Involvement Less Involvement Routine Response Behavior Routine Response Behavior Limited Decision Making Limited Decision Making Extensive Decision Making Extensive Decision Making © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 Consumer Buying DecisionsConsumer Buying Decisions and Consumer Involvementand Consumer Involvement 4
    • 26. the amount of time and effort a buyer invests in the search, evaluation, and decision processes of consumer behavior. InvolvementInvolvement © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26 4
    • 27. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.27 Exhibit 6.2Exhibit 6.2 Continuum of Consumer Buying DecisionsContinuum of Consumer Buying Decisions Routine Limited Extensive Involvement Low Low to Moderate High Time Short Short to Moderate Long Cost Low Low to Moderate High Information Search Internal Only Mostly Internal Internal and External Number of Alternatives One Few Many 4
    • 28. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28 Routine Response BehaviorRoutine Response Behavior  Little involvement in selection process  Frequently purchased low cost goods  May stick with one brand  Buy first/evaluate later  Quick decision 4
    • 29. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29 Limited Decision MakingLimited Decision Making  Low levels of involvement  Low to moderate cost goods  Evaluation of a few alternative brands  Short to moderate time to decide 4
    • 30. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30 Extensive Decision MakingExtensive Decision Making  High levels of involvement  High cost goods  Evaluation of many brands  Long time to decide  May experience cognitive dissonance 4
    • 31. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31
    • 32. Not All Involvement Is TheNot All Involvement Is The SameSame © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32 Enduring InvolvementEnduring Involvement Emotional InvolvementEmotional Involvement Situational InvolvementSituational Involvement Shopping InvolvementShopping Involvement Product InvolvementProduct Involvement 4
    • 33. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33
    • 34. Identify and understand the cultural factors that affect consumer buying decisions © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.34 Cultural Influences onCultural Influences on Consumer Buying DecisionsConsumer Buying Decisions 5
    • 35. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35 Factors Influencing Buying Decisions Social Factors Individual Factors Psycho- logical Factors Cultural Factors CONSUMER DECISION- MAKING PROCESS BUY / DON’T BUY 5
    • 36. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36 Components of CultureComponents of Culture MythsMyths LanguageLanguage ValuesValues CustomsCustoms RitualsRituals LawsLaws Material artifactsMaterial artifacts 5
    • 37. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 37 Culture is. . .Culture is. . . LearnedLearned FunctionalFunctional PervasivePervasive DynamicDynamic 5
    • 38. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38 ValueValue Enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to another mode of conduct. 5
    • 39. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39 SubcultureSubculture A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as cultural elements unique to their own group. 5
    • 40. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40 Social ClassSocial Class A group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms. 5
    • 41. Exhibit 6.4Exhibit 6.4 U.S. Social ClassesU.S. Social Classes SOURCE:AdaptedfromRichardP.Coleman,“TheContinuingSignificanceofSocialClasstoMarketing,”Journalof ConsumerResearch,December1983,267;DennisGilbertandJosephA.Kahl,TheAmericanClassStructure:ASynthesis (Homewood,IL:DorseyPress,1982),ch.11. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41 Upper Classes Capitalist Class 1% People whose investment decisions shape the national economy; income mostly from assets, earned or inherited; university connections Upper Middle Class 14% Upper-level managers, professionals, owners of medium-sized businesses; well-to-do, stay-at-home homemakers who decline occupational work by choice; college educated; family income well above national average Middle Classes Middle Class 33% Middle-level white-collar, top-level blue-collar; education past high school typical; income somewhat above national average; loss of manufacturing jobs has reduced the population of this class Working Class 32% Middle-level blue-collar, lower-level white-collar; income below national average; largely working in skilled or semi-skilled service jobs Lower Classes Working Poor 11- 12% Low-paid service workers and operatives; some high school education; below mainstream in living standard; crime and hunger are daily threats Underclass 8-9% People who are not regularly employed and who depend primarily on the welfare system for sustenance; little schooling; living standard below poverty line
    • 42. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42 Social Class MeasurementsSocial Class Measurements WealthWealth Other VariablesOther Variables IncomeIncome EducationEducation OccupationOccupation 5
    • 43. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43 The Impact ofThe Impact of Social Class on MarketingSocial Class on Marketing  Indicates which medium to use for advertising  Helps determine the best distribution for products 5
    • 44. Identify and understand the social factors that affect consumer buying decisions © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.44 Social Influences onSocial Influences on Consumer Buying DecisionsConsumer Buying Decisions 6
    • 45. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 45 Social InfluencesSocial Influences Reference Groups Reference Groups Opinion Leaders Opinion Leaders Family Members Family Members 6
    • 46. Exhibit 6.5Exhibit 6.5 Types of Reference GroupsTypes of Reference Groups © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 46 6
    • 47. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 47 Influences ofInfluences of Reference GroupsReference Groups  They serve as information sources and influence perceptions.  They affect an individual’s aspiration levels.  Their norms either constrain or stimulate consumer behavior. 6
    • 48. The first to try new products and services out of pure curiosity. May be challenging to locate. Marketers are increasingly using blogs, social networking, and other online media to determine and attract opinion leaders. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 48 Opinion LeadersOpinion Leaders 6
    • 49. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 49 FamilyFamily • Initiators • Influencers • Decision Makers • Purchasers • Consumers Purchase Process Roles in the Family 6
    • 50. Identify and understand the individual factors that affect consumer buying decisions © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.50 Individual Influences onIndividual Influences on Consumer Buying DecisionsConsumer Buying Decisions 7
    • 51. Individual InfluencesIndividual Influences GenderGender Age Life Cycle Age Life Cycle Personality Self-Concept Lifestyle Personality Self-Concept Lifestyle © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 51 7
    • 52. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 52 Age and Family Life CycleAge and Family Life Cycle StageStage • Consumer tastes in food, clothing, cars, furniture, and recreation are often age related. • Marketers define target markets according to life cycle stages such as “young singles” or “young married with children.” 7
    • 53. © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 53 Personality, Self-Concept, and Lifestyle • Personality combines psychological makeup and environmental forces. • Human behavior depends largely on self-concept. • Self-concept combines ideal self- image and real self-image. 7
    • 54. Identify and understand the psychological factors that affect consumer buying decisions © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.54 Psychological Influences onPsychological Influences on Consumer Buying DecisionsConsumer Buying Decisions 8
    • 55. PsychologicalPsychological InfluencesInfluences PerceptionPerception MotivationMotivation LearningLearning Beliefs & AttitudesBeliefs & Attitudes © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 55 8
    • 56. PerceptionPerception Selective Exposure Selective Exposure Selective Distortion Selective Distortion Selective Retention Selective Retention Consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others Consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others Consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with feelings or beliefs Consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with feelings or beliefs Consumer remembers only that information that supports personal beliefs Consumer remembers only that information that supports personal beliefs © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 56 8
    • 57. Marketing ImplicationsMarketing Implications of Perceptionof Perception © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 57  Important attributes  Price  Brand names  Quality and reliability  Threshold level of perception  Product or repositioning changes  Foreign consumer perception  Subliminal perception 8
    • 58. Exhibit 6.6Exhibit 6.6 Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 58 8
    • 59. Types of LearningTypes of Learning ExperientialExperiential ConceptualConceptual An experience changes behavior An experience changes behavior Not learned through direct experience Not learned through direct experience © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 59 8
    • 60. BeliefBelief AttitudeAttitude An organized pattern of knowledge that an individual holds as true about his or her world. A learned tendency to respond consistently toward a given object. Beliefs and AttitudesBeliefs and Attitudes © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 60 8
    • 61. ChangingChanging BeliefsBeliefs • Change beliefs about the brand’s attributes • Change the relative importance of these beliefs • Add new beliefs © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved. 61 8
    • 62. Chapter 6 VideoChapter 6 Video Ski Butternut Ski Butternut is a ski and snowboard mountain in the Berkshires. Because the mountain is a “soft” mountain, Ski Butternut collects large amounts of data based on rentals and Web traffic to make sure that they understand who the customer is and to whom they need to market. Matt Sawyer also discusses how they change the mountain itself to meet the needs of the customer. CLICK TO PLAY VIDEO © 2013 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved.62

    ×