The Evolution Of Politicical Violence And Terrorism


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The Evolution Of Politicical Violence And Terrorism

  1. 1. The Evolution of Political Violence & Terrorism:With a Pictorial Focus on The Two Major World Trade Center Attacks<br />The World Trade Center Towers Before September 11, 2001 Attack<br /><br />Elizabeth Hall<br />Kaplan University<br />Criminology II CJ302-01<br />Ana Moore<br />April 27, 2010<br />
  2. 2. CNN NEWS reports the attack<br /><br />Defining and Comparison<br />Political crime is defined as using illegal acts to thwart the efforts of a government in power, and to promote its demise.<br />Terrorism is defined as a political crime which also is<br /> intended to interrupt and redefine the government with a major criminal act.<br /> Political crimes can be violent or non violent. Terrorism is usually violent<br />Both may stem from religious or ideological ideas<br />Both share the five step process to evolving: not right, not fair, assign blame, assigning an evil label to person or entity assigned blame<br /> Goals: Intimidation, Revolution, Profit, Conviction, Pseudo Conviction<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  3. 3. Early Political Violence & Terrorism<br />2nd Plane hits 2nd Tower<br /><br /> Political violence dates back to the BC era an early example would be the assassination <br />of Roman Emperor Julius Caesar<br />These kinds of attacks stem from either religious roots or from political roots<br /> Religious roots goals are : religious freedom, forcing the notion that their religion is better, or to please religious idols<br />Political roots goals are: gaining political rights from rulers who have obtained absolute power over territory.<br />Terrorism was coined in reference to the reign of terror during the French Revolution<br /> Terrorism has been used effectively as a political tool since then.<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  4. 4. Early Political Violence & Terrorism ll: After the French Revolution<br />2nd Plane hits 2nd Tower smoky aftermath<br /><br /> Terrorist acts become favorite method of nationalist groups<br />Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization protests and the Turkish Government turned Macedonia into part of Yugoslavia as a result of conflict<br />Union of Death Society (Black Hand) campaigns against the Austrian Hungarian government, resulting in the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand<br />This action began what became World War I<br />When World War I ended, the Treaty of Versailles broke up the rest of the Austria Hungary rule, which created a group of smaller nations run by specific ethnic backgrounds.<br />Bitter rivalries started within groups of these nations due to the racial and ethnic tensions formed.<br />Revolution in Russia spawned the Marxist Regime<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  5. 5. Early Political Violence & Terrorism III: After WW I<br />People Running to Escape Smoke and Debris<br /><br /> Terrorist activities continued, and thrived during the period of political unrest following World War I<br />Bitterness, rivalries, and alliances are formed during this time<br />This sets the stage for long drawn out conflicts, rebellions, and political turmoil.<br />Irish Republican Army is formed, and battles Britain for independence <br />This results in the Independence of the Republic of Ireland in 1923<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  6. 6. Smoke at the Pentagon<br /><br />Early Political Violence & Terrorism IV: After WW I cont.<br /> Right wing extremism continues to grow in Spain, Italy, and Germany<br />expatriated Russians fled to Germany to escape communism<br /> Adolph Hitler was introduced and enamored by the reconstruction (Aufbau) of the émigrés organization<br />These members eventually helped him overthrow the existing German government<br /> This group called the White Russians were possibly the basis of Hitler’s anti-Semitism, as they were committed to the ideology<br /> Their support enabled Hitler to proceed with the Holocaust, and invade Russia, which was the spark igniting WW II<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  7. 7. Current Political Violence and Terrorism WW II and beyond<br />Fireball from the Pentagon<br /><br /> German Troops occupied a large portion of Europe during WW II, during which time resistance groups sprang up there, which were viewed as heroes to the rest of the world although Hitler labeled them terrorists<br /> Jewish terrorist groups such as the Hanganah, Irgun,, and Stern Gang whose members include future Prime Minister Menachem Begin began waging campaigns against the British Government to force them to allow jewish Holocaust survivors settlement in their homeland.<br />Immediately after the war, Arab countries felt that they were betrayed, because the French and British nations took control of their land and let the Jewish immigrate into Palestine because of the agreements made during the Balfour Declaration.<br />Following WW II, the use of terrorism in contemporary times has increased exponentially.<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  8. 8. Current Political Violence and Terrorism <br />Flight 93 Plane Crash Site<br />;_ylt=A0WTefalFNdL6iUAaJeJzbkF?p=911+pennsylvania+crash&y=Search&fr=&ei=utf-8&js=1&x=wrt<br />Terrorism has taken on many different forms in contemporary society. The most common forms used today are:<br />Revolutionary Terrorists- use terrorism tactics to influence the decisions made by those in power or to replace those in power with persons who share the same beliefs either political or religious. Kidnapping people, using bombs, or assassinations are common forms of terrorism used. <br />A good example of this would be the Islamic Group Jemaah Islamiyah who affiliates with al-Qaeda, and operates out of Indonesia. They use terror tactics such as car bombs, backpack bombs, and other types of bombs in tourist areas designed to hurt he economy by dissolving the tourist trade. The goal is to assume control of government and create a pro Islamic nation in the countries of Indonesia and Malaysia<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  9. 9. Current Political Violence and Terrorism II<br />Flight 93 Plane Crash Site<br />;_ylt=A0WTefalFNdL6iUAaJeJzbkF?p=911+pennsylvania+crash&y=Search&fr=&ei=utf-8&js=1&x=wrt<br />Political Terrorists- attack persons or groups who do not believe in the ideology supported by the terrorists themselves. There are several types of this kind of terrorist such as:<br />Right Wing Political Groups- (Homegrown Terrorists) militia groups such as the Aryan Brotherhood, and the Klu Klux Klan, who support gun rights, and white supremacy, and also generally oppose abortion, and federal taxation.<br />A good example of homegrown terrorism is the Oklahoma City Bombing committed by Timothy McVeigh, helped by Terry Nichols.<br />Left Wing Political Groups- for example the Black Panthers, or the Weatherman, these groups are concerned with controlling their own communities and assistance programs.<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  10. 10. Flight 93 Plane Crash Site Marker<br />;_ylt=A0WTefalFNdL6iUAaJeJzbkF?p=911+pennsylvania+crash&y=Search&fr=&ei=utf-8&js=1&x=wrt<br />Current Political Violence and Terrorism III<br />Eco Terrorists- These groups are the most active, and lean toward the left in their ideologies. They use terrorism to promote their ideas of environmental protection.<br />The best known group is the Earth Liberation Front, and they are responsible for the Vail Mountain Fire, and for blowing up or setting fire to vehicles, government animal lab testing facilities, and preventing loggers and construction workers from doing their jobs. Another example would be the Animal Liberation Front who is concerned with the protection of animals in danger of being used for food, textiles, or animal lab testing, and direct their attacks against the scientists involved in using animals for experiments, plants that process food such as Tyson, and farms that breed animals.<br />Nationalist Terrorism- comprised of groups focused on ethnic minority and religious persecution and want to have their own nation independently.<br />In the countries of France and Spain, the groups Basque Fatherland and Liberty Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna are trying to establish a Basque Marxist nation. These groups were established in 1959. Hezbollah would also fall into this group of terrorists, and is responsible for Marine Corps barracks being blown up in 1983, hijacking TWA flight 847, and two major anti-Israeli bombings in the 1990’s.<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  11. 11. Oklahoma Bombing Site Before Bombing<br /><br />Current Political Violence and Terrorism IV<br />Retributive Terrorists- want to impose their religious ideologies on other people, These types have may distinguishing factors that separate them from traditional guerilla, revolutionary or national terrorists. For these groups:<br /><ul><li>Violence used to intimidate, persuade, influence others
  12. 12. Victims selected for the most shock value
  13. 13. Use non conventional tactics such as targeting or using women and children
  14. 14. Coercion Hypothesis- uses violence to cause pain on the most casualties to change the minds of United State Leaders and citizens.
  15. 15. Damage Hypothesis- they want to damage the economy of the U.S. to prevent our interaction in foreign affairs
  16. 16. Rally Hypothesis- use of violence to attract supporters and recruits
  17. 17. Franchise Hypothesis- Jihadists use violence to accomplish own or group agenda but still receive some form of support from larger groups.</li></ul>(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  18. 18. Oklahoma City Alfred P Murrah Bldg.<br />;_ylt=A0oGkkbaetdL7lAAzB1XNyoA?ei=UTF-8&p=alfred%20p%20murrah%20building&fr2=tab-web<br />Current Political Violence and Terrorism V<br />Currently, the top hypothesis believed to be reliable for the Middle Eastern situations are the coercion and damage hypothesis. <br />Four main groups of retributive terrorists:<br />Al-Qaeda and their ideas<br />Other groups that may have assumed the view of the world shared by Al-Qaeda about mass attacks<br />Violent Islamic and non Islamic groups not linked to Al-Qaeda such as Hezbollah and Hamas, Iraqi Insurgents, and any other insurgencies around the world.<br />The group that falls into both terrorism and organized crime. They use criminal enterprises to fund their terrorist activities.<br />Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda have taken up the cause of Jihad against the Jews and their supporters. They believe that it is the sworn duty of all Muslims to take up arms and kill all infidels. The goal is to have a single Muslim world unified by religion.<br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  19. 19. Current Political Violence and Terrorism VI<br />Oklahoma City Alfred P Murrah Bldg.<br />;_ylt=A0oGkkbaetdL7lAAzB1XNyoA?ei=UTF-8&p=alfred%20p%20murrah%20building&fr2=tab-web<br />State Sponsored Terrorism- governments that are repressive, and use violence and death squads to promote obedience and to keep dissidence in check.<br />IdiAmin is a good example of this kind of use of terror tactics such as taking prisoners who were never seen again. He was once a British Colonel, but on return to Uganda in 1971, Aminsiezed power with a military coup, and reigned with terror for 9 years. (New World Encyclopedia, 2008)<br />Cult Terrorism- cults whose leaders stipulate that their followers show their allegiance by coercion and aggression. Doomsday drills and mass suicides are also used.<br />The cult AumShinrikyo set off poison gas in a subway located in Tokyo Japan hurting over 3,000 people, and murdering 12. <br />Criminal Terrorism- terrorism crosses over into criminal terrorism when it involves common crimes such as drug dealing, kidnapping, and selling materials that can be used in nuclear weapons.<br />December 2001, Russian guards arrested six men involved in the selling of weapons grade uranium, which they were only asking $30,000 for the purchase. They were members of the Balashika criminal group. <br />(Siegel, 2010)<br />
  20. 20. Oklahoma City Alfred P Murrah Bldg.<br />;_ylt=A0oGkkbaetdL7lAAzB1XNyoA?ei=UTF-8&p=alfred%20p%20murrah%20building&fr2=tab-web<br />Terrorist Motivation<br />Contemporary terrorist organizations branch out into loosely connected cells that can be called together for larger jobs, function for years as sleeper cells or perform smaller acts on their own. They take advantage of <br />poverty<br />Ignorance<br />Revenge <br />Religion<br />Psychosis<br />to recruit new members. They use fear and violence to motivate change because of<br />Imagined or real persecution<br />Humiliation<br />Political motivations<br />In order to further their cause.<br />(Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.))<br />
  21. 21. Conclusion<br />Although political violence and terrorism have been around for centuries, the current state of foreign and domestic policies and programs, enables terrorists to expand, grow and hit larger targets. Terrorism remains a global issue. In order to combat terrorism, we must come up with a global solution.<br /> (Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.)<br />The 9/11 Hijackers<br />;_ylt=A0WTb_4gftdLLS8AvdaJzbkF?p=9%2F11+hijackers&fr=&ei=utf-8&x=wrt&y=Search<br />
  22. 22. References<br />McVeigh Oklahoma City Bomber<br /><br />Federal Bureau of Investigation, (n.d.) Valuable Lessons Learned at an International Counterterrorist Forum. Retrieved from the World Wide Web April 26, 2010<br /><br />New World Encyclopedia, (2008) IdiAmin. Retrieved from the World Wide Web April 25,2010<br /> Siegel, L.J. (2010). Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies. Tenth Edition. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.<br /> <br />