TICE - Building Academic Language in the Classroom HandoutPresentation Transcript
Building Academic language in the ESL classroom Elisabeth Chan The International Center for EnglishArkansas State University TICE ESL Mini Conference – November 19, 2010
What’s the difference? Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals. Our experiments showed that magnets attract some metals. We found out the pins stuck on the magnet. Look, it’s making them move. They don’t stick. Gibbons (2002, p.40)
Registers! Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals. Our experiments showed that magnets attract some metals. We found out the pins stuck on the magnet. Look, it’s making them move. They don’t stick. Gibbons (2002, p.40)
Registers! Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals. Our experiments showed that magnets attract some metals. We found out the pins stuck on the magnet. Look, it’s making them move. They don’t stick. Gibbons (2002, p.40) Academic Non-Academic
Conversational vs Academic Cummins (1981) BICS – basic interpersonalcommunicative skills 2-3 years CALP – cognitive academiclanguage proficiency 5-7 years Cummins’ Quadrants Context embedded? Cognitively demanding?
Academic Bag of Tricks How academic English is different & Activities for building: Writing Reading Speaking Vocabulary
Writing Organization Content Grammar
Building Academic Writing Focus on content State a topic and develop it Focus on cohesive paragraph structure Reference, conjunctions, nominalization Teach and practice the writing process Focus on sentence structure Compound, clauses, signal words Paraphrasing
Writing Activity: Focus on Content
The movie was good. The man met a woman. They fell in love.
Writing Activity: Focus on Content WHERE WHO WHAT WHEN HOW
The romantic movie was good. The handsome man met a beautiful woman. They fell in love quickly.
Writing Activity: Sentence Transformation The police investigation of the robbery lasted for one month. The police investigated the robbery for one month.
Building Academic Reading Explicitly teach reading skills Model the skills! Use “Think Alouds” Build reading fluency through Extensive Reading Engage students & increase motivation Goal of knowledge
Reading Activity: Think Aloud Titles & Headings Figures Bold words Objectives Language! Guessing from context! Context-embedded + Cognitively demanding
Building Academic Speech Extend conversation Avoid IRE’s = Initiation, Response, Evaluation (Cazden, 2001) Raise students’ awareness of academic speech Use discussion groups with questions about differences Listen to lectures or speeches & analyze the language used Analyze research or focus on prevalent structures
Speaking Activities Avoiding IRE’s Ask more open ended questions Respond with encouragement and in a way that extends their response and thinking T: The teacher –blank– a book to the class every week.S: readsT: That’s right! Why do we use “reads” and not “read”?ORT: Very good! What other verbs can we use?S: gives?T: Excellent! What is a verb we cannot use there? Why not?
Describe this image
Academic Vocabulary Every day vocabulary vs. Academic (Brook, D. 1998) Explicitly teach vocabulary learning strategies Vocabulary notebook activities Extensive reading
Vocabulary Activities Note cards or Notebooks academic – adj. academy (n.) academia (n.) I learn academic words when I read my textbooks.
Vocabulary Activities Note cards or Notebooks academic – adj. academy (n.) academia (n.) school study academic hard words textbook academic achievement academic performance academic freedom
References Brook, D. 1998. The Journey of English. New York: Clarion Books. Cazden, C. 2001. Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Cummins, J. 1981. “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” In Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework, 3-49. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles. Freeman, Y.S. and D.E. Freeman. 2009. Academic Language for English Language Learners and Struggling Readers: How to Help Students Succeed Across Content Areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Gibbons, P. 2002. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Guthrie, J. and M. Davis. 2003. “Motivating Struggling Readers in Middle School Through an Engagement Model of Classroom Practice.” Reading and Writing Quarterly 9: 59-85. Swales, J. 2005. “Academically Speaking.” Language Magazine 4 (8): 30-34. Image Citations
Arms, K. 1996. Environmental Science. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Rowling, J.K. 1999. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. Scholastic Paperbacks.
Scholastic. Magnetic Attraction. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=1227. Accessed October 5, 2010.
POS Hardware. International Point of Sale Cash Registers. http://www.internationalpointofsale.com/store/index.php?cPath=84. Accessed October 5, 2010.
QUESTIONS?CONTACT INFO Elisabeth Chan firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.astate.edu/international/tice http://www.slideshare.net/ElisabethChan The International Center for English Arkansas State University