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Updated: 8/20/2012
W hat is APA?The American Psychological Association (APA) citationstyle is the most commonly used format for manuscriptsin...
Gener al For mat• 1” margins on all sides set for printing on standard  8.5”x11” paper.• Include header (title) in the upp...
APA Paper              Sections                                             References                                    ...
Title Page                                            Running head: APA FORMATTING GUIDE                       1Page heade...
APA Headings         APA uses a system of five heading levelsLevel   APA Heading Format  1                   Centered, Bol...
APA: Main Body           (Text)              APA FORMATTING GUIDE                                                         ...
Main Body (Text)                            APA FORMATTING GUIDE                                                          ...
APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.
APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.• Concise: condense information...
APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.• Concise: condense information...
APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.• Concise: condense information...
APA Style:               LanguagePerspective and Voice in an APA paper is:• Active voice (minimal if any passive voice).
APA Style:               LanguagePerspective and Voice in an APA paper is:• Active voice (minimal if any passive voice).• ...
Citation Signal             Wor dsIntroduce quotations with signal phrases.According to Adam Xanderman (2008), “. . .” (p....
APA Citation BasicsIn-text citations help readers locate the cited sourcein the References section of the paper.Whenever y...
APA Biblical QuoteWhen citing from the Bible, the first passage citedshould include the version you are citing, fully spel...
APA: Direct QuoteWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signalphrase. This can include the author’s name, the year o...
APA: Direct QuoteWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signalphrase. This can include the author’s name, the year o...
APA: Direct QuoteWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signalphrase. This can include the author’s name, the year o...
APA: Direct Quote          A Wor k with Two Author sWhen citing a work with two authors, use “and”in between authors’ name...
APA: Direct Quote      A Wor k with T hree to Five authorsWhen citing a work with three to five authors, identifyall autho...
APA: Direct Quote     A Wor k with Six and More Author sWhen citing a work with six and more authors, identifythe first au...
APA: Direct Quote            A Wor k of Unknown AuthorFor works with an unknown author, use the source’sfull title in the ...
APA: Direct Quote                     Or ganizationWhen citing an organization, mention the organizationthe first time whe...
APA Block QuoteWhen citing quotations of 40 words or more, youshould format it in a block style. Indent the entirequotatio...
APA Summar y or         Par aphr aseInclude the author’s name in a signal phrase followedby the year of publication in par...
APA: Per sonal        CommunicationWhen citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include thecommunicator’s name, the fac...
Refer ences Page• Center title “References”                            APA FORMATTING GUIDE                               ...
Refer ences:                           Basics• Invert authors’names using first and middle  initials. Example: “Smith, G. ...
Refer ences:              ExamplesAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Concise rules of  APA style (6th ed.). Washi...
Additional APA           Resour cesAPA website http://www.apastyle.orgAPA – Citation Machine: http://citationmachine.net
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APA powerpoint

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Guideline for CCU students on properly formatting a paper according to APA standards.

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  • Welcome to “APA Formatting and Style Guide”. This Power Point Presentation is designed to introduce your students to the basics of APA Formatting and Style Guide.
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed., contains detailed guidelines to formatting a paper in the APA style. APA style is most commonly used for formatting papers in the Social Sciences—business, economics, psychology, sociology, nursing, etc. Updates to APA are posted on the APA website www.apastyle.org. APA format provides writers with a format for cross-referencing their sources--from their parenthetical references to their reference page. This cross-referencing system allows readers to locate the publication information of source material. This is of great value for researchers who may want to locate your sources for their own research projects. The proper use of APA style also shows the credibility of writers; such writers show accountability to their source material. Most importantly, use of APA style can protect writers from plagiarism--the purposeful or accidental use of source material by other writers without giving appropriate credit.
  • Set these perimeters in Microsoft Word.
  • For this class, do not include the Abstract page. It will be used in later classes when you are writing a long research paper or if your instructor requires it.
  • Never use themes nor any graphics. To create a page header, use “Insert Page Header” function of MSO Word. Choose “Insert Page Number” in the upper right-hand side and type two-three words of the title before page number. Separate the abbreviated title from the page number with five spaces. To create a running head for publication, type Running Head: ABBREVIATED TITLE on the first line, flush-left, maximum 60 characters long. Note: Although a running head section is required for manuscripts submitted for publication, it is an optional sections for students ’ papers. To create a title, type—in the upper half of the page, centered– a full title of the essay, writer ’s name and affiliation (college or university) on subsequent lines. Note: the instructor might also require his/her name, course title, and date in addition to affiliation. Encourage students to consult the instructor regarding specific requirements to a title section. This slide can be supplemented by the relevant section from OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
  • In general, short papers do not require subheadings; simply compose your sentences in such a way as to signal transitions in thought. However, if you do include subheadings, there must be at least two of each level of subheadings.
  • Some writers find it helpful to click on the formatting tool to help them see paragraph marks, spacing marks, and other hidden formatting marks. This symbol is on the Home menu and it looks like a paragraph symbol (¶).
  • All paragraphs should be indented a full one half inch (.5 inches) from the left margin and justify the text only on the left margin. Leave the right edge of the text “ragged” (or unjustified). Space twice between each sentence; however, insert only one space after all other punctuation, including commas, colons, and semicolons. Spell out numbers 1-10.
  • Edit out redundancy and repetition.
  • Sentences should rarely exceed 20 words. Let your reader take a breath.
  • Avoid vague words, the use of metaphors, and figurative language.
  • Creative writing and sermonizing is not acceptable for APA papers.
  • Active means the object of your sentence (often the subject) is doing something. Passive means the object is a victim – something is being done to them. (insert theatrical/Shakespearian “To be, or not to be”)
  • Use of “you should/must/will/etc. creates a manipulative and even bullying tone. (finger pointing)
  • Acquiring a rich repertoire of signal words and phrases is the key to success in representing others ’ ideas in academic writing. APA requires to use the past or present perfect tense of verbs in signal phrases. Present perfect tense is: has/have + past participle. Example “has stated”.
  • Whenever you include a quote or fact in a paper, even if paraphrased, you must give credit to the source with a properly formatted source citation. A complete in-text citation has three components: the author ’s name, the date of publication, and the location of the citation, which is typically the page number. In-text citations help establish credibility of the writer, show respect to someone else ’s intellectual property (and consequently, avoid plagiarism). More practically, in-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the references page. Thus, keep the in-text citation brief and make sure that the information provided in the body of the paper should be just enough so that a reader could easily cross-reference the citation with its matching entry on the reference page; i.e., the body of the paper and the in-text citation together contains the author’s name and the year of publication. To avoid plagiarism, also provide a page number (in p.3 / pp.3-5 format) for close paraphrases and quotations.
  • You can abbreviate the book name as in the example. Since in this first Bible quotation you have identified the translation you are citing you do not need to repeat the translation in subsequent references; simply cite the book, chapter, and verse. Do not enclose the reference in parentheses. If at any point in the paper you cite from a different Bible translation, you must again identify the translation, formatted as in the first example above.
  • Note the italicized book title in each example. Also notice that the terminal punctuation (the period) follows the citation, not the quotation itself.
  • Note the italicized book title in each example. Also notice that the terminal punctuation (the period) follows the citation, not the quotation itself.
  • Note the italicized book title in each example. Also notice that the terminal punctuation (the period) follows the citation, not the quotation itself.
  • This slide explains and exemplifies the specific cases of in-text citations. It might be supplemented with “Author/Authors” section from OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
  • This slide explains and exemplifies the specific cases of in-text citations. It might be supplemented with “Author/Authors” section from OWL http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/03/
  • there are no quotation marks used to designate a block quote. The fact that the entire quote is indented identifies it as a quotation. Format the source citation in the same manner as an in-text citation. The terminal punctuation is a little different in that the period goes after the quote, not the source citation. There is no punctuation following the source citation.
  • Each source cited within the paper should also appear on the reference page. This section appears at the end of the paper.
  • This slide provides basic rules related to creating references entries.
  • Of course these use double line spacing in an actual paper.
  • There are many rules for following APA format, and the facilitator should stress that it is nearly impossible to memorize them all. Students ’ best course of action is to utilize the official APA handbook or the APA section in an updated composition textbook as guides for properly using the documentation format. Since the American Psychological Association, a professional group of behavioral and social science professors and instructors, periodically updates the guide, students should be certain that they are using the most current information possible. There are other resources for finding current information on APA documentation style. The APA web site offers some limited information about recent format changes, especially regarding the documentation of World Wide Web and electronic sources. The Purdue University Writing Lab has a page on APA formatting and documentation style at its web site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ For quick questions on APA format, students can also call the Writing Lab Grammar Hotline at 494-3723.
  • Transcript of "APA powerpoint"

    1. 1. Updated: 8/20/2012
    2. 2. W hat is APA?The American Psychological Association (APA) citationstyle is the most commonly used format for manuscriptsin the social sciences.APA regulates: • Stylistics • In-text citations • References
    3. 3. Gener al For mat• 1” margins on all sides set for printing on standard 8.5”x11” paper.• Include header (title) in the upper left-hand of every page and a page number in the upper right-hand side of every page. * Cover page only includes “Running head:”• Use 12 pt. Times New Roman.• Lines are double-spaced with no extra spacing after paragraphs.• Two spaces between sentences.
    4. 4. APA Paper Sections References ReferencesMost short papers willnot need an abstract,but if required, it goes Main Body Main Bodyhere. Abstract Abstract Title page
    5. 5. Title Page Running head: APA FORMATTING GUIDE 1Page header:•Use “Insert Page Header” to set this up.•Title must be flush left + page numberflush right.•Verbiage “Running head:” will only befound on the title page. APA Formatting Guide Student Name Colorado Christian UniversityTitle:•Centered•Include your name (no title or degree)and affiliation (university, etc.).
    6. 6. APA Headings APA uses a system of five heading levelsLevel APA Heading Format 1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase 2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase with a period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase with a period.
    7. 7. APA: Main Body (Text) APA FORMATTING GUIDE 1 APA Formatting Guide Formatting a paper according to the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines takes practice and repetition. With that in mind, here are some things to watch for• Header: Title (without when setting up papers in APA style, followed by some general recommendations that will help you write excellent college papers. “Running Head:”) + page When beginning a paper, be sure to set the margins to one inch on the left, right, top, and bottom of your page. Then set the font to Times New Roman, 12 pt. The next thing is to ensure number. that the line spacing of the paper is set to double-spaced, with “0” line spacing before and after each line (go to Page Layout and change the Before and After settings to 0). Adjusting the default page setting in Microsoft Word (MS Word) will set the margins, font, and line spacing automatically with each new paper. You can also open the Page Layout menu and make these settings there.• Title: Centered at the top Next, on the first page, which will become your title page, double click near the top of the page to open the header box. Next, under the Header and Footer Tools tab, Design, select of the first page in the Different First Page. Then, open the Page Number menu, select Top of Page and Page Number 3. Next to the page number, type in Running head: followed by an abbreviated title for your body of your paper. paper, all in CAPS. Finally, hit the Tab key until it moves your Running head and title left to the left margin. Note: You may need to change the font and size of the Running head and page number to Times New Roman, size 12. The Running head for your first page is now completed. When you begin your second page, you will need to repeat this procedure for the Running head• Never use creative effects since you selected Different First Page, but all subsequent headers should format automatically. Please note that the words, “Running head,” only appear on the first page. (i.e. graphic art, extra lines, or WordArt.
    8. 8. Main Body (Text) APA FORMATTING GUIDE 1 APA Formatting Guide Formatting a paper according to the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines takes practice and repetition. With that in mind, here are some things to watch for• Paragraphs indented a when setting up papers in APA style, followed by some general recommendations that will help you write excellent college papers. full one-half inch. When beginning a paper, be sure to set the margins to one inch on the left, right, top, and bottom of your page. Then set the font to Times New Roman, 12 pt. The next thing is to ensure that the line spacing of the paper is set to double-spaced, with “0” line spacing before and after each line (go to Page Layout and change the Before and After settings to 0). Adjusting the• Left justified only default page setting in Microsoft Word (MS Word) will set the margins, font, and line spacing automatically with each new paper. You can also open the Page Layout menu and make these settings there. Next, on the first page, which will become your title page, double click near the top of the page to open the header box. Next, under the Header and Footer Tools tab, Design, select• Two spaces after every Different First Page. Then, open the Page Number menu, select Top of Page and Page Number 3. Next to the page number, type in Running head: followed by an abbreviated title for your sentence. paper, all in CAPS. Finally, hit the Tab key until it moves your Running head and title left to the left margin. Note: You may need to change the font and size of the Running head and page number to Times New Roman, size 12. The Running head for your first page is now completed. When you begin your second page, you will need to repeat this procedure for the Running head• Numbers one through ten since you selected Different First Page, but all subsequent headers should format automatically. Please note that the words, “Running head,” only appear on the first page. must be spelled out in your text.
    9. 9. APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.
    10. 10. APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.• Concise: condense information when you can.
    11. 11. APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.• Concise: condense information when you can.• Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language (i.e. Idioms).
    12. 12. APA StyleLanguage in an APA paper is:• Clear: be specific in descriptions and explanations.• Concise: condense information when you can.• Plain: use simple, descriptive adjectives and minimize figurative language (i.e. Idioms).• Avoid speaking Christianese, legalese, or any other jargonese.
    13. 13. APA Style: LanguagePerspective and Voice in an APA paper is:• Active voice (minimal if any passive voice).
    14. 14. APA Style: LanguagePerspective and Voice in an APA paper is:• Active voice (minimal if any passive voice).• Very limited personal pronoun use. (never use “you should/must/will . . .”)
    15. 15. Citation Signal Wor dsIntroduce quotations with signal phrases.According to Adam Xanderman (2008), “. . .” (p. 3).Xanderman (2008) has argued that “ . . .” (p. 3).Other options include (but are not limited to):acknowledged, contended , maintained , responded ,reported, argued, concluded, and etcetera.* APA requires the use of the past tense or the presentperfect tense of verbs (i.e. has/have + past participle) insignal phrases.
    16. 16. APA Citation BasicsIn-text citations help readers locate the cited sourcein the References section of the paper.Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: • Author’s name and the date of publication Example: (Smith, 2011) • For quotations and close paraphrases, add a page number. Example: (Smith, 2011, p. 110)
    17. 17. APA Biblical QuoteWhen citing from the Bible, the first passage citedshould include the version you are citing, fully spelledout. “For to me, to live is Christ and to die is gain” Phil. 1:21 (New International Version).
    18. 18. APA: Direct QuoteWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signalphrase. This can include the author’s name, the year ofpublication, the page number, but keep the citationbrief—do not repeat the information.
    19. 19. APA: Direct QuoteWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signalphrase. This can include the author’s name, the year ofpublication, the page number, but keep the citationbrief—do not repeat the information. Smith (2011) wrote in his book, Courage and Calling, Embracing Your God-Given Potential, “we first need to know that what we are doing comes from God” (p. 110).
    20. 20. APA: Direct QuoteWhen quoting, introduce the quotation with a signalphrase. This can include the author’s name, the year ofpublication, the page number, but keep the citationbrief—do not repeat the information. Smith (2011) wrote in his book, Courage and Calling, Embracing Your God-Given Potential, “we first need to know that what we are doing comes from God” (p. 110). In the book, Courage and Calling, Embracing Your God-Given Potential, we are reminded “we first need to know that what we are doing comes from God” (Smith, 2011, p. 110).
    21. 21. APA: Direct Quote A Wor k with Two Author sWhen citing a work with two authors, use “and”in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet“&” between their names in parenthesis. According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate (1997), “It is no longer true to claim that womens responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2). Some feminists researchers question that “womens responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, 1997, p. 2).
    22. 22. APA: Direct Quote A Wor k with T hree to Five authorsWhen citing a work with three to five authors, identifyall authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis. (Harklau, Siegal, and Losey, 1999)In subsequent citations, only use the first authors lastname followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or inparentheses. (Harklau et al., 1993)
    23. 23. APA: Direct Quote A Wor k with Six and More Author sWhen citing a work with six and more authors, identifythe first author’s name followed by “et al.” Smith et al. (2006) maintained that…. (Smith et al., 2006)
    24. 24. APA: Direct Quote A Wor k of Unknown AuthorFor works with an unknown author, use the source’sfull title in the signal phrase and cite the first word ofthe title followed by the year of publication inparenthesis.•Article and chapter titles are set in quotation marks.•Books and reports are italicized.According to Publication Manual of the AmericanPsychological Association (2010), “…” (Publication,2010).
    25. 25. APA: Direct Quote Or ganizationWhen citing an organization, mention the organizationthe first time when you cite the source in the signalphrase or the parenthetical citation. The data collected by the Food and Drug Administration (2008) confirmed that…If the organization has a well-known abbreviation,include the abbreviation in brackets the first time thesource is cited and then use only the abbreviation inlater citations. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed … FDA’s experts tested…
    26. 26. APA Block QuoteWhen citing quotations of 40 words or more, youshould format it in a block style. Indent the entirequotation one half inch (or .5 inches) from only the leftmargin and double-space it. As a people, we have forgotten how to delay pleasure. We are living in a society that microwaves everything. We must have it, and we must have it now! As Brian Tracy, a well- known motivational speaker, says, “We are being taught by everything around us to have dessert before dinner.” Now we are paying for our lack of knowledge and discipline. (Ramsey, 2003, p. 8)
    27. 27. APA Summar y or Par aphr aseInclude the author’s name in a signal phrase followedby the year of publication in parenthesis. Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al. (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) toinclude women’s personal and cultural responsesto battle and its resultant traumatic effects.
    28. 28. APA: Per sonal CommunicationWhen citing interviews, letters, e-mails, etc., include thecommunicator’s name, the fact that it was personalcommunication, and the date of the communication.Do not include personal communication in thereference list. Elizabeth Harger also claimed that many of her students had challenges with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2011).Or, (Harger, personal communication, January 4, 2012).
    29. 29. Refer ences Page• Center title “References” APA FORMATTING GUIDE 5 at the top of the page. References th American Psychological Association. (2009). Concise rules of APA style (6 ed.). Washington, * Do not bold. DC: Author. The Holy Bible: Today’s new international version. (2005). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. th Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., Muth, M. F., (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers (9• Double-space lines ed.). Boston MA: Bedford/ St. Martin’s. Jackson, Shirley. (2011). The lottery. In X. J. Kennedy, D. M. Kennedy, & M. F. Muth (Eds.), th The Bedford guide for college writers (9 ed., pp. 257-264). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.• Use a hanging indent. th Lunsford, A. (2010). The everyday writer (4 ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Smith, G. (2011). Courage & calling: Embracing your God-given potential (Rev. ed.). Downers * Flush left the first line of the entry and indent Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. subsequent lines one-half inch.• Alphabetize entries by the author’s surnames.
    30. 30. Refer ences: Basics• Invert authors’names using first and middle initials. Example: “Smith, G. T.”)• Alphabetize list entries by the last name of the first author of each work.• Capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. * Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.• Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals. * See APA Guide for specifics on how to format other types of work.
    31. 31. Refer ences: ExamplesAmerican Psychological Association. (2009). Concise rules of APA style (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.The Holy Bible: Today’s new international version. (2005). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.Kennedy, X. J., Kennedy, D. M., Muth, M. F., (2011). The Bedford guide for college writers (9th ed.). Boston MA: Bedford/ St. Martin’s.Lunsford, A. A. (2010). The everyday writer (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.Smith, G. T. (2011). Courage & calling: Embracing your God- given potential (Rev. ed.). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
    32. 32. Additional APA Resour cesAPA website http://www.apastyle.orgAPA – Citation Machine: http://citationmachine.net
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