Negeavhr dv2


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Presentation for the AAMC's Northeast Group On Educational Affairs

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  • The use of medical information exchanged from one site to another via electronic communication for the health and education of the provider or the patient for the purpose of improving patient care (Rafiq & Merrell, 2005 p34).
  • Negeavhr dv2

    1. 1. Virtual Human Resource Development for International Medical Education: A Conceptual Analysis Elisabeth E. Bennett, MEd, PhD Director of Education Research and Development - Baystate Health Assistant Professor - Tufts University School of Medicine Jennifer Hurst, MA, MEd Education Research and Development Associate – Baystate Health
    2. 2. International Healthcare Crisis <ul><li>150,000 physician shortage in the United States (Sataline & Wang, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Well known effects of international brain drain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>13% of U.S. residencies filled by non-U.S. citizens (Sataline & Wang, 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration from rural to urban, poor to wealthy countries (Pruitt & Epping-Jordan, 2005 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There is a reciprocal relationship between healthcare education and the labor force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Capacity for healthcare education in India is limited due to .5 physicians per 1000 people whereas U.S. has 2.3 (Supe & Burdick, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker shortage in Sub-Saharan Africa over 1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker density is critical (right numbers at right locations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited production capacity due to poor planning and underinvestment, esp. developing countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training poorly aligned with population needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability of national HRH information systems to provide timely data for decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International healthcare has shifted from acute to chronic conditions (e.g. AIDS) that require continuous and team-based care (Pruitt & Epping-Jordan, 2005) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Conceptual Frame: VHRD <ul><li>Virtual HRD is defined as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ a media-rich and culturally relevant web environment that strategically improves expertise, performance, innovation, and community building through formal and informal learning” (Bennett, 2009a, p.364) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definition is based on an empirical study of an American community hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Technology is at least partially isomorphic with the local culture (Bennett, 2009b) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Culture of Patient Safety <ul><li>The goal is “system transparency, defined as willingness of providers and patients to openly and comfortably express their concerns about the delivery of care in a manner that identifies flaws and leads to their elimination, mitigation, or appropriate management (Frankel, Gandhi, & Bates, 2003, p. i31) </li></ul><ul><li>There is both an education focus and workplace focus </li></ul><ul><li>Question : What happens when we overlay various national and regional cultures with technology for medical education and workforce development? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Technologies for VHRD in Healthcare <ul><li>Telemedicine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of images, remote monitoring of vital signs and referrals, health information call centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing, CME delivery, patient education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Management Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Tufts University Science Knowledge-base “rebranded” for Christian Medical College in India (Vyas et al., 2010) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Virtual Medical School IVIMEDS (Harden & Hart, 2002), expert collaboration, continuum of medical education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Worlds: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second Life, ActiveWorlds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duke University School of Nursing in Second Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Response Training </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Conclusions <ul><li>VHRD offers strategic integration of technology for training & for care </li></ul><ul><li>Technology can be used for multiple purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Offers access to expertise & collaborative technologies that span culture and geography </li></ul><ul><li>Technology infrastructure and cultural issues are barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural differences may be source of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic approach may enhance technology acceptance and may spark culture change </li></ul>
    7. 7. References <ul><li>Amin, Z. (2009). Practicing heuristics without knowing it! Medical Education, 43 , 716-717. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett, E. E. (2009a). Virtual HRD: The intersection of knowledge management, culture, and intranets. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11 (3), 362-374. </li></ul><ul><li>Bennett, E. E. (2009b, June). Reflection, learning, technology, and the socio-cultural context of virtual HRD: An emerging theory of network culture dynamics . Proceedings of the 10 th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice across Europe. Newcastle, UK: University Forum of Human Resource Development and the Academy of Human Resource Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Berg, M., AArts, J., van der Lei, J., (2003). ICT in Health Care: Sociotechnical Approaches. Methods of Information in Healthcare, 42 , 297-301. </li></ul><ul><li>Frankel, A., Gandhi, T. K., Bates, T. W. (2003). Improving patient safety across a large integrated health care delivery system. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 15(1), i31-i39. </li></ul><ul><li>Harden, R.M., & Hart, I.R. (2002). An international virtual medical school (IVIMEDS): the future for medical education? Medical Teacher , 24 (3), 261–267. </li></ul><ul><li>Pruitt, S. D., & Epping-Jordan, J. E. (2005). Preparing the 21 st century global healthcare workforce. BMJ, 330 , 637-639. </li></ul><ul><li>Rafiq, A. & Merrell, R.C. (2005). Telemedicine for access to quality care on medical practice and continuing medical education in a global arena. The Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 25 , 34-42. </li></ul><ul><li>Sataline, S., & Wang, S. S. (April 10, 2010). Medical schools can’t keep up. Wall Street Journal. </li></ul><ul><li>Supe, A., & Burdick, w. P. (2006). Challenges and issues in medical education in India. Academic Medicine, 81 (12), 1076-1080. </li></ul><ul><li>Vyas, R., Albrigt, S., Walker, D., Zachariah, A. , & Lee, M. Y. (2010). Clinical training at remote sites using mobile technology: An India-USA partnership. Distance Education, 31 (2), 211-226. </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization (2006). World health report 2006: Working together for health. Retrieved from: </li></ul>